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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3245-3253, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are noticed among critically ill patients soon after disease onset. Information on delayed neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection is nil. Following a longitudinal study design, the occurrence of cognitive decline among individuals with a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed. METHODS: Stroke- and seizure-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who had pre-pandemic cognitive assessments as well as normal brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram recordings, underwent repeated evaluations 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infection in Atahualpa. Patients requiring oxygen therapy, hospitalization, and those who had initial neurological manifestations were excluded. Cognitive decline was defined as a reduction in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score between the post-pandemic and pre-pandemic assessments that was ≥4 points greater than the reduction observed between two pre-pandemic MoCAs. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cognitive decline was assessed by fitting logistic mixed models for longitudinal data as well as exposure-effect models. RESULTS: Of 93 included individuals (mean age 62.6 ± 11 years), 52 (56%) had a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-pandemic MoCA decay was worse in seropositive individuals. Cognitive decline was recognized in 11/52 (21%) seropositive and 1/41 (2%) seronegative individuals. In multivariate analyses, the odds for developing cognitive decline were 18.1 times higher among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals (95% confidence interval 1.75-188; p = 0.015). Exposure-effect models confirmed this association (ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.41; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of cognitive decline among individuals with mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1427-1438, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine the characteristics of postintensive care syndrome in the cognitive, physical, and psychiatric domains in coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors. DESIGN: Single-center descriptive cohort study from April 21, to July 7, 2020. SETTING: Critical care recovery clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. PATIENTS: Adults who had critical illness due to coronavirus disease 2019 requiring an ICU stay of 7 days or more and who agreed to a telehealth follow-up in the critical care recovery clinic 1-month post hospital discharge. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical and psychiatric domains were collected electronically, a cognitive test was performed by a clinician, and clinical data were obtained through electronic medical records. Outcome measures assessed postintensive care syndrome symptoms in the physical (Modified Rankin Scale, Dalhousie Clinical Frailty Scale, Neuro-Quality of Life Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Function, Neuro-Quality of Life Fatigue), psychiatric (Insomnia Severity Scale; Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), and cognitive (Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment) domains. The 3-Level Version of Euro-QoL-5D was used to assess the physical and psychiatric domains. A diagnosis of postintensive care syndrome was made in cases with evidence of impairment in at least one postintensive care syndrome domain. We included 45 patients with a mean (sd) age of 54 (13) years, and 73% were male. Ninety-one percent of coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors fit diagnostic criteria for postintensive care syndrome. 86.7 % had impairments in the physical domain, 22 (48%) reported impairments in the psychiatric domain, and four (8%) had impairments on cognitive screening. We found that 58% had some degree of mobility impairment. In the psychiatric domain, 38% exhibited at least mild depression, and 18 % moderate to severe depression. Eighteen percent presented Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, scores suggestive of posttraumatic stress syndrome diagnosis. In the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 9% had impaired cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness related to coronavirus disease 2019 are at high risk of developing postintensive care syndrome. These findings highlight the importance of planning for appropriate post-ICU care to diagnose and treat this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors/psychology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17416, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380910

ABSTRACT

Burden of COVID-19 on Hospitals across the globe is enormous and has clinical and economic implications. In this retrospective study including consecutive adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted between 3/2020 and 30/9/20, we aimed to identify post-discharge outcomes and risk factors for re-admission among COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Mortality and re-admissions were documented for a median post discharge follow up of 59 days (interquartile range 28,161). Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for re-admission were performed. Overall, 618 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included. Of the 544 patient who were discharged, 10 patients (1.83%) died following discharge and 50 patients (9.2%) were re-admitted. Median time to re-admission was 7 days (interquartile range 3, 24). Oxygen saturation or treatment prior to discharge were not associated with re-admissions. Risk factors for re-admission in multivariate analysis included solid organ transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.73-7.5, p = 0.0028) and higher Charlson comorbidity index (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.46, p < 0.0001). Mean age of post discharge mortality cases was 85.0 (SD 9.98), 80% of them had cognitive decline or needed help in ADL at baseline. In conclusion, re-admission rates of hospitalized COVID-19 are fairly moderate. Predictors of re-admission are non-modifiable, including baseline comorbidities, rather than COVID-19 severity or treatment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living/psychology , COVID-19/mortality , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1759-1769, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366398

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 on the physical and mental health of Italian older individuals displaying signs of cognitive deterioration has not been deeply investigated. This longitudinal study examined the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on the psychological well-being and motor efficiency of a sample of Italian community-dwellers with and without cognitive decline. Forty-seven participants underwent instrumental gait analysis performed in ecological setting using wearable sensors, and completed a battery of tasks assessing cognitive functioning and psychological well-being, before and after the full lockdown due to the COVID-19 spreading. A series of Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVAs) documented that the superior gait performance of the cognitively healthy participants exhibited before the COVID-19 spread, vanished when they were tested at the end of the lockdown period. Moreover, before the outbreak of the COVID-19, cognitively healthy participants and those with signs of cognitive decline reported similar levels of psychological well-being, whereas, after the lockdown, the former group reported better coping, emotional competencies, and general well-being than the participants displaying signs of cognitive decline. In conclusion, the full COVID-19 outbreak had a significant impact on the mental and motor functioning of older individuals with and without signs of cognitive deterioration living in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Communicable Disease Control , Physical Functional Performance , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a stage preceding dementia, and early intervention is critical. This study investigated whether multi-domain cognitive training programs, especially robot-assisted training, conducted 12 times, twice a week for 6 weeks can improve cognitive function and depression decline in community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 135 volunteers without cognitive impairment aged 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 90 participants who would receive cognitive training and 45 who would not receive any training (NI). The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 45 who received traditional cognitive training (TCT) and 45 who received robot-assisted cognitive training (RACT). The training for both groups consisted of a daily 60 min session, twice a week for six weeks. RESULTS: RACT participants had significantly greater post-intervention improvement in cognitive function (t = 4.707, p < 0.001), memory (t = -2.282, p = 0.007), executive function (t = 4.610, p < 0.001), and depression (t = -3.307, p = 0.004). TCT participants had greater post-intervention improvement in memory (t = -6.671, p < 0.001) and executive function (t = 5.393, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A 6-week robot-assisted, multi-domain cognitive training program can improve the efficiency of global cognitive function and depression during cognitive tasks in older adults with MCI, which is associated with improvements in memory and executive function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Robotics , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Humans , Independent Living , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Midwifery ; 102: 103072, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) required strict confinement measures that differentially impacted the individual's daily life. Thus, this work aimed to study postpartum women's mental health in Argentina during mandatory social isolation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2020, which included five validated questionnaires to assess postpartum depression (Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-Short Form), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), memory complaints (Memory Complaint Scale), metacognition (Brief Metamemory and Metaconcentration Scale), and breastfeeding self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form). Sociodemographic variables, social isolation characteristics, and breastfeeding practices were also collected. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Statistical analysis included zero-order correlations, multiple logistic regressions, and a set of structural equation models (SEM) to test direct and indirect effects. Goodness-of-fit indices were calculated for SEM. SETTING: Postpartum women were recruited from public hospitals, private health clinics, and online community recruitment in the Cordoba province (Argentina). PARTICIPANTS: 305 postpartum women from Argentina. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: 37% of women reported postpartum depression, 46% insomnia, 42% memory impairment, 60% low metaconcentration, 50% low metamemory, and 23% low breastfeeding efficacy. Also, significant associations were found demonstrating that social isolation promoted postpartum depression and insomnia were reciprocally related, which compromised female cognition and efficacy. This situation was aggravated in women during late postpartum, with previous children, and by low social support (e.g., family, health professionals), with non-exclusive breastfeeding being increased. KEY CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study addressing postpartum women's mental status during social isolation in Argentina, which was a promoting factor for postpartum depression and insomnia that were reciprocally related. This situation was also aggravated by reproductive factors, such as late postpartum, multiparity, breastfeeding frequency, and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, breastfeeding self-efficacy depended on mental health status, and euthymia therefore favoured the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282481

ABSTRACT

The relationship between the incidence of disability and cognitive function has been clarified, but whether life satisfaction is related to this relationship is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify whether life satisfaction is related to the relationship between the incidence of disability and mild cognitive impairment. We included 2563 older adults from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Baseline measurements included cognitive, life satisfaction, and demographic characteristics. Life satisfaction was measured using the Life Satisfaction Scale, which was stratified into three levels based on the score: lower, moderate, and higher. Associations between disability incidence and mild cognitive impairment were examined for each group according to life satisfaction, and monthly assessment for disability was monitored through long-term care insurance certification for at least 2 years from the baseline. At a 35.5-month mean follow-up, 150 participants had developed a disability. The potential confounding factors adjusted hazard for incidence of disability in the group with lower life satisfaction was 1.88 (CI: 1.05-3.35; p = 0.034) for mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with disability incidence, and the effect was more pronounced among older adults with lower life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Disabled Persons , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Personal Satisfaction , Prospective Studies
13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(7): 1352-1356.e2, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between the transition to social isolation and cognitive decline in older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included participants from a community in a semiurban area of Japan. We conducted a mailed questionnaire survey of 2000 noninstitutionalized older adults who were randomly sampled. Of those who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys in March and October 2020, respectively, participants aged ≥70 years without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the analysis. METHODS: Participants were classified into 4 groups based on their baseline and follow-up social isolation status, which were as follows: "remained nonisolated," "isolated from nonisolation," "nonisolated from isolation," and "consistent isolation." Self-reported cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Performance Scale, and level 2 (mild impairment) or higher (moderate to severe impairment) was defined as cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Ultimately, 955 older adults were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 79.6 years (standard deviation = 4.7) and 54.7% were women. During the follow-up period, 54 (5.7%) participants developed cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the group that remained nonisolated, the isolated from nonisolation and consistent isolation groups were significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment [isolated from nonisolation: odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-6.61, P = .026; consistent isolation: OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.07-5.05, P = .033]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decline in cognitive function among older adults. Attention to the social isolation process during the pandemic may be necessary to protect older adults' cognitive health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Isolation
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(10): 671-676, 2021 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Post-COVID cognitive deficits usually manifest as a frontal dysexecutive syndrome combined with fatigue and dysphoria and/or with attentional and memory deficits. Several pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID encephalopathy are understood, but no specific treatment strategies have been established so far. We assume that general practitioners, psychiatrists, neurologists and social workers will need to take care of the activation, reintegration and expert appraisals of patients with post-COVID fatigue and cognitive deficits during the years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 39-48, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157293

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than 100 million people and clinics are being established for diagnosing and treating lingering symptoms, so called long-COVID. A key concern are neurological and long-term cognitive complications. At the same time, the prevalence and nature of the cognitive sequalae of COVID-19 are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency, pattern and severity of cognitive impairments 3-4 months after COVID-19 hospital discharge, their relation to subjective cognitive complaints, quality of life and illness variables. We recruited patients at their follow-up visit at the respiratory outpatient clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg, approximately four months after hospitalisation with COVID-19. Patients underwent pulmonary, functional and cognitive assessments. Twenty-nine patients were included. The percentage of patients with clinically significant cognitive impairment ranged from 59% to 65% depending on the applied cut-off for clinical relevance of cognitive impairment, with verbal learning and executive functions being most affected. Objective cognitive impairment scaled with subjective cognitive complaints, lower work function and poorer quality of life. Cognitive impairments were associated with d-dimer levels during acute illness and residual pulmonary dysfunction. In conclusion, these findings provide new evidence for frequent cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 and indicate an association with the severity of the lung affection and potentially restricted cerebral oxygen delivery. Further, the associations with quality of life and functioning call for systematic cognitive screening of patients after recovery from severe COVID-19 illness and implementation of targeted treatments for patients with persistent cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Patient Discharge/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(13): 2235-2240, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085430

ABSTRACT

Early reports and case series suggest cognitive deficits occurs in some patients with COVID-19. We evaluated the frequency, severity, and profile of cognitive dysfunction in patients recovering from prolonged COVID-19 hospitalization who required acute inpatient rehabilitation prior to discharge. We analyzed cross-sectional scores from the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) in a cohort of N = 57 COVID-19 patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation, calculating the frequency of impairment based on neuropsychologist diagnosis and by age-normed BMET subtests. In total, 43 patients (75%) were male, 35 (61%) were non-white, and mean age was 64.5 (SD = 13.9) years. In total, 48 (84%) were previously living at home independently. Two patients had documented preexisting cognitive dysfunction; none had known dementia. Patients were evaluated at a mean of 43.2 (SD = 19.2) days after initial admission. In total, 50 patients (88%) had documented hypoxemic respiratory failure and 44 (77%) required intubation.  Forty-six patients (81%) had cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to severe. Deficits were common in working memory (26/47 [55%] of patients), set-shifting (21/44 [47%]), divided attention (18/39 [46%]), and processing speed (14/35 [40%]). Executive dysfunction was not significantly associated with intubation length or the time from extubation to assessment, psychiatric diagnosis, or preexisting cardiovascular/metabolic disease. Attention and executive functions are frequently impaired in COVID-19 patients who require acute rehabilitation prior to discharge. Though interpretation is limited by lack of a comparator group, these results provide an early benchmark for identifying and characterizing cognitive difficulties after COVID-19. Given the frequency and pattern of impairment, easy-to-disseminate interventions that target attention and executive dysfunctions may be beneficial to this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Gerontology ; 67(3): 281-289, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The older population has been especially affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the incidence, severity, mortality rate, clinical features, and risk factors of symptoms of COVID-19 in home-dwelling older people, and its association with type of residence, cognitive deterioration, and neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Data about symptoms of COVID-19 were collected through a telephone survey in the cohort of 913 older volunteers of the Vallecas Project, aged 75-90 years, most of them (902) home-dwelling, in Madrid, Spain. The association of demographic and anthropometric measures, genetic polymorphisms, comorbidities, life habits, type of residence, and frailty surrogates were explored as potential risk factors for the incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 in the older population. FINDINGS: Sixty-two cases reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19; 6 of them had died, 4 in their home and 2 in the nursing home. Moderate/severe cases were significantly older and more frequently males. The APOE ε4 allele was associated with the presence of symptoms of COVID-19. Higher systolic blood pressure, more intense smoking habit, more alcohol intake, lower consumption of coffee and tea, and cognitive impairment were associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 in this older cohort of Madrid was 6.8%, with an overall mortality rate of 0.7% (18.2% in those living in a nursing home) and a fatality rate of 9.9%. Our exploratory study indicates that life habits, other clinical conditions and, the ε4 variant of the APOE gene are associated with the presence and clinical severity of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Independent Living , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Gerontologist ; 61(2): 251-261, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults with cognitive impairment living alone (an estimated 4.3 million individuals in the United States) were at high risk for negative health outcomes. There is an urgent need to learn how this population is managing during the pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a qualitative study of 24 adults aged 55 and older living alone with cognitive impairment from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Participants' lived experiences during the pandemic were elicited via 59 ethnographic interviews conducted over the phone either in English, Spanish, or Cantonese. Using a qualitative content analysis approach, interview transcripts were analyzed to identify codes and themes. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of transcripts revealed 5 themes: (a) fear generated by the pandemic, (b) distress stemming from feeling extremely isolated, (c) belief in misinformation, (d) strategies for coping during the pandemic, and (e) the importance of access to essential services. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This pandemic put a spotlight on the precarity and unmet needs of older adults living alone with cognitive impairment. Findings underscore the need to expand access to home care aides and mental health services for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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