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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059939, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cost-effectiveness evaluations of psychological interventions, such as internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programmes, in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are rare. We recently reported moderate to large effect sizes on depressive symptoms in CVD outpatients following a 9-week iCBT programme compared with an online discussion forum (ODF), in favour of iCBT. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial. The EQ-5D-3L was used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Data on healthcare costs were retrieved from healthcare registries. RESULTS: At 12-month follow-up, the QALY was significantly higher in iCBT compared with the ODF group (0.713 vs 0.598, p=0.007). The mean difference of 0.115 corresponds with 42 extra days in best imaginable health status in favour of the iCBT group over the course of 1 year. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for iCBT versus ODF was €18 865 per QALY saved. The cost-effectiveness plane indicated that iCBT is a cheaper and more effective intervention in 24.5% of the cases, and in 75% a costlier and more effective intervention than ODF. Only in about 0.5% of the cases, there was an indication of a costlier, but less effective intervention compared with ODF. CONCLUSIONS: The ICER of €18 865 was lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold range of €23 400-€35 100 as proposed by the NICE guidelines, suggesting that the iCBT treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with CVD is cost-effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02778074; Post-results.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/therapy , Humans , Internet , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(4): 1539-1550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of older adults with cognitive impairment suffer from insomnia. When untreated, pre-existing cognitive problems may be exacerbated and potentially contribute to further cognitive decline. One promising approach to maintain cognitive health is to improve sleep quantity and quality. OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of Sleep Health Using the Internet for Older Adult Sufferers of Insomnia and Sleeplessness (SHUTi OASIS), an Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) program in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Older adults with MCI and insomnia were recruited from hospital-based memory and sleep disorders clinics and enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants completed the six cores of SHUTi OASIS, over nine weeks with two-week baseline and post-assessments using self-reported sleep diaries. Feasibility and acceptability were informed by usage statistics and qualitative interviews; preliminary efficacy was informed by patient-generated sleep data. RESULTS: Twelve participants enrolled and, on average, were 75.8 years of age. Ten participants completed the study and logged in most days. Most participants reported a positive overall experience, and interviews revealed successful and independent program management and completion. There were significant changes on all baseline to post-assessment sleep measures, including clinically meaningful improvements on the Insomnia Severity Index (13.5 to 8.3, p < 0.01), sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep onset latency (ps < 0.02). There was no statistically significant change in cognitive measures (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study supports that older adults with cognitive impairment can independently complete CBT-I via the Internet and achieve clinical sleep improvements.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Internet-Based Intervention , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Aged , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Self Report , Treatment Outcome
3.
Autism ; 26(3): 640-653, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759642

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavioral therapy helps to treat anxiety symptoms in autistic youth, but it is difficult for families to access cognitive behavioral therapy in the community. Training school providers to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy may help autistic youth and their families to access these programs. Unfortunately, we do not know how cognitive behavioral therapy programs can be delivered by school providers and how these programs help the autistic students who access them. This study addressed this gap and was part of a larger study that looked at the effectiveness of Facing Your Fears-School-Based in 25 public schools. The study goals were to understand whether Facing Your Fears-School-Based helped students and the factors that made it easy or difficult to deliver Facing Your Fears-School-Based in schools. Thirty providers participated in interviews guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework. Participants shared information that fell into several major categories that included (1) delivering Facing Your Fears-School-Based to many different students; (2) the positive impact of Facing Your Fears-School-Based on students' school participation; and (3) plans to continue using Facing Your Fears-School-Based. School providers also shared that Facing Your Fears-School-Based was easy to use for non-mental health providers and reported adapting Facing Your Fears-School-Based to meet student needs. The results of this study suggest that Facing Your Fears-School-Based may help autistic students and highlight the importance of using mental health programs in schools that are flexible, able to be adapted, and that are able to be used by many different types of school providers.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , Students
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736894

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a formal mental disorder leading to bad outcomes for children and adolescents. This study comprehensively compared the estimated effect of various pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions for IGD from randomized controlled trials (RCT) through updated meta-analysis, using meta-regression. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Airiti Library between 2000 and 2017 was conducted for various IA/IGD intervention modalities. A total of 124 studies from 29 selected papers involving 5601 children and young adults with IA/IGD were found. Meta-analyzing the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) revealed a preliminary random effect of 1.399 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.272-1.527, suggesting highly effective treatment of IA/IGD. After adjusting for the confounding risks of age, publication year, type of subjects, and type of study, this study revealed that combining pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or multi-level counseling (MLC) was the most effective treatment option. Using a scale of time spent online or a severity of IA symptoms scale was a more effective measurement, with p-values = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively. IA/IGD patients with comorbid depression showed worse outcomes than youth with another comorbidity. The corresponding model goodness-of-fit indices were τ2 = 1.188; I2-Residual = 89.74%; and Adjusted-R2 = 16.10%. This systematic review indicates that pharmacotherapy combined with CBT or MLC might be an effective therapeutic strategy for youth with gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Video Games/psychology , Young Adult
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e28093, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety are common in pregnancy, with severe symptoms associated with negative outcomes for women and babies. Low-level psychological therapy is recommended for women with mild to moderate anxiety, with the aim of preventing an escalation of symptoms and providing coping strategies. Remotely delivered interventions have been suggested to improve access to treatment and support and provide a cost-effective, flexible, and timely solution. OBJECTIVE: This study identifies and evaluates remotely delivered, digital, or web-based interventions to support women with symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy. METHODS: This mixed methods systematic review followed a convergent segregated approach to synthesize qualitative and quantitative data. The ACM Digital Library, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Health Technology Assessment Library, IEEE Xplore, Joanna Briggs Institute, Maternity and Infant Care, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Science Citation Index were searched in October 2020. Quantitative or qualitative primary research that included pregnant women and evaluated remotely delivered interventions reporting measures of anxiety, fear, stress, distress, women's views, and opinions were included. RESULTS: Overall, 3 qualitative studies and 14 quantitative studies were included. Populations included a general antenatal population and pregnant women having anxiety and depression, fear of childbirth, insomnia, and preterm labor. Interventions included cognitive behavioral therapy, problem solving, mindfulness, and educational designs. Most interventions were delivered via web-based platforms, and 62% (8/13) included direct contact from trained therapists or coaches. A meta-analysis of the quantitative data found internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and facilitated interventions showed a beneficial effect in relation to the reduction of anxiety scores (standardized mean difference -0.49, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.22; standardized mean difference -0.48, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.22). Due to limitations in the amount of available data and study quality, the findings should be interpreted with caution. Synthesized findings found some evidence to suggest that interventions are more effective when women maintain regular participation which may be enhanced by providing regular contact with therapists or peer support, appropriate targeting of interventions involving components of relaxation and cognitive-based skills, and providing sufficient sessions to develop new skills without being too time consuming. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence to suggest that women who are pregnant may benefit from remotely delivered interventions. Components of interventions that may improve the effectiveness and acceptability of remotely delivered interventions included providing web-based contact with a therapist, health care professional, or peer community. Women may be more motivated to complete interventions that are perceived as relevant or tailored to their needs. Remote interventions may also provide women with greater anonymity to help them feel more confident in disclosing their symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e27584, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a symptom that can be very distressing owing to hearing sounds not related to any external sound source. Managing tinnitus is notoriously difficult, and access to evidence-based care is limited. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus management strategy with the most evidence of effectiveness but is rarely offered to those distressed by tinnitus. The provision of internet-based CBT for tinnitus overcomes accessibility barriers; however, it is not currently readily available in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of internet-based CBT compared with that of weekly monitoring for the management of tinnitus in reducing tinnitus distress; reducing tinnitus-related comorbidities, including tinnitus cognitions, insomnia, anxiety, and depression; and assessing the stability of the intervention effects 2 months after the intervention. METHODS: A 2-arm randomized clinical trial comparing audiologist-guided internet-based CBT (n=79) to a weekly monitoring group (n=79) with a 2-month follow-up assessed the efficacy of internet-based CBT. Eligible participants included adults seeking help for tinnitus. Recruitment was conducted on the web using an open-access website. Participants were randomized via 1:1 allocation, but blinding was not possible. The study was undertaken by English or Spanish speakers on the web. The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress as measured using the Tinnitus Functional Index. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety, depression, insomnia, tinnitus cognition, hearing-related difficulties, and quality of life. RESULTS: Internet-based CBT led to a greater reduction in tinnitus distress (mean 36.57, SD 22) compared with that in weekly monitoring (mean 46.31, SD 20.63; effect size: Cohen d=0.46, 95% CI 0.14-0.77) using an intention-to-treat analysis. For the secondary outcomes, there was a greater reduction in negative tinnitus cognition and insomnia. The results remained stable over the 2-month follow-up period. No important adverse events were observed. Further, 16% (10/158) of participants withdrew, with low overall compliance rates for questionnaire completion of 72.3% (107/148) at T1, 61% (91/148) at T2, and 42% (62/148) at T3. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to evaluate and indicate the efficacy of audiologist-delivered internet-based CBT in reducing tinnitus distress in a US population. It was also the first study to offer internet-based CBT in Spanish to accommodate the large Hispanic population in the United States. The results have been encouraging, and further work is indicated in view of making such an intervention applicable to a wider population. Further work is required to improve compliance and attract more Spanish speakers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04004260; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04004260.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Tinnitus , Adult , Audiologists , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , Internet , Quality of Life , Tinnitus/therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e33337, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a high prevalence of depression during pregnancy, and there is also evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most effective psychosocial interventions. Emerging evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has shown that technology has been successfully harnessed to provide CBT interventions for other populations. However, very few studies have focused on their use during pregnancy. This approach has become increasingly important in many clinical areas due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and our study aimed to expand the knowledge in this particular clinical area. OBJECTIVE: Our systematic review aimed to bring together the available research-based evidence on digitalized CBT interventions for depression symptoms during pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic review of the Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EBSCO Open Dissertations databases was carried out from the earliest available evidence to October 27, 2021. Only RCT studies published in English were considered. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines were followed, and the protocol was registered on the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. The risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. RESULTS: The review identified 7 studies from 5 countries (the United States, China, Australia, Norway, and Sweden) published from 2015 to 2021. The sample sizes ranged from 25 to 1342 participants. The interventions used various technological elements, including text, images, videos, games, interactive features, and peer group discussions. They comprised 2 guided and 5 unguided approaches. Using digitalized CBT interventions for depression during pregnancy showed promising efficacy, with guided intervention showing higher effect sizes (Hedges g=1.21) than the unguided interventions (Hedges g=0.14-0.99). The acceptability of the digitalized CBT interventions was highly encouraging, based on user feedback. Attrition rates were low for the guided intervention (4.5%) but high for the unguided interventions (22.1%-46.5%). A high overall risk of bias was present for 6 of the 7 studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our search only identified a small number of digitalized CBT interventions for pregnant women, despite the potential of this approach. These showed promising evidence when it came to efficacy and positive outcomes for depression symptoms, and user feedback was positive. However, the overall risk of bias suggests that the efficacy of the interventions needs to be interpreted with caution. Future studies need to consider how to mitigate these sources of biases. Digitalized CBT interventions can provide prompt, effective, evidence-based interventions for pregnant women. This review increases our understanding of the importance of digitalized interventions during pregnancy, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42020216159; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=216159.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Cognition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e26438, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on families' daily routines and psychosocial well-being, and technology has played a key role in providing socially distanced health care services. OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this paper was to describe the content and delivery of a single-session, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention, which has been developed to help parents cope with children's anxiety and manage daily situations with their children. The second objective was to report user adherence and satisfaction among the first participants who completed the intervention. METHODS: The Let's Cope Together intervention has been developed by our research group. It combines evidence-based CBT elements, such as psychoeducation and skills to manage anxiety, with parent training programs that strengthen how parents interact with their child and handle daily situations. A pre-post design was used to examine user satisfaction and the skills the parents learned. Participants were recruited using advertisements, media activity, day care centers, and schools and asked about background characteristics, emotional symptoms, and parenting practices before they underwent the iCBT. After they completed the 7 themes, they were asked what new parenting skills they had learned from the iCBT and how satisfied they were with the program. RESULTS: Of the 602 participants who filled in the baseline survey, 196 (32.6%) completed the program's 7 themes, and 189 (31.4%) completed the postintervention survey. Most (138/189, 73.0%) of the participants who completed the postintervention survey were satisfied with the program and had learned skills that eased both their anxiety (141/189, 74.6%) and their children's anxiety (157/189, 83.1%). The majority (157/189, 83.1%) reported that they learned how to organize their daily routines better, and just over one-half (100/189, 53.0%) reported that the program improved how they planned each day with their children. CONCLUSIONS: The single-session iCBT helped parents to face the psychological demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should determine how the participation rate and adherence can be optimized in digital, universal interventions. This will help to determine what kinds of programs should be developed, including their content and delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 310: 114439, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676890

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of research on the role of COVID-19 related fear and lockdown on social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a follow-up study during post-lockdown period, we compared social anxiety of individuals with SAD who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus psychoeducational-supportive therapy (PST) before the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of COVID-19 related fear. Social anxiety severity was rated by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and post-lockdown periods. Fear of COVID-19 was assessed during the post-lockdown period. The treatment effects in the CBT group (n = 33) were significantly better than the PST group (n = 32) at post-intervention; this was maintained at 14-months following intervention despite COVID-related lockdown. In the PST group, there was no change following the intervention; and the social phobia increased after lockdown. The CBT group had significantly less COVID-19 related fear than the PST group. Social anxiety was positively correlated with fear of COVID-19; and individuals with comorbidities had significantly more fear. Using the hierarchical multiple regression, SPIN post-intervention, COVID-19 fear, and duration of SAD predicted social anxiety severity during the post-lockdown period. In conclusion, the effect of CBT for SAD was maintained through lockdown and was associated with significantly less COVID-19 related fear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Phobia, Social , Anxiety/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Phobia, Social/therapy
10.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 571-585, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have experienced drastic changes in their academic and social lives with ensuing consequences towards their physical and mental well-being. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify virtual mindfulness-based interventions for the well-being of adults aged 19 to 40 years in developed countries and examine the efficacy of these techniques/exercises. METHODS: This mixed-methods systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with a registered PROSPERO protocol. With a convergent integrated synthesis approach, IEEE Xplore, PsychInfo, Web of Science and OVID were searched with a predetermined criteria and search strategy employing booleans and filters for peer-reviewed and gray literature. Data screening and extraction were independently performed by two authors, with a third author settling disagreements after reconciliation. Study quality of selected articles was assessed with two independent authors using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Studies were analyzed qualitatively (precluding meta and statistical analysis) due to the heterogeneous study results from diverse study designs in present literature. RESULTS: Common mindfulness-based interventions used in the appraised studies included practicing basic mindfulness, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy programs (MBCT) and the Learning 2 BREATHE (L2B) program. CONCLUSION: Studies implementing mindfulness interventions demonstrated an overall improvement in well-being. Modified versions of these interventions can be implemented in a virtual context, so adults can improve their well-being through an accessible format.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Mindfulness , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e058214, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to describe available interventions for decreasing (post-traumatic stress disorder) PTSD symptoms among healthcare professionals in hospital care. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted following Arksey and O'Malley's framework. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were searched for original research published in English from 2011 to 2021, on 8 July 2021. We included studies that described interventions that focused on reducing the PTSD symptoms of healthcare professionals. A narrative synthesis was adopted to synthesise the data. RESULTS: A total of eight studies out of 2558 articles were identified. Six used a quantitative study design and two adopted qualitative methods. cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based interventions were the most commonly adopted. Most studies used a combination of different intervention strategies. Trauma-related knowledge, emotion regulation and relaxation skill training, and psychological support from peers and psychologists were three core intervention components. The duration ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Healthcare professionals who participated in training programmes reported both positive experiences and suggestions for the improvement of PTSD-reducing interventions in their qualitative feedback. CONCLUSIONS: The scoping review provides a practical summary of the intervention characteristics for reducing the PTSD symptoms of healthcare professionals. Hospitals and managers could use the overview of interventions to assist healthcare professionals with PTSD symptoms. More research investigating the effects of PTSD symptom-reducing interventions for healthcare professionals with appropriate follow-up assessments is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 41, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma-focused psychotherapies for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans are efficacious, but there are many barriers to receiving treatment. The objective of this study was to determine if cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD among active duty military personnel and veterans would result in increased acceptability, fewer dropouts, and better outcomes when delivered In-Home or by Telehealth as compared to In-Office treatment. METHODS: The trial used an equipoise-stratified randomization design in which participants (N = 120) could decline none or any 1 arm of the study and were then randomized equally to 1 of the remaining arms. Therapists delivered CPT in 12 sessions lasting 60-min each. Self-reported PTSD symptoms on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) served as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Over half of the participants (57%) declined 1 treatment arm. Telehealth was the most acceptable and least often refused delivery format (17%), followed by In-Office (29%), and In-Home (54%); these differences were significant (p = 0.0008). Significant reductions in PTSD symptoms occurred with all treatment formats (p < .0001). Improvement on the PCL-5 was about twice as large in the In-Home (d = 2.1) and Telehealth (d = 2.0) formats than In-Office (d = 1.3); those differences were statistically large and significant (d = 0.8, 0.7 and p = 0.009, 0.014, respectively). There were no significant differences between In-Home and Telehealth outcomes (p = 0.77, d = -.08). Dropout from treatment was numerically lowest when therapy was delivered In-Home (25%) compared to Telehealth (34%) and In-Office (43%), but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: CPT delivered by telehealth is an efficient and effective treatment modality for PTSD, especially considering in-person restrictions resulting from COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02290847 (Registered 13/08/2014; First Posted Date 14/11/2014).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Military Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Telemedicine , Veterans , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 5, 2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common problem of women of reproductive age, affecting various aspects of their lives. However, limited studies have investigated the effect of internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) on PMS. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether ICBT can reduce symptom severity of women with PMS and improve their quality of life during the perimenstrual and late follicular phases of menstrual cycle. METHODS: The study included 92 university students aged 18-35 years who had moderate to severe PMS. The participants were allocated into two groups of 46 using block randomization. The intervention group underwent ICBT for two menstrual cycles, while the control group received no intervention. Before and after the intervention, all participants filled the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) for two menstrual cycles and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) on days 1-2 and 11-13 of the menstrual cycle. Data were analyzed using univariate general linear models. RESULTS: Four students in the intervention group were lost to follow-up. Following the intervention, the mean score of total PMS symptoms was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10.4 vs. 20.2, adjusted difference: - 9.9 [95% CI - 13.3 to - 6.6]), and the score of perimenstrual quality of life was significantly higher (64.2 vs. 50.3, 14.1 [8.5 to 19.8]). However, there was no significant intergroup difference in the late follicular quality of life (68.3 vs. 67.3, 1.9 [- 4.4 to 8.1]). CONCLUSIONS: The ICBT could reduce the symptom severity of women suffering from PMS while improving their perimenstrual quality of life. However, it had no significant effect on the late follicular quality of life. Therefore, this intervention can be used for women with PMS. Trial registration The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, Identifier: IRCT20100414003706N34, Registered prospectively on 19 June 2019, https://www.irct.ir/trial/38394 .


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Premenstrual Syndrome , Female , Humans , Internet , Iran , Premenstrual Syndrome/therapy , Quality of Life
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 469, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is now included in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in many settings. However, different clinical trials report different outcomes without consensus. This study aims to evaluate the impact of CBT on the mental state, quality of life and disease activity of patients with IBD. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: This systematic review searched eligible studies from 1946 to December 8, 2019, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, Web of Science for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT). RESULTS: Among the initial identified 1807 references, 11 studies met inclusion criteria. CBT was shown to improve patient's quality of life and reduce the level of depression and anxiety post-intervention but was not sustained. Evidence is not enough for the effect of CBT on disease activity, or C-reactive protein level. CONCLUSIONS: CBT has shown short-term positive psychological effects on IBD patients, but there is insufficient evidence for sustained physical and psychological improvements of IBD patients. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019152330.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 258-268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially increased the risk for adolescent depression. Even pre-pandemic, <50% of youth with depression accessed care, highlighting needs for accessible interventions. Accordingly, this randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04634903 ) tested online single-session interventions (SSIs) during COVID-19 in adolescents with elevated depression symptoms (N = 2,452, ages 13-16). Adolescents from all 50 US states, recruited via social media, were randomized to one of three SSIs: a behavioural activation SSI, an SSI teaching that traits are malleable and a supportive control. We tested each SSI's effects on post-intervention outcomes (hopelessness and agency) and three-month outcomes (depression, hopelessness, agency, generalized anxiety, COVID-19-related trauma and restrictive eating). Compared with the control, both active SSIs reduced three-month depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.18), decreased post-intervention and three-month hopelessness (d = 0.16-0.28), increased post-intervention agency (d = 0.15-0.31) and reduced three-month restrictive eating (d = 0.12-17). Several differences between active SSIs emerged. These results confirm the utility of free-of-charge, online SSIs for high-symptom adolescents, even in the high-stress COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/therapy , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 867, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in debilitating long-term symptoms, often referred to as Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC), in a substantial subgroup of patients. One of the most prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 is severe fatigue. Prompt delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), an evidence-based treatment that has shown benefit in reducing severe fatigue in other conditions, may reduce post-COVID-19 fatigue. Based on an existing CBT protocol, a blended intervention of 17 weeks, Fit after COVID, was developed to treat severe fatigue after the acute phase of infection with SARS-CoV-2. METHOD: The ReCOVer study is a multicentre 2-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of Fit after COVID on severe post-infectious fatigue. Participants are eligible if they report severe fatigue 3 up to and including 12 months following COVID-19. One hundred and fourteen participants will be randomised to either Fit after COVID or care as usual (ratio 1:1). The primary outcome, the fatigue severity subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), is assessed in both groups before randomisation (T0), directly post CBT or following care as usual (T1), and at follow-up 6 months after the second assessment (T2). In addition, a long-term follow-up (T3), 12 months after the second assessment, is performed in the CBT group only. The primary objective is to investigate whether CBT will lead to a significantly lower mean fatigue severity score measured with the CIS-fatigue across the first two follow-up assessments (T1 and T2) as compared to care as usual. Secondary objectives are to determine the proportion of participants no longer being severely fatigued (operationalised in different ways) at T1 and T2 and to investigate changes in physical and social functioning, in the number and severity of somatic symptoms and in problems concentrating across T1 and T2. DISCUSSION: This is the first trial testing a cognitive behavioural intervention targeting severe fatigue after COVID-19. If Fit after COVID is effective in reducing fatigue severity following COVID-19, this intervention could contribute to alleviating the long-term health consequences of COVID-19 by relieving one of its most prevalent and distressing long-term symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL8947 . Registered on 14 October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e30690, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy is known to improve the management of chronic pain. However, the components of this therapy are still being investigated and debated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy program with new components (attention-shift, memory work, video feedback, and image training) delivered via videoconferencing. METHODS: This study was unblinded and participants were recruited and assessed face-to-face in the outpatient department. We conducted a randomized controlled trial for chronic pain to compare 16 weekly videoconference-based cognitive behavioral therapy (vCBT) sessions provided by a therapist with treatment as usual (TAU). Thirty patients (age range, 22-75 years) with chronic pain were randomly assigned to either vCBT (n=15) or TAU (n=15). Patients were evaluated at week 1 (baseline), week 8 (midintervention), and week 16 (postintervention). The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity, which was recorded using the numerical rating scale at 16 weeks from the baseline. Secondary outcomes were pain severity and pain interference, which were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Additionally, we evaluated disability, pain catastrophizing cognition, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and cost utility. RESULTS: In the eligibility assessment, 30 patients were eventually randomized and enrolled; finally, 15 patients in the vCBT and 14 patients in the TAU group were analyzed. Although no significant difference was found between the 2 groups in terms of changes in pain intensity by the numerical rating scale scores at week 16 from baseline (P=.36), there was a significant improvement in the comprehensive evaluation of pain by total score of Brief Pain Inventory (-1.43, 95% CI -2.49 to -0.37, df=24; P=.01). Further, significant improvement was seen in pain interference by using the Brief Pain Inventory (-9.42, 95% CI -14.47 to -4.36, df=25; P=.001) and in disability by using the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (-1.95, 95% CI -3.33 to -0.56, df=24; P=.008) compared with TAU. As for the Medical Economic Evaluation, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for 1 year was estimated at 2.9 million yen (about US $25,000) per quality-adjusted life year gained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study suggest that integrated cognitive behavioral therapy delivered by videoconferencing in regular medical care may reduce pain interference but not pain intensity. Further, this treatment method may be cost-effective, although this needs to be further verified using a larger sample size. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000031124; https://tinyurl.com/2pr3xszb.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adult , Aged , Chronic Pain/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing , Young Adult
18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1987687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541466

ABSTRACT

Background: Losing a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic is a potentially traumatic loss that may result in symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. To date, grief-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has mostly been delivered through individual face-to-face formats, while studies have shown that online treatment also yields promising results. Offering treatment online is now more than ever relevant during the pan demic and may offer important benefits compared with face-to-face CBT, such as lower costs and higher accessibility. Our expectation is that grief-specific online CBT is effective in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of grief-specific online CBT in reducing PCBD, PTSD, and depression symptom-levels for adults who lost a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This study consists of two parts. In part 1, a two-armed (unguided online CBT versus waitlist controls) randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In part 2, a two-armed (guided online CBT versus unguided online CBT) controlled trial will be conducted. Symptoms of PCBD, PTSD, and depression will be assessed via telephone interviews at pre-treatment/pre-waiting period, post-treatment/post-waiting period, and six months post-treatment. Potential participants are people who lost a loved one at least three months earlier during the COVID-19 pandemic with clinically relevant levels of PCBD, PTSD, and/or depression. Analysis of covariance and multilevel modelling will be performed. Discussion: This is one of the first studies examining the effectiveness of online grief-specific CBT. More research is needed before implementing online grief-specific CBT into clinical practice.


Antecedentes: Perder a un ser querido durante la pandemia de COVID-19 es una pérdida potencialmente traumática que puede resultar en síntomas de trastorno de duelo complejo persistente (PCBD en su sigla en inglés), trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) y depresión. Hasta la fecha, la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC) específica para el duelo se ha proporcionado principalmente a través de formatos individuales cara a cara, mientras que los estudios han demostrado que el tratamiento en línea también produce resultados prometedores. Ofrecer tratamiento en línea es ahora más relevante que nunca durante la pandemia y puede ofrecer importantes beneficios en comparación con la TCC presencial, como menores costos y mayor accesibilidad. Nuestra expectativa es que la TCC en línea específica para el duelo sea eficaz para reducir el PCBD, el TEPT y los síntomas de depresión.Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la efectividad a corto y largo plazo de la TCC en línea específica para el duelo en la reducción de los niveles de PCBD, TEPT y síntomas de depresión en adultos que perdieron a un ser querido durante la pandemia de COVID-19.Método: Este estudio consta de dos partes. En la parte 1, se llevará a cabo un ensayo controlado aleatorio de dos brazos (TCC en línea no guiado versus controles con la lista de espera). En la parte 2, se llevará a cabo un ensayo controlado de dos brazos (TCC en línea guiada versus TCC en línea no guiada). Los síntomas de PCBD, TEPT y depresión se evaluarán mediante entrevistas telefónicas en el período de pretratamiento/pre-espera, post-tratamiento/post-período de espera y seis meses post-tratamiento. Los participantes potenciales son personas que perdieron a un ser querido al menos tres meses antes durante la pandemia de COVID-19 con niveles clínicamente relevantes de PCBD, TEPT y/o depresión. Se realizarán análisis de covarianza y modelado multinivel.Discusión: Este es uno de los primeros estudios que examinan la efectividad de la TCC en línea específica para el duelo. Se necesita más investigación antes de implementar la TCC en línea específica para el duelo en la práctica clínica.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Telemedicine
19.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 50(2): 219-236, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 for people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be considerable. Online cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programmes provide scalable access to psychological interventions, although the effectiveness of iCBT for OCD during COVID-19 has not been evaluated. AIM: This study investigated the uptake and effectiveness of iCBT for OCD (both self- and clinician-guided courses) during the first 8 months of the pandemic in Australia (March to October 2020) and compared outcomes with the previous year. METHOD: 1,343 adults (824/1343 (61.4%) female, mean age 33.54 years, SD = 12.00) commenced iCBT for OCD (1061 during the pandemic and 282 in the year before) and completed measures of OCD (Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionaire-9) symptom severity, psychological distress (Kessler-10), and disability (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule) pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: During COVID-19, there was a 522% increase in monthly course registrations compared with the previous year, with peak uptake observed between April and June 2020 (a 1191% increase compared with April to June 2019). OCD and depression symptom severity were similar for the COVID and pre-COVID groups, although COVID-19 participants were more likely to enrol in self-guided courses (versus clinician-guided). In both pre- and during-COVID groups, the OCD iCBT course was associated with medium effect size reductions in OCD (g = 0.65-0.68) and depression symptom severity (g = 0.56-0.65), medium to large reductions in psychological distress (g = 0.77-0.83) and small reductions in disability (g = 0.35-.50). CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate the considerable uptake of online psychological services for those experiencing symptoms of OCD during COVID-19 and highlight the scalability of effective digital mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adult , Female , Humans , Internet , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Anxiety Disord ; 84: 102494, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for health anxiety has demonstrated efficacy but has not been evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study presents the first evaluation of the uptake and outcomes of iCBT for health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: THIS WAY UP is an Australian digital mental health service which delivers iCBT interventions to community members. We compared the uptake of THIS WAY UP's iCBT course for health anxiety in an Australian adult sample who started the course before the pandemic (12th September 2019-11 th March 2020) to during the pandemic (12th March to 11th June 2020). The course was accessible to Australian adults over 18 years old, with no inclusion criteria. Outcomes included course registrations and commencements, lesson and course completion, and self-reported health anxiety (Short Health Anxiety Inventory), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item) and distress (Kessler-10). RESULTS: From March to June 2020, we observed significant increases in course registrations (N = 238 vs N = 1057); and course commencements (N = 126 vs. N = 778). Large, significant improvements in health anxiety (g = 0.89), and distress (K10: g = 0.91), and medium improvements in depression (g = 0.55) were found. Course completion during COVID was 30.5%. CONCLUSIONS: iCBT improved health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic, and provides scalable intervention that can address increased demands for mental health services in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , Australia , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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