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1.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 50(4): 391-400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase in number of patients seeking neuropsychological rehabilitation months after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: Identify the cognitive and psychiatric disorders in patients with long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID (PASC) and explore the association between disease severity during the acute phase and persistent neuropsychological manifestations. METHODS: 614 adults were assessed an average of eight months post-infection. Participants were, on average, 47.6 y.o., who sought rehabilitation for neuropsychological problems. Patients were evaluated using the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), Phonemic Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing tests (NEUPSILIN) for executive functions, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: The BNIS score was significantly below reference values in all subscales, especially affect and memory. Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing subtest results were also lower. Patients with PASC tested high for anxiety/depression, but there was no statistically significant relationship between HADS and BNIS scores. Neuropsychological evaluations showed no differences in cognitive or psychiatric profiles between hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological results suggest executive function problems and high incidence of anxiety/depression, irrespective of acute-phase severity, underscoring a need for neurorehabilitation programs while providing data for public policy initiatives.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Depression , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Neurol Sci ; 43(8): 4599-4604, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection entails neuroinvasive, neuroinflammatory, and treatment-related features accounting for cognitive deficits in COVID-19-recovered patients. Although screening for such dysfunctions in this population is considered clinically relevant, contributions to cognitive phenotyping including premorbid and disease-related confounders are scarcely represented. This study thus aimed at describing the cognitive outcome at the function-/domain-level of post-infectious SARS-CoV-2 patients being already at risk (RCD +) or not (RCD -) for cognitive decline. METHODS: Fifty-four COVID-19-recovered individuals were classified as either RCD + or RCD - according to medical records. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Addebrooke Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Attentive Matrices (AM) were administered (N = 54, 34, 28, and 28 patients, respectively). RESULTS: Prevalence of defective (cutoff = 24.89) MMSE scores was 24.3% in RCD + patients and 5.9% in the RCD - group. ACE-R-total below cutoff scores were less frequent (RCD + : 5.4%; RCD - : 5.9%). Abnormal performances at the FAB an AM were respectively detected in 18.9% and 8.1% of RCD + patients and 0% and 11.8% of the RCD - group. Within the ACE-R subtests, those assessing orientation, attention, and fluency were the most frequently impaired in both groups. Disease-related variables were mostly unassociated with cognitive measures. DISCUSSION: Both RCD + and RCD - COVID-19-recovered individuals might show cognitive deficits within the dysexecutive-inattentive and amnesic spectrum. Non-instrumental, executive/attentive dysfunctions are predominant in this population and can be detected by both screening and domain-specific psychometric tests-although the latter might be more sensitive in RCD - patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(4): 729-737, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A subset of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to develop persisting cognitive and medical symptoms. Research in the acute stages of illness, generally utilizing cognitive screening measures or case reports, suggests presence of deficits in attention and executive function. This observational study investigated cognitive functioning among individuals with persistent cognitive complaints about 5.5 months after COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and persistent cognitive complaints underwent comprehensive in-person neuropsychological evaluations. Patients with prior neurological disorders were excluded. When diagnosed, 40% required hospitalization, 15% were in an intensive care unit, 10% needed mechanical ventilation, and 10% experienced delirium. RESULTS: This sample was predominately women (90%), White non-Hispanic (70%), with average education of 15 years. Mild cognitive deficits were seen on tests involving attention and processing speed or executive function. Seventy percent of patients were diagnosed with a mood disorder prior to COVID-19 infection. At the time of testing, 35%-40% endorsed moderate to severe mood symptoms and 85% noted significant fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Severity Scale. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of cognitive deficits, although mild, is consistent with prior research at the acute stage of the illness. These findings suggest that psychological factors and other persisting symptoms (e.g., sleep, fatigue) may play a significant role in subjective cognitive complaints in patients with persisting complaints post COVID-19 who did not require intensive treatment. These patients would likely benefit from resources to manage persisting or new mood symptoms and compensatory strategies for the cognitive inefficiencies they experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
4.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(4): 806-828, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Long-term cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 have not been extensively studied. This study provides initial results on cognitive outcomes in Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC).Participants and Methods: This study examined 53 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. Four participants were excluded due to performance validity test failure. All participants had positive COVID-19 tests, reported cognitive concerns, and completed neuropsychological tests to assess performance validity, attention/working memory, processing speed, memory, language, visual-spatial, executive functioning, motor, and emotional functioning. The sample was mostly white (89.8%), female (83.7%), and never hospitalized (69.4%) for COVID-19. RESULTS: Analyses indicated no mean scores in the Impaired range (>2 standard deviations [SD] below normative mean) on objective cognitive testing and a low base rate of Impaired test scores. Higher (>20%) base rates of Borderline performance (1-2 SDs below normative mean) were found on some measures. There was also evidence for frequently elevated mean scores on mood measures which correlated with some cognitive measures and the number of Borderline scores per participants. CONCLUSIONS: The results were noteworthy for infrequent Impaired scores, and significant correlations between cognition and mood/anxiety measures, but not between cognitive performance and premorbid vascular risk factors, psychiatric diagnoses, or COVID-19 disease severity. Results suggest that psychological distress was prominent in PASC and related to objective cognitive performance, but objective cognitive performance was unrelated to cognitive complaints. Other contributing factors may include fatigue/sleep issues. Neurologically based cognitive deficits were not suggested by the results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Disease Progression , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100773, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370702

ABSTRACT

According to the cognitive model of depression, memory bias, interpretation bias, and attention bias are associated with the development and maintenance of depression. Here, we present a protocol for investigating whether and how the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the relationship between current cognitive biases and future depression severity in a population with non-clinical depression. This protocol can also be used in other contexts, including cognitive bias-related studies and depression-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zhang et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/pathology , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Bipolar Disorder/etiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Humans
7.
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 384-396, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248581

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many patients with mild or severe COVID-19 do not make a full recovery and have a wide range of chronic symptoms for weeks or months after infection, often of a neurological, cognitive or psychiatric nature. The epidemiological evidence, diagnostic criteria and pathogenesis of post-COVID-19 syndrome are reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is defined by persistent clinical signs and symptoms that appear while or after suffering COVID-19, persist for more than 12 weeks and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. The symptoms can fluctuate or cause relapses. It is a heterogeneous condition that includes post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome, sequelae in multiple organs and the effects of severe hospitalisation/post-intensive care syndrome. It has been reported in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 and irrespective of the severity of the symptoms in the acute phase. Between 10% and 65% of survivors who had mild/moderate COVID-19 present symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome for 12 weeks or more. At six months, subjects report an average of 14 persistent symptoms. The most common symptoms are fatigue, dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, and impaired attention, concentration, memory and sleep. The underlying biological mechanisms are unknown, although an abnormal or excessive autoimmune and inflammatory response may play an important role. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations are diverse, fluctuating and variable, although fatigue and neurocognitive complaints predominate. There is no defined consensus on post-COVID-19 syndrome and its diagnostic criteria have not been subjected to adequate psychometric evaluation.


TITLE: Síndrome post-COVID-19: epidemiología, criterios diagnósticos y mecanismos patogénicos implicados.Introducción. Numerosos pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave no tienen una recuperación completa y presentan una gran variedad de síntomas crónicos durante semanas o meses tras la infección, con frecuencia de carácter neurológico, cognitivo o psiquiátrico. Se revisan las evidencias epidemiológicas, los criterios diagnósticos y la patogenia del síndrome post-COVID-19. Desarrollo. El síndrome post-COVID-19 se define por la persistencia de signos y síntomas clínicos que surgen durante o después de padecer la COVID-19, permanecen más de 12 semanas y no se explican por un diagnóstico alternativo. Los síntomas pueden fluctuar o causar brotes. Es una entidad heterogénea que incluye el síndrome de fatiga crónica posvírica, la secuela de múltiples órganos y los efectos de la hospitalización grave/síndrome poscuidados intensivos. Se ha descrito en pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave y con independencia de la gravedad de los síntomas en la fase aguda. Un 10-65% de los supervivientes que padeció COVID-19 leve/moderada presenta síntomas de síndrome post-COVID-19 durante 12 semanas o más. A los seis meses, los sujetos relatan un promedio de 14 síntomas persistentes. Los síntomas más frecuentes son fatiga, disnea, alteración de la atención, de la concentración, de la memoria y del sueño, ansiedad y depresión. Se desconocen los mecanismos biológicos que subyacen, aunque una respuesta autoinmunitaria e inflamatoria anómala o excesiva puede tener un papel importante. Conclusiones. Las manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, fluctuantes y variables, aunque predominan la fatiga y las quejas neurocognitivas. No existe un consenso definido sobre el síndrome post-COVID-19 y sus criterios diagnósticos no se han sometido a una evaluación psicométrica adecuada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimmunity , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Organ Specificity , Pandemics , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4477-4486, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241710

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of human COVID-19, not only causes flu-like symptoms and gut microbiome complications but a large number of infected individuals also experience a host of neurological symptoms including loss of smell and taste, seizures, difficulty concentrating, decreased alertness, and brain inflammation. Although SARS-CoV-2 infections are not more prevalent in Parkinson's disease patients, a higher mortality rate has been reported not only associated with older age and longer disease duration, but also through several mechanisms, such as interactions with the brain dopaminergic system and through systemic inflammatory responses. Indeed, a number of the neurological symptoms seen in COVID-19 patients, as well as the alterations in the gut microbiome, are also prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, biochemical pathways such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and protein aggregation have shared commonalities between Parkinson's disease and COVID-19 disease progression. In this review, we describe and compare the numerous similarities and intersections between neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and RNA viral infections, emphasizing the current SARS-CoV-2 global health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cytokines/physiology , Diet , Disease Progression , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Models, Neurological , Nerve Degeneration , Olfactory Bulb/physiopathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/etiology , RNA Virus Infections/metabolism , RNA Virus Infections/physiopathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sensation Disorders/etiology , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
9.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1525-1534, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222575

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about long-term sequelae of COVID-19. Objective: To describe the consequences at 4 months in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective uncontrolled cohort study, survivors of COVID-19 who had been hospitalized in a university hospital in France between March 1 and May 29, 2020, underwent a telephone assessment 4 months after discharge, between July 15 and September 18, 2020. Patients with relevant symptoms and all patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) were invited for further assessment at an ambulatory care visit. Exposures: Survival of hospitalization for COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Respiratory, cognitive, and functional symptoms were assessed by telephone with the Q3PC cognitive screening questionnaire and a checklist of symptoms. At the ambulatory care visit, patients underwent pulmonary function tests, lung computed tomographic scan, psychometric and cognitive tests (including the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and, for patients who had been hospitalized in the ICU or reported ongoing symptoms, echocardiography. Results: Among 834 eligible patients, 478 were evaluated by telephone (mean age, 61 years [SD, 16 years]; 201 men, 277 women). During the telephone interview, 244 patients (51%) declared at least 1 symptom that did not exist before COVID-19: fatigue in 31%, cognitive symptoms in 21%, and new-onset dyspnea in 16%. There was further evaluation in 177 patients (37%), including 97 of 142 former ICU patients. The median 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory score (n = 130) was 4.5 (interquartile range, 3.0-5.0) for reduced motivation and 3.7 (interquartile range, 3.0-4.5) for mental fatigue (possible range, 1 [best] to 5 [worst]). The median 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score (n = 145) was 25 (interquartile range, 25.0-75.0) for the subscale "role limited owing to physical problems" (possible range, 0 [best] to 100 [worst]). Computed tomographic lung-scan abnormalities were found in 108 of 171 patients (63%), mainly subtle ground-glass opacities. Fibrotic lesions were observed in 33 of 171 patients (19%), involving less than 25% of parenchyma in all but 1 patient. Fibrotic lesions were observed in 19 of 49 survivors (39%) with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Among 94 former ICU patients, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were observed in 23%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was less than 50% in 8 of 83 ICU patients (10%). New-onset chronic kidney disease was observed in 2 ICU patients. Serology was positive in 172 of 177 outpatients (97%). Conclusions and Relevance: Four months after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of patients frequently reported symptoms not previously present, and lung-scan abnormalities were common among those who were tested. These findings are limited by the absence of a control group and of pre-COVID assessments in this cohort. Further research is needed to understand longer-term outcomes and whether these findings reflect associations with the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung/pathology , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1527-1530, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients present with delirium during their hospitalization. AIMS: To assess the incidence of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyze the possible association with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacological factors. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were assessed for clinical signs of delirium and administered the assessment test for delirium and cognitive impairment (4AT) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scales. RESULTS: Out of the 56 patients of our cohort, 14 (25.0%) experienced delirium. The use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/daily) was less frequent in patients with delirium (p = 0.004) and was accompanied by lower C reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The use of LMWH was associated with absence of delirium, independently of comorbidities and age. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LMWH may help preventing the occurrence of delirium in COVID-19 patients, with possible reduction of length of stay in the hospital and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Confusion/psychology , Delirium/psychology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Neuropsychological Tests
11.
J Intern Med ; 290(3): 621-631, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The general medical impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) are increasingly appreciated. However, its impact on neurocognitive, psychiatric health and quality of life (QoL) in survivors after the acute phase is poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate neurocognitive function, psychiatric symptoms and QoL in COVID-19 survivors shortly after hospital discharge. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors followed up for 2 months after discharge. A battery of standardized instruments evaluating neurocognitive function, psychiatric morbidity and QoL (mental and physical components) was administered by telephone. RESULTS: Of the 229 screened patients, 179 were included in the final analysis. Amongst survivors, the prevalence of moderately impaired immediate verbal memory and learning was 38%, delayed verbal memory (11.8%), verbal fluency (34.6%) and working memory (executive function) (6.1%), respectively. Moreover, 58.7% of patients had neurocognitive impairment in at least one function. Rates of positive screening for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder were 29.6%, 26.8% and 25.1%, respectively. In addition, 39.1% of the patients had psychiatric morbidity. Low QoL for physical and mental components was detected in 44.1% and 39.1% of patients respectively. Delirium and psychiatric morbidity were associated with neurocognitive impairment, and female gender was related with psychiatric morbidity. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 survivors showed a considerable prevalence of neurocognitive impairment, psychiatric morbidity and poor QoL in the short term. It is uncertain if these impacts persist over the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Survivors/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Young Adult
12.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(1): 155-158, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the cognitive features of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) entering the postacute phase, to understand whether COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome itself could result in long-term cognitive deficits, and to determine whether neuropsychological treatment after the acute stage might represent a specific rehabilitation need. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: We assessed the general cognitive functioning through tablet-supported video calls in 9 of 12 consecutive patients (N=9) admitted to the hospital at least 30 days earlier for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Three patients were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. None of the patients presented cognitive symptoms before hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: General cognitive functioning, measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. RESULTS: A general cognitive decay was observed in 3 patients (33.3%) who had a pathologic score on the MMSE, with a specific decline in attention, memory, language, and praxis abilities. The cognitive malfunctioning appears to be linearly associated with the length of stay (in d) in the intensive care unit (ICU). The longer the amount of time spent in the ICU, the lower the MMSE score, indicating a lower global cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that some patients with COVID-19 might also benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation, given their possible global cognitive decay. The link between neuropsychological functioning and the length of stay in the ICU suggests that neurocognitive rehabilitative treatments should be directed explicitly toward patients who treated in the ICU, rather than toward every patient who experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome owing to COVID-19. However, given the limitation of a case series study, those hypotheses should be tested with future studies with larger samples and a longer follow-up period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subacute Care/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2651-2657, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799153

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and their metabolic correlates using brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. COVID-19-related encephalopathy has seldom been reported and studied. METHODS: We report four cases of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The diagnosis was made in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with new-onset cognitive disturbances, central focal neurological signs, or seizures. All patients underwent cognitive screening, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT). RESULTS: The four patients were aged 60 years or older, and presented with various degrees of cognitive impairment, with predominant frontal lobe impairment. Two patients presented with cerebellar syndrome, one patient had myoclonus, one had psychiatric manifestations, and one had status epilepticus. The delay between first COVID-19 symptoms and onset of neurological symptoms was between 0 and 12 days. None of the patients had MRI features of encephalitis nor significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the CSF was negative for all patients. All patients presented with a consistent brain FDG-PET/CT pattern of abnormalities, namely frontal hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. All patients improved after immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varied clinical presentations, all patients presented with a consistent FDG-PET pattern, which may reflect an immune mechanism.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Brain Diseases/psychology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Mov Disord ; 35(11): 1905-1913, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Young plasma infusions have emerged as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease, and convalescent plasma therapy has been used safely in the management of viral pandemics. However, the effect of plasma therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the safety, tolerability, and feasibility of plasma infusions in people with PD. METHODS: A total of 15 people with clinically established PD, at least 1 cognitive complaint, and on stable therapy received 1 unit of young fresh frozen plasma twice a week for 4 weeks. Assessments and adverse effects were performed/reported on and off therapy at baseline, immediately after, and 4 weeks after the infusions ended. Adverse effects were also assessed during infusions. The primary outcomes were safety, tolerability, and feasibility. Exploratory outcomes included Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III off medication, neuropsychological battery, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6), uric acid, and quantitative kinematics. RESULTS: Adherence rate was 100% with no serious adverse effects. There was evidence of improvement in phonemic fluency (P = 0.002) and in the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 stigma subscore (P = 0.013) that were maintained at the delayed evaluation. Elevated baseline tumor necrosis factor-α levels decreased 4 weeks after the infusions ended. CONCLUSIONS: Young fresh frozen plasma was safe, feasible, and well tolerated in people with PD, without serious adverse effects and with preliminary evidence for improvements in phonemic fluency and stigma. The results of this study warrant further therapeutic investigations in PD and provide safety and feasibility data for plasma therapy in people with PD who may be at higher risk for severe complications of COVID-19. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Plasma , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/blood , Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Deep Brain Stimulation , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Parkinson Disease/blood , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Speech Disorders/etiology , Speech Disorders/therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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