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1.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 50(4): 391-400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase in number of patients seeking neuropsychological rehabilitation months after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: Identify the cognitive and psychiatric disorders in patients with long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID (PASC) and explore the association between disease severity during the acute phase and persistent neuropsychological manifestations. METHODS: 614 adults were assessed an average of eight months post-infection. Participants were, on average, 47.6 y.o., who sought rehabilitation for neuropsychological problems. Patients were evaluated using the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), Phonemic Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing tests (NEUPSILIN) for executive functions, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: The BNIS score was significantly below reference values in all subscales, especially affect and memory. Verbal Fluency and Clock Drawing subtest results were also lower. Patients with PASC tested high for anxiety/depression, but there was no statistically significant relationship between HADS and BNIS scores. Neuropsychological evaluations showed no differences in cognitive or psychiatric profiles between hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological results suggest executive function problems and high incidence of anxiety/depression, irrespective of acute-phase severity, underscoring a need for neurorehabilitation programs while providing data for public policy initiatives.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Depression , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Neurol Sci ; 43(8): 4599-4604, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection entails neuroinvasive, neuroinflammatory, and treatment-related features accounting for cognitive deficits in COVID-19-recovered patients. Although screening for such dysfunctions in this population is considered clinically relevant, contributions to cognitive phenotyping including premorbid and disease-related confounders are scarcely represented. This study thus aimed at describing the cognitive outcome at the function-/domain-level of post-infectious SARS-CoV-2 patients being already at risk (RCD +) or not (RCD -) for cognitive decline. METHODS: Fifty-four COVID-19-recovered individuals were classified as either RCD + or RCD - according to medical records. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Addebrooke Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Attentive Matrices (AM) were administered (N = 54, 34, 28, and 28 patients, respectively). RESULTS: Prevalence of defective (cutoff = 24.89) MMSE scores was 24.3% in RCD + patients and 5.9% in the RCD - group. ACE-R-total below cutoff scores were less frequent (RCD + : 5.4%; RCD - : 5.9%). Abnormal performances at the FAB an AM were respectively detected in 18.9% and 8.1% of RCD + patients and 0% and 11.8% of the RCD - group. Within the ACE-R subtests, those assessing orientation, attention, and fluency were the most frequently impaired in both groups. Disease-related variables were mostly unassociated with cognitive measures. DISCUSSION: Both RCD + and RCD - COVID-19-recovered individuals might show cognitive deficits within the dysexecutive-inattentive and amnesic spectrum. Non-instrumental, executive/attentive dysfunctions are predominant in this population and can be detected by both screening and domain-specific psychometric tests-although the latter might be more sensitive in RCD - patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(7): 2006-2014, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive dysfunction has been observed following recovery from COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, however, no study has assessed the progression of cognitive impairment after 1 year. The aim was to assess cognitive functioning at 1 year from hospital discharge, and eventual associations with specific clinical variables. METHODS: Seventy-six patients (aged 22-74 years) who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 were recruited. Patients received neuropsychological assessments at 5 (n = 76) and 12 months (n = 53) from hospital discharge. RESULTS: Over half (63.2%) of the patients had deficits in at least one test at 5 months. Compared to the assessment at 5 months, verbal memory, attention and processing speed improved significantly after 1 year (all p < 0.05), whereas visuospatial memory did not (all p > 0.500). The most affected domains after 1 year were processing speed (28.3%) and long-term visuospatial (18.1%) and verbal (15.1%) memory. Lower PaO2 /FiO2 ratios in the acute phase were associated with worse verbal long-term memory (p = 0.029) and visuospatial learning (p = 0.041) at 5 months. Worse visuospatial long-term memory at 5 months was associated with hyposmia (p = 0.020) and dysgeusia (p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Our study expands the results from previous studies showing that cognitive impairment can still be observed after 1 year. Patients with severe COVID-19 should receive periodic cognitive follow-up evaluations, as cognitive deficits in recovered patients could have social and occupational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3563, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730317

ABSTRACT

Neurologic impairment persisting months after acute severe SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described because of several pathogenic mechanisms, including persistent systemic inflammation. The objective of this study is to analyze the selective involvement of the different cognitive domains and the existence of related biomarkers. Cross-sectional multicentric study of patients who survived severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 consecutively recruited between 90 and 120 days after hospital discharge. All patients underwent an exhaustive study of cognitive functions as well as plasma determination of pro-inflammatory, neurotrophic factors and light-chain neurofilaments. A principal component analysis extracted the main independent characteristics of the syndrome. 152 patients were recruited. The results of our study preferential involvement of episodic and working memory, executive functions, and attention and relatively less affectation of other cortical functions. In addition, anxiety and depression pictures are constant in our cohort. Several plasma chemokines concentrations were elevated compared with both, a non-SARS-Cov2 infected cohort of neurological outpatients or a control healthy general population. Severe Covid-19 patients can develop an amnesic and dysexecutive syndrome with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We do not know if the deficits detected can persist in the long term and if this can trigger or accelerate the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
6.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100773, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370702

ABSTRACT

According to the cognitive model of depression, memory bias, interpretation bias, and attention bias are associated with the development and maintenance of depression. Here, we present a protocol for investigating whether and how the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the relationship between current cognitive biases and future depression severity in a population with non-clinical depression. This protocol can also be used in other contexts, including cognitive bias-related studies and depression-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zhang et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/pathology , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Bipolar Disorder/etiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Humans
7.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1527-1530, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients present with delirium during their hospitalization. AIMS: To assess the incidence of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyze the possible association with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacological factors. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were assessed for clinical signs of delirium and administered the assessment test for delirium and cognitive impairment (4AT) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scales. RESULTS: Out of the 56 patients of our cohort, 14 (25.0%) experienced delirium. The use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/daily) was less frequent in patients with delirium (p = 0.004) and was accompanied by lower C reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The use of LMWH was associated with absence of delirium, independently of comorbidities and age. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LMWH may help preventing the occurrence of delirium in COVID-19 patients, with possible reduction of length of stay in the hospital and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Confusion/psychology , Delirium/psychology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Neuropsychological Tests
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069629

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 complications can include neurological, psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial impairments. Little is known on the consequences of SARS-COV-2 on cognitive functions of patients in the sub-acute phase of the disease. We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions of patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit of the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 87 patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit from March 27th to June 20th 2020 were included. Patients underwent Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Data were divided in 4 groups according to the respiratory assistance in the acute phase: Group1 (orotracheal intubation), Group2 (non-invasive ventilation using Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure), Group3 (Venturi Masks), Group4 (no oxygen therapy). Follow-ups were performed at one month after home-discharge. RESULTS: Out of the 87 patients (62 Male, mean age 67.23 ± 12.89 years), 80% had neuropsychological deficits (MoCA and MMSE) and 40% showed mild-to-moderate depression. Group1 had higher scores than Group3 for visuospatial/executive functions (p = 0.016), naming (p = 0.024), short- and long-term memory (p = 0.010, p = 0.005), abstraction (p = 0.024), and orientation (p = 0.034). Group1 was younger than Groups2 and 3. Cognitive impairments correlated with patients' age. Only 18 patients presented with anosmia. Their data did not differ from the other patients. FIM (<100) did not differ between groups. Patients partly recovered at one-month follow-up and 43% showed signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe functional impairments had important cognitive and emotional deficits which might have been influenced by the choice of ventilatory therapy, but mostly appeared to be related to aging, independently of FIM scores. These findings should be integrated for correct neuropsychiatric assistance of COVID-19 patients in the subacute phase of the disease, and show the need for long-term psychological support and treatment of post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognition Disorders/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1015-1021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060642

ABSTRACT

We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60-80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOEɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional distress, anxiety, and depression scores increased to pathological threshold values during and after confinement. Those with lower mood during confinement experienced a decline in their mood after confinement. Cognition did not change. These preliminary results suggest that mental health consequences of corona measures in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Apolipoprotein E3/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/genetics , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , Risk , Spain
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2651-2657, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799153

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and their metabolic correlates using brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. COVID-19-related encephalopathy has seldom been reported and studied. METHODS: We report four cases of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The diagnosis was made in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with new-onset cognitive disturbances, central focal neurological signs, or seizures. All patients underwent cognitive screening, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT). RESULTS: The four patients were aged 60 years or older, and presented with various degrees of cognitive impairment, with predominant frontal lobe impairment. Two patients presented with cerebellar syndrome, one patient had myoclonus, one had psychiatric manifestations, and one had status epilepticus. The delay between first COVID-19 symptoms and onset of neurological symptoms was between 0 and 12 days. None of the patients had MRI features of encephalitis nor significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the CSF was negative for all patients. All patients presented with a consistent brain FDG-PET/CT pattern of abnormalities, namely frontal hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. All patients improved after immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varied clinical presentations, all patients presented with a consistent FDG-PET pattern, which may reflect an immune mechanism.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Brain Diseases/psychology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 18(2): 151-156, 2020 06 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611800

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic, National forum for ethical reflection on Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative diseases conducted a national survey to identify the difficulties encountered by professionals working in the field of old age and autonomy, families and volunteers, and the initiatives they have implemented. Seven major difficulties were identified: the isolation induced by the prohibition of visits, the lack of protective equipment and tests, the difficulties of people with cognitive difficulties in understanding measures to avoid the spread of the epidemic, the sustainability of overwork for professionals, the concern of the families of residents, complex situations at home and difficulties in accessing care. Four initiatives are being implemented: information and training for teams, compensation for interrupted visits, consultations and exchanges between professionals, actions to benefit people living at home. The Covid-19 epidemic hit the elderly sector at a very special moment in its history, several years of effort by the sector to reinvent itself around strong values. They have been a resource during this period of crisis. An ambitious law on old age and autonomy therefore appears to be a necessity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Geriatrics/ethics , Geriatrics/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation/psychology , Personal Autonomy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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