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1.
Brain Behav ; 12(5): e2571, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although small strokes typically result in "good" functional outcomes, significant cognitive impairment can occur. This longitudinal study examined a cohort of patients with minor stroke to determine the pattern of deficits, evolution over time, and factors associated with outcome. METHODS: Patients admitted to the hospital with their first clinical minor stroke (NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤ 10, absence of severe hemiparesis, aphasia, or neglect) were assessed at 1 month post-infarct, and a subset were followed over time (with 6- and 12-month evaluations). Composite scores at each time point were generated for global cognition, verbal memory, spatial memory, motor speed, processing speed, and executive function. Paired t-tests evaluated change in scores over time. Regression models identified factors associated with initial performance and better recovery. RESULTS: Eighty patients were enrolled, evaluated at 1 month, and prospectively followed. The average age of the participants was 62.3 years, and mean education was 13.5 years. The average stroke volume was 6.6 cc; mean NIHSS score was 2.8. At 1 month, cognitive scores were below the normative range and > 1 standard deviation below the patient's peak ("recovery") score for every cognitive domain, strongly suggesting that they were well below patients' prestroke baselines. Forty-eight patients followed up at 6 months, and 39 at 12 months. Nearly all (98%) patients significantly improved in global cognition (averaged across domains) between 1 and 6 months. Between 6 and 12 months, recovery was variable. Higher education, occupational class, and Caucasian race were associated with higher recovery scores for most domains. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment across multiple domains is common following minor stroke regardless of infarct location, suggesting a global process such as network dysfunction that improves over 6 months. Degree of recovery can be predicted using baseline factors.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Stroke , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Humans , Infarction/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Stroke/complications
2.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(4): 729-737, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A subset of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to develop persisting cognitive and medical symptoms. Research in the acute stages of illness, generally utilizing cognitive screening measures or case reports, suggests presence of deficits in attention and executive function. This observational study investigated cognitive functioning among individuals with persistent cognitive complaints about 5.5 months after COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and persistent cognitive complaints underwent comprehensive in-person neuropsychological evaluations. Patients with prior neurological disorders were excluded. When diagnosed, 40% required hospitalization, 15% were in an intensive care unit, 10% needed mechanical ventilation, and 10% experienced delirium. RESULTS: This sample was predominately women (90%), White non-Hispanic (70%), with average education of 15 years. Mild cognitive deficits were seen on tests involving attention and processing speed or executive function. Seventy percent of patients were diagnosed with a mood disorder prior to COVID-19 infection. At the time of testing, 35%-40% endorsed moderate to severe mood symptoms and 85% noted significant fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Severity Scale. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of cognitive deficits, although mild, is consistent with prior research at the acute stage of the illness. These findings suggest that psychological factors and other persisting symptoms (e.g., sleep, fatigue) may play a significant role in subjective cognitive complaints in patients with persisting complaints post COVID-19 who did not require intensive treatment. These patients would likely benefit from resources to manage persisting or new mood symptoms and compensatory strategies for the cognitive inefficiencies they experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
4.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(2): 206-209, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic became a challenge to maintain care for patients with epilepsy; we aimed to find out how the pandemic affected them. METHODS: We sent an online 22-item questionnaire to patients from our outpatient clinic, a reference centre in Spain for drug-resistant epilepsy, inquiring about the effects of lockdown, from March to May 2020. RESULTS: We sent the survey to 627 patients; 312 (58% women) sent a complete response and were included. Of all respondents, 57% took >2 antiseizure medications. One-third of respondents (29%) declared an associated cognitive or motor disability. A minority had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1.92%). Seizure frequency remained like usual in 56% of patients, while 31.2% reported an increase. Less than 10% needed emergent assistance. Almost half reported anxiety or depression, and 25% increased behavioural disorders. Mood (F: 5.40; p: 0.002) and sleep disorders (F = 2.67; p: 0.05) were associated with increase in seizure frequency. Patients were able to contact their physicians when needed and were open to a future telematic approach to follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Seizure frequency and severity remained unchanged in most patients during the lockdown. Mood and sleep disorders were common and associated with seizure worsening. Patients were open to telematic care in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/complications , Disabled Persons , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Motor Disorders/complications , Outpatients , Seizures/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/classification , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
5.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(2): 206-209, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic became a challenge to maintain care for patients with epilepsy; we aimed to find out how the pandemic affected them. METHODS: We sent an online 22-item questionnaire to patients from our outpatient clinic, a reference centre in Spain for drug-resistant epilepsy, inquiring about the effects of lockdown, from March to May 2020. RESULTS: We sent the survey to 627 patients; 312 (58% women) sent a complete response and were included. Of all respondents, 57% took >2 antiseizure medications. One-third of respondents (29%) declared an associated cognitive or motor disability. A minority had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1.92%). Seizure frequency remained like usual in 56% of patients, while 31.2% reported an increase. Less than 10% needed emergent assistance. Almost half reported anxiety or depression, and 25% increased behavioural disorders. Mood (F: 5.40; p: 0.002) and sleep disorders (F = 2.67; p: 0.05) were associated with increase in seizure frequency. Patients were able to contact their physicians when needed and were open to a future telematic approach to follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Seizure frequency and severity remained unchanged in most patients during the lockdown. Mood and sleep disorders were common and associated with seizure worsening. Patients were open to telematic care in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/complications , Disabled Persons , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Motor Disorders/complications , Outpatients , Seizures/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/classification , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
6.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 18(2): 151-156, 2020 06 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611800

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic, National forum for ethical reflection on Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative diseases conducted a national survey to identify the difficulties encountered by professionals working in the field of old age and autonomy, families and volunteers, and the initiatives they have implemented. Seven major difficulties were identified: the isolation induced by the prohibition of visits, the lack of protective equipment and tests, the difficulties of people with cognitive difficulties in understanding measures to avoid the spread of the epidemic, the sustainability of overwork for professionals, the concern of the families of residents, complex situations at home and difficulties in accessing care. Four initiatives are being implemented: information and training for teams, compensation for interrupted visits, consultations and exchanges between professionals, actions to benefit people living at home. The Covid-19 epidemic hit the elderly sector at a very special moment in its history, several years of effort by the sector to reinvent itself around strong values. They have been a resource during this period of crisis. An ambitious law on old age and autonomy therefore appears to be a necessity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Geriatrics/ethics , Geriatrics/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation/psychology , Personal Autonomy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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