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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 753671, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775950

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the effects of age, period, and cohort (APC) on trends in cognitive function among the Chinese elderly, and to explore how gender gaps in cognitive function change with age, period, and cohort. Methods: This study used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from 1998 to 2018, and included 90,432 participants aged above 65 years old. The measurement of cognitive function was the score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-classified random-effect models were used to investigate age, period, and cohort trends in cognitive function. Results: Mini-Mental State Examination scores decreased with age at an increasing rate. While the cohort effect was nearly stable, the period effect demonstrated a downward trend from 1998 to 2002 followed by a nearly flat line. Females were associated with lower MMSE scores than males. When age increased, the gender gaps in MMSE scores further increased. The period-based gender gaps in MMSE scores diverged throughout the 20 years, while the cohort-based gender disparities in MMSE scores converged with successive cohorts. Conclusions: Age, period, and cohort had different and independent effects on cognitive function among the Chinese elderly. The effect of age was stronger than that of period and cohort. Gender disparities in cognitive function increased with age and period, and decreased with successive cohorts.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cognition/physiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longevity , Male
2.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(2): 221-226, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624961

ABSTRACT

Cognitive post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) can occur after mild COVID-19. Detailed clinical characterizations may inform pathogenesis. We evaluated 22 adults reporting cognitive PASC and 10 not reporting cognitive symptoms after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection through structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and optional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations (53%). Delayed onset of cognitive PASC occurred in 43% and associated with younger age. Cognitive PASC participants had a higher number of pre-existing cognitive risk factors (2.5 vs. 0; p = 0.03) and higher proportion with abnormal CSF findings (77% vs. 0%; p = 0.01) versus controls. Cognitive risk factors and immunologic mechanisms may contribute to cognitive PASC pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cognition/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Personnel , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e046544, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596818

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of ageing, causing functional disability, a poor quality of life and an increased socioeconomic expenditure. Evidence shows that patients go through a long preclinical stage in which cognitive deficits appear subtly until they reach the threshold of dementia. Non-pharmacological interventions have been gaining ground as prevention of modifiable factors of cognitive decline such as obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity or social isolation. Along these lines, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be a tool for cognitive stimulation, cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation. The main objective of the systematic review will be to review and analyse the use of ICTs for the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adult population aged 50 and over, for the prevention of cognitive impairment METHODS: A systematic review will be conducted including randomised clinical trials in adults without diseases or accidents associated with cognitive impairment, and whom have used ICTs for the improvement of cognitive functions between 2010 and 2020 in English or Spanish. The articles that report data on cognitive function by domain, for example, memory or executive functions, or by test will be included. The databases Medline (PubMed), CinahlPlus, Scopus, ISI WoS, CENTRAL and IEEE Xplore will be searched. Studies that meet the inclusion criteria will be analysed according to the Cochrane RoB2 tool for risk of bias assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary as this is a systematic review. The results will be published in scientific journals, as well as in specialised congresses on the subject of study.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Quality of Life , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Communication , Executive Function , Humans , Middle Aged , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259094, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We read, see and hear news from various media sources every day. A large majority of the news is negative. A previous study from our laboratory showed that reading negative news is associated with both increased stress reactivity (measured via the stress hormone cortisol) and recall of the negative news segments in women. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the effects of positive news on cortisol stress reactivity, memory and affect using a methodology highly similar to the study on negative news that was previously used by our team. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants aged between 18 and 35 years (81% women) were randomly exposed to either positive or neutral news segments, followed by a laboratory stressor. We assessed participants' affect three times during the procedure and measured cortisol in saliva eight times (at 10-minute intervals). Twenty-four hours later, participants were contacted by phone to assess their recall of the news segments. RESULTS: Results showed that exposure to positive news, relative to neutral news, did not modulate participants' cortisol levels in response to the laboratory stressor. Positive news had no impact on memory recall of the news and did not change participants' positive or negative affect. Bayes factors suggested that these nonsignificant results are not attributable to low statistical power. CONCLUSION: Contrary to negative news, positive and neutral news do not modulate stress reactivity, memory and affect. These results suggest that people can stay informed without physiological and psychological costs when the news to which they are exposed adopt a positive or neutral approach.


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Emotions/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Mass Media , Memory/physiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Saliva/chemistry , Young Adult
7.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480881

ABSTRACT

We performed an in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment of a potassium 2-[2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamido]ethanesulfonate (compound 1) as a potential prodrug for cognitive function improvement in ischemic brain injury. Using in silico methods, we predicted the pharmacological efficacy and possible safety in rat models. In addition, in silico data showed neuroprotective features of compound 1, which were further supported by in vitro experiments in a glutamate excitotoxicity-induced model in newborn rat cortical neuron cultures. Next, we checked whether compound 1 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier in intact and ischemic animals. Compound 1 improved animal behavior both in intact and ischemic rats and, even though the concentration in intact brains was low, we still observed a significant anxiety reduction and activity escalation. We used molecular docking and molecular dynamics to support our hypothesis that compound 1 could affect the AMPA receptor function. In a rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia, we studied the effects of compound 1 on the behavior and neurological deficit. An in vivo experiment demonstrated that compound 1 significantly reduced the neurological deficit and improved neurological symptom regression, exploratory behavior, and anxiety. Thus, here, for the first time, we show that compound 1 can be considered as an agent for restoring cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain Ischemia , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stroke
8.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 67, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438301
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 203, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To address the challenge of the aging population, community-based care services (CBCS) have been developed rapidly in China as a new way of satisfying the needs of elderly people. Few studies have described the evolution trend of availability of CBCS in rural and urban areas and evaluated their effectiveness. This study aims to show the availability of China's CBCS and further analyze the effect of the CBCS on the cognitive function of elderly people. METHODS: Longitudinal analysis was performed using data from the 2008 to 2018 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). A total of 23937 observations from 8421 elderly people were included in the study. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess cognitive function. We aggregated similar CBCS to generate three binary variable categories (daily life support, emotional comfort and entertainment services, medical support and health services) indicating the availability of CBCS (1 = yes, 0 = no). Multilevel growth models were employed to estimate the association between CBCS and cognitive function while adjusting for many demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: The availability of CBCS increased a lot from 2008 to 2018 in China. Although the availability of CBCS in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas in 2008, by 2018 the gap narrowed significantly. Emotional comfort and entertainment services (B = 0.331, 95% CI = 0.090 to 0.572) and medical support and health services (B = 1.041, 95% CI = 0.854 to 1.228) were significantly and positively associated with cognitive function after adjusting for the covariates. CONCLUSION: There was a significant increase in the availability of CBCS from 2008 to 2018 in China. This study sheds light on the positive correlation between CBCS and cognitive function among Chinese elderly individuals. The results suggest that policymakers should pay more attention to the development of CBCS and the equity of the supply of CBCS in urban and rural areas.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Community Health Services , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cognition/physiology , Community Health Services/supply & distribution , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
10.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(11): 1089-1103, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, prevention behavior adoption occurred in a rapidly changing context. In contrast to expectancy-value theories, the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) is well-suited for investigating novel and socially informed behaviors. PURPOSE: We explored whether PWM social cognitions predicted coronavirus prevention behaviors. METHOD: A representative sample of United States adults (N = 738; Mage = 46.8; 51.8% women; 78% white; April 2020) who had not had COVID-19 reported PWM predictor variables (perceived vulnerability, prevention descriptive norms, prototypes engaging in prevention behavior, and prevention behavioral intentions). Two weeks later, participants reported their prevention behaviors (handwashing, mask-wearing, social distancing, etc.) and future public health behavioral willingness (contact tracing, temperature checks, etc.). RESULTS: Controlling for putative demographic, past behavior, and coronavirus-contextual (e.g., local infection rates) covariates, mediation models indicated that higher norms and favorable prototypes were associated with greater prevention behavioral intentions, which in turn predicted increased prevention behavior, F(18, 705) = 92.20, p < .001, R2 = .70. Higher norms and favorable prototypes associated both directly and indirectly (through greater prevention behavioral intention) with greater willingness to engage in emerging public health behaviors, F(15, 715) = 21.49, p < .001, R2 = .31. CONCLUSIONS: Greater descriptive norms and favorable prototypes for prevention behavior predicted: (a) future prevention behaviors through increases in behavioral intentions and (b) willingness to participate in emerging public health behaviors. These results held across demographic groups, political affiliation, and severity of regional outbreaks. Public health efforts to curb pandemics should highlight normative prevention participation and enhance positive prototypes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition/physiology , Models, Psychological , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
COPD ; 18(4): 443-448, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284829

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020, many governments have been imposing confinement and physical distancing measures. No data exist on the effects of lockdowns on the health status of patients affected by chronic pathologies, specifically those with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Our study aims to establish variations across the psychological and cognitive profile of patients during the isolation period in Italy, in a cohort of patients affected by COPD, between February and May 2020. Forty patients with established COPD were comprehensively evaluated by geriatric multidimensional assessment before the spread of the epidemic in Italy, and submitted to a second evaluation during the subsequent lockdown. We assessed functional ability, basic and instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL and IADL), cognition and mood status. We compared the scores obtained at baseline against those obtained during the pandemic, and used mean differences for correlation with major clinical and functional indexes. The score differences from MMSE, ADL and IADL were statistically significant. Such differences were correlated to the presence of a caregiver and to the total number of family members living together. Remarkably, the loneliness dimension, more than the restrictions themselves, seemed to represent the major determinant of altered health status and depressed psycho-cognitive profile in our population. Also remarkably, we detected no correlation between the score variation and the respiratory function indexes of disease severity. The isolation measures adopted during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have triggered the classic clinical string associated to geriatric isolation, which leads to a deterioration of cognitive functions, independence and frailty levels in a population affected by a chronic degenerative disease, such as COPD. If considered from a multidimensional geriatric point of view, the individual benefit of isolation measures could be small or non-existent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition/physiology , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/psychology , Activities of Daily Living , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Health Status , Humans , Italy , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 44(3): 285-288, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280160

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a sequela of COVID-19. It is unknown how cognition changes and relates to functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation. We administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at admission to 77 patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation for COVID-19 in a large US academic medical center. Forty-five patients were administered the MoCA at discharge. Functional gain was assessed by change in the quality indicator for self-care (QI-SC). In the full sample, 80.5% of patients exhibited cognitive impairment on admission, which was associated with prior delirium. Among 45 patients with retest data, there were significant improvements in MoCA and QI-SC. QI-SC score gain was higher in patients who made clinically meaningful changes on the MoCA, an association that persisted after accounting for age and delirium history. Cognitive impairment is frequent among COVID-19 patients, but improves over time and is associated with functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cognition/physiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 74(4): 267-274, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269375

ABSTRACT

When laboratory studies lose touch with real world context, they may generate fundamental misunderstandings of the principles of human cognition, behaviour, and associated brain processes. This article describes how this can occur, and proposes an alternative research approach-cognitive ethology-that enables researchers to link cognitions and behaviours as they operate in everyday life, with those studied in controlled, lab-based investigations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Psychological Theory , Social Behavior , Social Cognition , Awards and Prizes , Humans
14.
J Adolesc ; 89: 194-202, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233338

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Learning disabilities are due to genetic and/or neurobiological factors that alter brain functioning by affecting one or more cognitive processes related to learning. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of cognitive telerehabilitation in adolescents with learning disabilities to overcome the treatment problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. METHODS: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with Unspecified Learning Disability (mean ± SD age: 18.2 ± 2.9 years; 50% male) were enrolled in this study. The patients were assessed by a neuropsychological evaluation at the beginning and at the end of the program. All patients received cognitive treatment via a specific telehealth app to stimulate the cognitive skills related to learning. The treatment lasted four weeks, with a daily training (lasting up to 60 min), for five days a week. RESULTS: Our young patients reported a statistically significant improvement in the main cognitive domains that are usually compromised in learning disabilities, including sustained and selective attention, shifting of attention, control of interference, memory and speed of information processing. Moreover, the patients showed a good usability and motivation during the training. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that telerehabilitation could be a valid tool for the rehabilitation of specific cognitive skills in adolescents with learning difficulties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition/physiology , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Learning Disabilities/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Adolescent , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Treatment Outcome
15.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1534-1539, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153258

ABSTRACT

Patient-provider communication is a hallmark of high-quality care and patient safety; however, the pace and increasingly complex challenges that face overextended teams strain even the most dedicated clinicians. The COVID-19 pandemic has further disrupted communication between clinicians and their patients and families. The dependence on phone communication and the physical barriers of protective gear limit nonverbal communication and diminish clinicians' ability to recognize and respond to emotion. Developing new approaches to teach communication skills to trainees who are often responsible for communicating with patients and their families is challenging, especially during a pandemic or other crisis. "Just-in-time" simulation-simulation-based training immediately before an intervention-provides the scaffolding and support trainees need for conducting difficult conversations, and it enhances patients' and families' experiences. Using a realistic scenario, the author illustrates key steps for effectively using just-in-time simulation-based communication training: assessing the learner's understanding of the situation; determining what aspects of the encounter may prove most challenging; providing a script as a cognitive aid; refreshing or teaching a specific skill; preparing learners emotionally through reflection and mental rehearsal; coaching on the approach, pace, and tone for a delivery that conveys empathy and meaning; and providing specific, honest, and curious feedback to close a performance gap. Additionally, the author acknowledges that clinical conditions sometimes require learning by observing rather than doing and has thus provided guidance for making the most of vicarious observational learning: identify potential challenges in the encounter and explicitly connect them to trainee learning goals, explain why a more advanced member of the team is conducting the conversation, ask the trainee to observe and prepare feedback, choose the location carefully, identify everyone's role at the beginning of the conversation, debrief, share reactions, and thank the trainee for their feedback and observations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/standards , Learning/physiology , Observation/methods , Patient-Centered Care/standards , Training Support/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition/physiology , Communication , Computer Simulation , Emotions/physiology , Empathy/physiology , Feedback , Humans , Male , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(5): 668-674, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is insufficient knowledge about the functional and medical recovery of older people infected with SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to gain insight into the course of functional and medical recovery of persons who receive geriatric rehabilitation (GR) following SARS-CoV-2 infection across Europe. Special attention will be paid to the recovery of activities of daily living (ADL) and to the GR services offered to these patients. DESIGN: A multi-center observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study will include several European countries (EuGMS member states) each providing at least 52 comparable routine datasets (core dataset) of persons recovering from a SARS-CoV-2 infection and receiving geriatric rehabilitation. The routine data will be anonymously collected in an online CASTOR database. The ethical regulations of each participating country will be followed. PRIMARY OUTCOME: ADL functioning. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: length of stay, discharge destination, hospital readmission and mortality. Other variables that will be collected are quality of life, treatment modalities, complications, cognition, frailty, mood/anxiety, BMI, nutrition and pain. All variables will be reported at admission and compared with follow-up scores (discharge, 6 weeks and 6 months follow-up). CONCLUSION: This study will explore the effect of geriatric rehabilitation on post-COVID-19 patients, especially on ADL recovery, and the variety of geriatric rehabilitation services across Europe. Information from this study may help improve recovery of older persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 and improve geriatric rehabilitation services in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Health Services for the Aged , Quality of Life , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition/physiology , Cohort Studies , Europe , Frailty , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(6): 1473-1481, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086904

ABSTRACT

The novel respiratory virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged during late 2019 and spread rapidly across the world. It is now recognised that the nervous system can be affected in COVID-19, with several studies reporting long-term cognitive problems in patients. The metabolic pathway of tryptophan degradation, known as the kynurenine pathway (KP), is significantly activated in patients with COVID-19. KP metabolites have roles in regulating both inflammatory/immune responses and neurological functions. In this review, we speculate on the effects of KP activation in patients with COVID-19, and how modulation of this pathway might impact inflammation and reduce neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Inflammation/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Tryptophan/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Humans , Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Exercise , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiology , COVID-19 , Cognition/physiology , Female , Health Behavior , Healthy Aging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Prospective Studies , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Research Design , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050494

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and government imposed social restrictions like lockdown exposed most individuals to an unprecedented stress, increasing mental health disorders worldwide. We explored subjective cognitive functioning and mental health changes and their possible interplay related to COVID-19-lockdown. We also investigated potential risk factors to identify more vulnerable groups. Across Italy, 1215 respondents completed our Qualtrics-based online-survey during the end of a seven to 10-week imposed lockdown and home confinement (from April 29 to May 17, 2020). We found subjective cognitive functioning and mental health severely changed in association with the lockdown. Under government regulations, cognitive complaints were mostly perceived in routine tasks involving attention, temporal orientation and executive functions-with no changes in language abilities. A paradoxical effect was observed for memory, with reduced forgetfulness compared to pre-lockdown. We found higher severity and prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, abnormal sleep, appetite changes, reduced libido and health anxiety: with mild-to-severe depression and anxiety prevalence climbing to 32 and 36 percent, respectively, under restrictions. Being female, under 45 years, working from home or being underemployed were all identified as relevant risk factors for worsening cognition and mental health. Frequent consumers of COVID-19 mass media information or residents in highly infected communities reported higher depression and anxiety symptoms, particularly hypochondria in the latter. If similar restrictions are reimposed, governments must carefully consider these more vulnerable groups in their decisions, whilst developing effective global and long-term responses to the cognitive and mental health challenges of this type of pandemic; as well as implementing appropriate psychological interventions with specific guidelines: particularly regarding exposure to COVID-19 mass-media reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cognition/physiology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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