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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 375, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To answer whether older adults' cognitive function benefits from ICT use, we (1) examined the relationship between ICT use and cognitive decline during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) explored the potential role of ICT use in mitigating the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From February to March 2021, a mail survey was distributed to 1,400 older adults aged 70-89 years old. Responded participants were 1,003 (71.6% response rate). Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) was the independent variable. ICT use was assessed based on ICT use history and current ICT use activities. Loneliness was based on the Japanese version of the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was a total score of six items. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed and stratified by age groups (70-79 and ≥ 80 years). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of people aged ≥ 80 years who reported cognitive decline was twice that of 70s. Non-ICT use was independently associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline in participants aged ≥ 80 years. Furthermore, the significant associations between cognitive decline and interaction items (non-ICT use by loneliness or social isolation) were observed in the ≥ 80 age group. No association was found in the 70-79 age group. CONCLUSIONS: Non-ICT users with high loneliness or social isolation scores were more likely to experience cognitive decline for adults age ≥ 80 years. For older adults who were vulnerable to poor social relationships, ICT use is potentially an efficient intervention. Further longitudinal investigations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Technology
2.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 22(4): 311-325, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773006

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular disorders worldwide, affecting 1.13 billion people, or 14% of the global population. Hypertension is the single biggest risk factor for cerebrovascular dysfunction. According to the American Heart Association, high blood pressure (BP), especially in middle-aged individuals (~ 40 to 60 years old), is associated with an increased risk of dementia, later in life. Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease are the two leading causes of dementia, accounting for around 80% of the total cases and usually combining mixed pathologies from both. Little is known regarding how hypertension affects cognitive function, so the impact of its treatment on cognitive impairment has been difficult to assess. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for BP regulation and overactivity of this system has been established to precede the development and maintenance of hypertension. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide within this system, induces vasoconstriction and impairs neuro-vascular coupling by acting on brain Ang-II type 1 receptors (AT1R). In this review, we systemically analyzed the association between RAS and biological mechanisms of cognitive impairment, from the perspective of AT1R located in the central nervous system. Additionally, the possible contribution of brain AT1R to global cognition decline in COVID-19 cases will be discussed as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System
3.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(5): 1187-1194, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the last two years, COVID-19 affected older people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but conflicting and sparse results are still present. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of changes in functional, cognitive and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and caregiver's stress during the period of quarantine in 2020 in patients affected by dementia/MCI living in Palermo, Sicily. METHODS: Outpatients affected by MCI/dementia were evaluated before and after COVID-19 quarantine. Functional status was investigated using basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL); cognitive performance with the mini-mental state examination; BPSD through the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). All scales were reported as pre/post-COVID-19 quarantine and a logistic regression analysis was performed for investigating the factors associated with worsening in NPI in patients and their caregivers. RESULTS: One hundred patients (mean age 77.1; females = 59%) were evaluated over a median of 10 months. In the sample as whole, a significant decline in functional and cognitive status was observed (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The NPI significantly increased by 3.56 ± 8.96 points after the COVID-19 quarantine (p < 0.0001), while the caregivers' stress increased by 1.39 ± 3.46 points between the two evaluations (p < 0.0001). The decline was more evident in people with milder dementia. Higher values of instrumental ADL at baseline were associated with a significant lower worsening in NPI and caregiver's stress. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 quarantine negatively affected functional, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people affected by dementia/MCI, highlighting the impact of COVID-19 quarantine for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Quarantine/psychology
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(6): 1267-1274, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) is a frequently used telephone-based cognitive screening measure that can distinguish between normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. Although it has been used to predict current and future cognitive function in older adults, no studies have examined if the mTICS can predict daily functioning. AIMS: The current study sought to examine the relationship between the mTICS and a performance-based measure of daily functioning. METHODS: The mTICS and demographic information (age, sex, education) were collected during a telephone screening visit for 149 older adults (65-91 years in age) with amnestic MCI. Three subscales of the Independent Living Scales (ILS; Managing Money, Managing Home and Transportation, Health and Safety) were collected during a baseline visit and during a 16 month follow-up visit in a subsample of 93 individuals. RESULTS: Using simple hierarchical regression, baseline mTICS total score combined with demographic variables significantly predicted 19-22% of baseline ILS subscale scores. Similarly, in a subsample of 93 participants with 16 month follow-up data, baseline mTICS and demographic information predicted 9-31% of ILS subscale scores at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The mTICS appears able to predict daily functioning in older individuals with MCI. Remote tracking of cognition and daily functioning in this at-risk group seems particularly beneficial to geriatricians and other providers, especially during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Telephone
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 678-685, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection can cause impairments in many cognitive areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive functions of patients who had been infected with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The demographic and infection-related characteristics of patients who had been infected with COVID-19 were determined. Their cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were recorded. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), clock drawing test, forward and backward digit span tests, visual memory test, and Frontal Assessment Battery were applied to the patients. Finger agnosia and ideomotor apraxia were also determined. RESULTS: The study included 176 patients [100 female (56.8%), 76 male (43.2%), mean age 66.09±13.96 years]. About half of the patients were hospitalized for symptoms of COVID-19 infection (n=82, 46.6%). One third of these patients required intensive care (n=26, 14.8%). While 50 (45.9%) of the 109 patients diagnosed with dementia before infection were hospitalized, 32 (47.8%) of the 67 patients without a diagnosis of dementia required hospitalization (p=0.46). The most common neurological finding during COVID-19 infection was insomnia (n=36, 20.5%). The MMSE and visual memory test scores of the patients who were hospitalized for severe respiratory distress were lower than those whose treatment at home was completed (respectively 17.92±7.69/20.59±7.01, p=0.02; 2.53 ±1.73/3.69±2.80, p=0.01). The patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment had significantly higher CRP levels at admission than the others (37.52±43.09/20.93±31.74, p=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive damage in COVID-19 infection may be caused by ACE receptor density in the pial, hippocampal, and amygdala areas. In addition, the reason why people with severe dementia have a milder infection might be explained by the atrophy in these areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
6.
Psychogeriatrics ; 22(3): 402-412, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673279

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have a disproportionate impact on people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to isolation and loss of services. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in people living with dementia/MCI. Two authors searched major electronic databases from inception to June 2021 for observational studies investigating COVID-19 and NPS in people with dementia/MCI. Summary estimates of mean differences in NPS scores pre- versus post-COVID-19 were calculated using a random-effects model, weighting cases using inverse variance. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. From 2730 citations, 21 studies including 7139 patients (60.0% female, mean age 75.6 ± 7.9 years, 4.0% MCI) with dementia were evaluated in the review. Five studies found no changes in NPS, but in all other studies, an increase in at least one NPS or the pre-pandemic Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score was found. The most common aggravated NPS were depression, anxiety, agitation, irritability, and apathy during lockdown, but 66.7% of the studies had a high bias. Seven studies including 420 patients (22.1% MCI) yielded enough data to be included in the meta-analysis. The mean follow-up time was 5.9 ± 1.5 weeks. The pooled increase in NPI score before compared to during COVID-19 was 3.85 (95% CI:0.43 to 7.27; P = 0.03; I2  = 82.4%). All studies had high risk of bias. These results were characterized by high heterogeneity, but there was no presence of publication bias. There is an increase in the worsening of NPS in people living with dementia/MCI during lockdown in the COVID pandemic. Future comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether a similar deterioration might occur in people without dementia/MCI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics
7.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(12): 1309-1320, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous work using a US sample has shown that an index of social deprivation (SoDep Index) is associated with cognitive functioning and decline in older adults. This study aimed to replicate these findings using a European sample (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, SHARE). DESIGN: We analyzed data of 51,630 respondents aged 50 years and older (M: 63.5 years, standard deviation [SD]: 9.1) with at least two cognitive assessments (follow-up M: 6.06 years, SD: 3.86). Cognitive scores were transformed to Z-scores. Multiple growth curve modeling was used to model cognitive status and decline as predicted by the SoDep Index. In a sensitivity analysis, we constructed a new SoDep Index (SoDep Indexnew) including further social deprivation domains. RESULTS: Adjusting for covariates, a unit increase in SoDep Index was associated with a cognitive score of 0.037 SDs smaller (p < .001) and a decline 0.003 SDs per year faster (p < .001). Of the covariates, depressive symptoms, chronic disease burden, male gender, and widowhood were also associated with poorer cognition. Being divorced was associated with better cognition. Sensitivity analysis confirmed findings. Compared to the SoDep Index, the SoDep Indexnew showed a more pronounced association with both cognition and cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to replicate results showing an association between SoDep Index and cognitive function and decline. The sensitivity analysis further emphasizes the relevance of financial security. This strengthens the implication that preventing social deprivation can contribute to reducing the dementia burden by raising cognitive functioning in the older population. The findings are relevant to policy-makers and health care practitioners.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retirement
8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(1): 257-260, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits have been increasingly reported as possible long-term manifestations after SARS-CoV-2 infection. AIMS: In this study we aimed at evaluating the factors associated with cognitive deficits 6 months after hospitalization for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: One hundred and six patients, discharged from a pneumology COVID-19 unit between March 1 and May 30 2020, accepted to be evaluated at 6 months according to an extensive neurological protocol, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). RESULTS: Abnormal MoCA scores at 6 months follow-up were associated with higher pre-hospitalization National Health System (NHS) score (Duca et al. in Emerg Med Pract 22:1-2, 2020) (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.6; p = 0.029) and more severe pulmonary disease expressed by the Brescia-COVID Respiratory Severity Scale (Duca et al. in Emerg Med Pract 22:1-2, 2020) (BCRSS > 1OR 4.73; 95% CI 1.53-14.63; p = 0.003) during the acute phase of the disease. DISCUSSION: This longitudinal study showed that the severity of COVID-19, indicated by BCRSS, and a complex score given by age and premorbid medical conditions, expressed by NHS, play a major role in modulating the long-term cognitive consequences of COVID-19 disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the association of age and premorbid factors might identify people at risk for long-term neurological consequences of COVID-19 disease, thus deserving longer and proper follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Neurol Sci ; 438: 120146, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive symptoms have been reported following COVID-19 hospitalization. We investigated the relationship between demographics, social determinants of health (SDOH) and cognitive outcomes 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed 6-month follow-up data collected from a multi-center, prospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographic and SDOH variables (age, race/ethnicity, education, employment, health insurance status, median income, primary language, living arrangements, and pre-COVID disability) were compared between patients with normal versus abnormal telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessments (t-MOCA; scores<18/22). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate predictors of t-MoCA. RESULTS: Of 382 patients available for 6-month follow-up, 215 (56%) completed the t-MoCA (n = 109/215 [51%] had normal and n = 106/215 [49%] abnormal results). 14/215 (7%) patients had a prior history of dementia/cognitive impairment. Significant univariate predictors of abnormal t-MoCA included older age, ≤12 years of education, unemployment pre-COVID, Black race, and a pre-COVID history of cognitive impairment (all p < 0.05). In multivariable analyses, education ≤12 years (adjusted OR 5.21, 95%CI 2.25-12.09), Black race (aOR 5.54, 95%CI 2.25-13.66), and the interaction of baseline functional status and unemployment prior to hospitalization (aOR 3.98, 95%CI 1.23-12.92) were significantly associated with abnormal t-MoCA scores after adjusting for age, history of dementia, language, neurological complications, income and discharge disposition. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer years of education, Black race and unemployment with baseline disability were associated with abnormal t-MoCA scores 6-months post-hospitalization for COVID-19. These associations may be due to undiagnosed baseline cognitive dysfunction, implicit biases of the t-MoCA, other unmeasured SDOH or biological effects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Dementia/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1338: 209-216, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597781

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, modern lifestyle along with the ever-growing technological and scientific advancement, especially in developed countries, has led to a significant increase of the middle age and elderly population. As a consequence, a substantial rise in neurodegenerative diseases has been reported, such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other types of dementia. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of mathematical problem-solving on cognitive enhancement of adults. Moreover, the possible applicability of mathematical problem-solving as part of a treatment in cases of adults suffering from different levels of cognitive decline due to neurodegenerative diseases has been taken into consideration. For the needs of this study, a qualitative research was conducted in a sample of 16 participants, in order to confirm the effect of the mathematical problem-solving process on their cognition and its reinforcement, as stated by the participants. The results of this research, as interpreted, indicate a positive effect of mathematical problem-solving on adult cognition and on cognitive processes in general. Nonetheless, there are certain limitations to this research, deriving from its nature, while others derive from the measures enforced during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Therefore, this chapter suggests that a more thorough quantitative research should be conducted in order to specifically measure the magnitude, as well as the time span of the impact of mathematical problem-solving on adult cognitive enhancement. Moreover, it is proposed that future studies should concentrate on the usefulness of mathematical problem-solving as a component in both invasive and noninvasive cognitive treatments used to cure or alleviate the aforementioned cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Mathematics , Middle Aged , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(6): 535-540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574687

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Geriatric assessment as an integrative part of assessment is a composite of a large number of scales. Sometimes it is difficult to transfer all of them. The Norton Scale Score (NSS) assesses the degree of risk to develop bedsores. In previous studies, a correlation between Norton Scale and function was found. A correlation between Norton Scale and cognitive assessments was not evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between Norton Scale Score and cognitive impairment. This association can further facilitate geriatric assessment in frail older patients, especially in older patients with communicative difficulties. METHODS: We have performed an observational cohort study which included hip fractured older patients consecutively admitted to the rehabilitation ward of the Shmuel Harofe Geriatric Medical Center. The collected data included demographic data and data on chronic illnesses. Results of cognitive status assessment (Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE) and Norton Scale assessment were received from the computerized patients' charts. We evaluated the association between these 2 scales. RESULTS: The study included 224 consecutive hip fracture patients with a mean age of 81.78 ± 7.19 years. Norton scores at admission, age, education, and previous stroke emerged as the only statistically significant parameters differing between those with cognitive decline and those without it. After adjusting for confounding variables, lower Norton scores at admission (OR 1.303, CI: 1.097-1.548, p = 0.003) were associated with an increased risk finding for cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between Norton Scale Scores and cognitive impairment. Norton score parameters, under certain circumstances, such as speech and other communication difficulties, can be used as a proxy measure for MMSE to indicate cognitive impairment. These findings can be even more helpful in the present time of "COVID-19," when we have to evaluate older patients with facial masks and other defensive suits.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Hip Fractures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/psychology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
12.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(11): 1135-1144, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Appropriate screening is integral to the early diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) task is a digital cognitive task that is free of cultural, language, and educational biases. This study examined the association between the PAL task performance and global cognition and the usefulness of the PAL task as a screening tool for AD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Academic hospital. METHODS: Twenty-five participants with AD and 22 healthy comparators (HC) were included. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery PAL task and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess cognition. We assessed the relationship between the PAL task and MoCA performance using Pearson correlation and linear regression. We also examined the PAL task's ability to distinguish between AD and HC participants using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. MEASUREMENTS: MoCA Total Score had a strong positive correlation with PAL Stages Completed score (r = 0.8, p < 0.001), and a strong negative correlation with PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score (r = -0.9, p < 0.001). Further, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score predicted the MoCA Total Score (F (4, 46) = 37.2, p < 0.001). On ROC analysis, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score cut-off of 54 errors had 92% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect AD. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on the PAL task is highly associated with global cognition. Further, the PAL task can differentiate patients with AD from HCs with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the PAL task may hold potential usage as an easy-to-administer screening tool for AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , ROC Curve
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542662

ABSTRACT

Community-dwelling older adults have raised the scientific community's interest during the COVID-19 era as their chronic conditions might be aggravated by the consequences of confinement. Digital devices in this field to monitor cognitive impairment are an emerging reality of an innovative nature. However, some groups may not have benefited from these developments as much as, for example, younger people. The aim of this manuscript is to carry out a review on the development of digital devices, and specifically virtual assistants, for the detection of cognitive impairment in older adults. After a screening process, eight studies were found under the given criteria, and this number was even smaller for those using virtual assistants. Given the opportunities offered by virtual assistants through techniques such as natural language processing, it seems imperative to take advantage of this opportunity for groups such as older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Independent Living , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(3): 240-247, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological and psychiatric manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported throughout the scientific literature. However, studies on post-COVID cognitive impairment in people with no previous cognitive complaint are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions in adults without cognitive complaints before infection and to study cognitive dysfunction according to disease severity and cognitive risk factors. METHODS: Forty-five post-COVID-19 patients and forty-five controls underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation, which assessed cognitive domains such as memory, language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial skills, including psychiatric symptomatology scales. Data were collected on the severity of infection, premorbid medical conditions, and functionality for activities of daily living before and after COVID-19. RESULTS: Significant differences between groups were found in cognitive composites of memory (p=0.016, Cohen's d= 0.73), attention (p<0.001, Cohen's d=1.2), executive functions (p<0.001, Cohen's d=1.4), and language (p=0.002, Cohen's d=0.87). The change from premorbid to post-infection functioning was significantly different between severity groups (WHODAS, p=0.037). Self-reported anxiety was associated with the presence of cognitive dysfunction in COVID-19 subjects (p=0.043). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the presence of cognitive symptoms in post-COVID-19 patients may persist for months after disease remission and argue for the inclusion of cognitive assessment as a protocolized stage of the post-COVID examination. Screening measures may not be sufficient to detect cognitive dysfunction in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 341-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluating older adults with cognitive dysfunction in emergency departments (EDs) requires obtaining collateral information from sources other than the patient. Understanding the challenges emergency clinicians face in obtaining collateral information can inform development of interventions to improve geriatric emergency care and, more specifically, detection of ED delirium. The objective was to understand emergency clinicians' experiences obtaining collateral information on older adults with cognitive dysfunction, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From February to May 2021, we conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 22 emergency physicians and advanced practice providers from two urban academic hospitals and one community hospital in the Northeast United States. Interviews lasted 10-20 min and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Interview transcripts were analyzed for dominant themes using a combined deductive-inductive approach. Responses regarding experiences before and during the pandemic were compared. RESULTS: Five major challenges emerged regarding (1) availability of caregivers, (2) reliability of sources, (3) language barriers, (4) time constraints, and (5) incomplete transfer documentation. Participants perceived all challenges, but those relating to transfer documentation were amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Emergency clinicians' perspectives can inform efforts to support caregiver presence at bedside and develop standardized communication tools to improve recognition of delirium and, more broadly, geriatric emergency care.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Communication Barriers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Medical Records , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , New England , Qualitative Research
17.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 81-84, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathic features, COVID-19 patients may show cognitive sequelae that negatively affect functional outcomes. However, although cognitive screening has been recommended in recovered individuals, little is known about which instruments are suitable to this scope by also accounting for clinical status. This study thus aimed at comparatively assessing the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive deficits in post-COVID-19 patients premorbidly/contextually being or not at risk for cognitive deficits (RCD + ; RCD-). METHODS: Data from N = 100 COVID-19-recovered individuals having been administered both the MMSE and the MoCA were retrospectively analyzed separately for each group. RCD ± classification was performed by taking into consideration both previous and disease-related conditions. Equivalent scores (ESs) were adopted to examine classification performances of the two screeners. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable as for most background and cognitive measures. MMSE or MoCA adjusted scores were mostly unrelated to disease-related features. The two screeners yielded similar estimates of below-cut-off performances-RCD + : MMSE: 20%, MoCA: 23.6%; RCD-: MMSE: 2.2%, MoCA: 4.4%. However, agreement rates dropped when also addressing borderline, "low-end" normal, and normal ability categories-with the MoCA attributing lower levels than the MMSE (RCD + : Cohen's k = .47; RCD-: Cohen's k = .17). DISCUSSION: Although both the MMSE and the MoCA proved to be equally able to detect severe cognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in both RCD + and RCD- patients, the MoCA appeared to be able to reveal sub-clinical defects and more sharply discriminate between different levels of ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 51-58, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465874

ABSTRACT

Psychological, emotional, and behavioral domains could be altered in COVID-19 patients and measurement of variables within these domains seems to be mandatory. Neuropsychological assessment could detect possible cognitive impairment caused by COVID-19 and the choice of appropriate tools is an important question. Aim of this exploratory study was to verify the effectiveness of an assessment model for patients with COVID-19. Twelve patients were enrolled and tested with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Anxiety and Depression Short Scale (AD-R), and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI), at the time of their entrance (T0) and discharge (T1) from a rehabilitative unit. Moreover, a follow-up evaluation after 3 months (T2) has been conducted on eight patients. Results showed that at baseline (T0), 58.3% of the patients reported a score below cut-off at MMSE and 50% at MoCA. Although a significant amelioration was found only in NPI scores, a qualitative improvement has been detected at all tests, except for MoCA scores, in the T0-T1 trend analysis. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant variation in AD-R depression score, considering the three-assessment time (T0, T1, and T2). The evaluation and tracking over time of the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive, psychological, and behavioral domains has relevant implications for rehabilitation and long-term assistance needs planning. The choice of assessment tools should consider patients vulnerability and match the best compromise among briefness, sensitivity, and specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(10): 1342-1358, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cognitive instrumental activities of daily living are particularly related to executive functions, such as scheduling appointments, monthly payments, managing the household economy, shopping or taking the bus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the available tests for the assessment of executive functions with ecological validity to predict individuals' functioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PsyCInfo and IEEE Xplore until May 2019, in addition to a manual search. The PRISMA criteria and the Covidence platform were used to select articles and extract data. RESULTS: After applying the search selection criteria, 76 studies were identified. They referred to 110 tools to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Those that have received most attention are related to menu preparation and shopping. Performance-based measures are the most widely used traditional methods. Most tests were aimed at the adult population with acquired brain damage, cognitive impairment or dementia. There was a predominance of tests based on the Multiple Errands Test paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, it has increased the number of tools that assess the instrumental activities of daily living based on technologies such as personal or environmental sensors and serious games.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAssessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living through performance-based measures is especially useful for the early detection of dysfunctions or preclinical disability.Difficulties in performing instrumental activities of daily living are closely associated with deficits in executive functions and prospective memory.Activities of Daily Living can be understood as multitasks.The use of virtual reality-based tests was shown to be sensitive to the detection of cognitive deficits in Activities of Daily Living.An advantage of using virtual reality in assessments is that it can help to predict the level of personal autonomy in patients who are in an institutional environment and could be a first approximation to the real environment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Executive Function , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013786, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many millions of people living with dementia around the world are not diagnosed, which has a negative impact both on their access to care and treatment and on rational service planning. Telehealth - the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to provide health services at a distance - may be a way to increase access to specialist assessment for people with suspected dementia, especially those living in remote or rural areas. It has also been much used during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to know whether diagnoses made using telehealth assessment are as accurate as those made in conventional, face-to-face clinical settings. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to assess the diagnostic accuracy of telehealth assessment for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Secondary objectives: to identify the quality and quantity of the relevant research evidence; to identify sources of heterogeneity in the test accuracy data; to identify and synthesise any data on patient or clinician satisfaction, resource use, costs or feasibility of the telehealth assessment models in the included studies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched multiple databases and clinical trial registers on 4 November 2020 for published and 'grey' literature and registered trials. We applied no search filters and no language restrictions. We screened the retrieved citations in duplicate and assessed in duplicate the full texts of papers considered potentially relevant. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included in the review cross-sectional studies with 10 or more participants who had been referred to a specialist service for assessment of a suspected cognitive disorder. Within a period of one month or less, each participant had to undergo two clinical assessments designed to diagnose dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a telehealth assessment (the index test) and a conventional face-to-face assessment (the reference standard). The telehealth assessment could be informed by some data collected face-to-face, e.g. by nurses working in primary care, but all contact between the patient and the specialist clinician responsible for synthesising the information and making the diagnosis had to take place remotely using ICT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from included studies. Data extracted covered study design, setting, participants, details of index test and reference standard, and results in the form of numbers of participants given diagnoses of dementia or MCI. Data were also sought on dementia subtype diagnoses and on quantitative measures of patient or clinician satisfaction, resource use, costs and feasibility. We assessed risk of bias and applicability of each included study using QUADAS-2. We entered the results into 2x2 tables in order to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of telehealth assessment for the diagnosis of all-cause dementia, MCI, and any cognitive syndrome (combining dementia and MCI). We presented the results of included studies narratively because there were too few studies to derive summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies with 136 participants were eligible for inclusion. Two studies (20 and 100 participants) took place in community settings in Australia and one study (16 participants) was conducted in veterans' homes in the USA. Participants were referred from primary care with undiagnosed cognitive symptoms or were identified as being at high risk of having dementia on a screening test in the care homes. Dementia and MCI were target conditions in the larger study; the other studies targeted dementia diagnosis only. Only one small study used a 'pure' telehealth model, i.e. not involving any elements of face-to-face assessment. The studies were generally well-conducted. We considered two studies to be at high risk of incorporation bias because a substantial amount of information collected face-to-face by nurses was used to inform both index test and reference standard assessments. One study was at unclear risk of selection bias. For the diagnosis of all-cause dementia, sensitivity of telehealth assessment ranged from 0.80 to 1.00 and specificity from 0.80 to 1.00. We considered this to be very low-certainty evidence due to imprecision, inconsistency between studies and risk of bias. For the diagnosis of MCI, data were available from only one study (100 participants) giving a sensitivity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.84) and a specificity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.84). We considered this to be low-certainty evidence due to imprecision and risk of bias. For diagnosis of any cognitive syndrome (dementia or MCI), data from the same study gave a sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.99) and a specificity of 0.22 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.60). The majority of diagnostic disagreements concerned the distinction between MCI and dementia, occurring approximately equally in either direction. There was also a tendency for patients identified as cognitively healthy at face-to-face assessment to be diagnosed with MCI at telehealth assessment (but numbers were small). There were insufficient data to make any assessment of the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis. One study provided a small amount of data indicating a good level of clinician and especially patient satisfaction with the telehealth model. There were no data on resource use, costs or feasibility. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only very few eligible studies with a small number of participants. An important difference between the studies providing data for the analyses was whether the target condition was dementia only (two studies) or dementia and MCI (one study). The data suggest that telehealth assessment may be highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of all-cause dementia when assessed against a reference standard of conventional face-to-face assessment, but the estimates are imprecise due to small sample sizes and between-study heterogeneity, and may apply mainly to telehealth models which incorporate a considerable amount of face-to-face contact with healthcare professionals other than the doctor responsible for making the diagnosis. For the diagnosis of MCI by telehealth assessment, best estimates of both sensitivity and specificity were somewhat lower, but were based on a single study. Errors occurred at the cognitively healthy/MCI and the MCI/dementia boundaries. However, there is no evidence that diagnostic disagreements were more frequent than would be expected due to the known variation between clinicians' opinions when assigning a dementia diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Telemedicine/standards , Bias , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity
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