Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 38
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3245-3253, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are noticed among critically ill patients soon after disease onset. Information on delayed neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection is nil. Following a longitudinal study design, the occurrence of cognitive decline among individuals with a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed. METHODS: Stroke- and seizure-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who had pre-pandemic cognitive assessments as well as normal brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram recordings, underwent repeated evaluations 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infection in Atahualpa. Patients requiring oxygen therapy, hospitalization, and those who had initial neurological manifestations were excluded. Cognitive decline was defined as a reduction in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score between the post-pandemic and pre-pandemic assessments that was ≥4 points greater than the reduction observed between two pre-pandemic MoCAs. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cognitive decline was assessed by fitting logistic mixed models for longitudinal data as well as exposure-effect models. RESULTS: Of 93 included individuals (mean age 62.6 ± 11 years), 52 (56%) had a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-pandemic MoCA decay was worse in seropositive individuals. Cognitive decline was recognized in 11/52 (21%) seropositive and 1/41 (2%) seronegative individuals. In multivariate analyses, the odds for developing cognitive decline were 18.1 times higher among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals (95% confidence interval 1.75-188; p = 0.015). Exposure-effect models confirmed this association (ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.41; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of cognitive decline among individuals with mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512491

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasive and neurotropic abilities may underlie delirium onset and neuropsychiatric outcomes. Only a limited number of studies have addressed the potential effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mental health so far. Most studies mainly reported the acute onset of mixed neuropsychiatric conditions in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, characterized by agitated behavior, altered level of consciousness, and disorganized thinking, regardless of psychological or socioeconomic triggering factors. The present narrative review aims to analyze and discuss the mechanisms underlying the neuroinvasive/neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent mental complications. Delirium appeared as a clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 brain infection in some patients, without systemic or multiple organ failure symptoms. A small number of studies demonstrated that neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with COVID-19, initially presenting as a confused state, may subsequently evolve in a way that is consistent with the patients' neuropsychiatric history. A literature analysis on this topic prevalently showed case reports and case series of patients presenting delirium or delirium-like symptoms as the main outburst of COVID-19, plus a cognitive impairment, from mild to severe, which pre-existed or was demonstrated during the acute phase or after infection. Dementia appeared as one of the most frequent predisposing factors to SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated with delirium. Instead, contrasting data emerged on the potential link between COVID-19 and delirium in patients with cognitive impairment and without a neuropsychiatric history. Therefore, clinicians should contemplate the possibility that COVID-19 appears as delirium followed by a psychiatric exacerbation, even without other systemic symptoms. In addition, cognitive impairment might act as a predisposing factor for COVID-19 in patients with delirium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Delirium , Causality , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Delirium/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 67, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438301
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1427-1438, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine the characteristics of postintensive care syndrome in the cognitive, physical, and psychiatric domains in coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors. DESIGN: Single-center descriptive cohort study from April 21, to July 7, 2020. SETTING: Critical care recovery clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. PATIENTS: Adults who had critical illness due to coronavirus disease 2019 requiring an ICU stay of 7 days or more and who agreed to a telehealth follow-up in the critical care recovery clinic 1-month post hospital discharge. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical and psychiatric domains were collected electronically, a cognitive test was performed by a clinician, and clinical data were obtained through electronic medical records. Outcome measures assessed postintensive care syndrome symptoms in the physical (Modified Rankin Scale, Dalhousie Clinical Frailty Scale, Neuro-Quality of Life Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Function, Neuro-Quality of Life Fatigue), psychiatric (Insomnia Severity Scale; Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), and cognitive (Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment) domains. The 3-Level Version of Euro-QoL-5D was used to assess the physical and psychiatric domains. A diagnosis of postintensive care syndrome was made in cases with evidence of impairment in at least one postintensive care syndrome domain. We included 45 patients with a mean (sd) age of 54 (13) years, and 73% were male. Ninety-one percent of coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors fit diagnostic criteria for postintensive care syndrome. 86.7 % had impairments in the physical domain, 22 (48%) reported impairments in the psychiatric domain, and four (8%) had impairments on cognitive screening. We found that 58% had some degree of mobility impairment. In the psychiatric domain, 38% exhibited at least mild depression, and 18 % moderate to severe depression. Eighteen percent presented Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, scores suggestive of posttraumatic stress syndrome diagnosis. In the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 9% had impaired cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness related to coronavirus disease 2019 are at high risk of developing postintensive care syndrome. These findings highlight the importance of planning for appropriate post-ICU care to diagnose and treat this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors/psychology
5.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(Supplement_1): 7511347010p1-7511347010p7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362702

ABSTRACT

Occupational therapy's focus on functional cognition offers a distinct approach to the assessment of and intervention for occupational performance deficits that may follow coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the majority of people survive COVID-19, many people experience persistent functional cognitive sequelae severe enough to interfere with occupational performance. After COVID-19, people may be categorized as either (1) those who experience severe or critical illness requiring hospitalization or (2) those with mild to moderate presentations of the virus without hospitalization. A third group of those who do not have ongoing signs of active infection but who experience new, lasting, or deteriorating symptoms has begun to emerge and may represent a distinct COVID-19 long-haul syndrome. By following the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and using established processes for occupational therapy assessment and treatment of functional cognition, occupational therapy practitioners can tailor assessments and interventions to meet clients' needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Occupational Therapy , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(6): 93-99, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318478

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction is an important mechanism underlying multiple organ and systems failure in COVID-19. The development of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 can disrupt organ perfusion and cause a procoagulant state, leading to both macro- and microvascular thrombotic events. Cognitive impairment is a common complication of COVID-19 that develop in acute and delayed periods and is not directly related to the severity of the underlying disease. Treatment of endothelial dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 should take into account the leading pathogenetic factors of its development and with the development of neurological, including cognitive, disorders should include neuroprotective drugs. One of these drugs is actovegin, which has been shown to be effective in improving endothelial function, microcirculation and cognition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Thrombosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Endothelium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 44(3): 285-288, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280160

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a sequela of COVID-19. It is unknown how cognition changes and relates to functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation. We administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at admission to 77 patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation for COVID-19 in a large US academic medical center. Forty-five patients were administered the MoCA at discharge. Functional gain was assessed by change in the quality indicator for self-care (QI-SC). In the full sample, 80.5% of patients exhibited cognitive impairment on admission, which was associated with prior delirium. Among 45 patients with retest data, there were significant improvements in MoCA and QI-SC. QI-SC score gain was higher in patients who made clinically meaningful changes on the MoCA, an association that persisted after accounting for age and delirium history. Cognitive impairment is frequent among COVID-19 patients, but improves over time and is associated with functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cognition/physiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): E44-E47, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270838

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have tragic repercussions. Although many reports of neurological complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection exist, none of them are of patients on hemodialysis, who have a fivefold greater risk of stroke than the general population. In this report, we emphasize the importance of being vigilant for mild stroke in high risk populations-such as patients on hemodialysis-with COVID-19, since these conditions have overlapping symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Nervous System Diseases , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ ; 373: n1007, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263910

ABSTRACT

Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, is very common in the critically ill adult patient population. Although its pathophysiology is poorly understood, multiple factors associated with delirium have been identified, many of which are coincident with critical illness. To date, no drug or non-drug treatments have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with delirium. Clinical trials have provided a limited understanding of the contributions of multiple triggers and processes of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired delirium, making identification of therapies difficult. Delirium is independently associated with poor long term outcomes, including persistent cognitive impairment. A longer duration of delirium is associated with worse long term cognition after adjustment for age, education, pre-existing cognitive function, severity of illness, and exposure to sedatives. Interestingly, differences in prevalence are seen between ICU survivor populations, with survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome experiencing higher rates of cognitive impairment at early follow-up compared with mixed ICU survivor populations. Although cognitive performance improves over time for some ICU survivors, impairment is persistent in others. Studies have so far been unable to identify patients at higher risk of long term cognitive impairment; this is an active area of scientific investigation.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Critical Illness/psychology , Delirium , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Delirium/complications , Delirium/diagnosis , Humans , Long Term Adverse Effects , Prognosis
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933015, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239178

ABSTRACT

Persistent comorbidities occur in patients who initially recover from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 'Long COVID' involves the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs, including cognitive impairment or 'brain fog' and chronic fatigue syndrome. There are similarities in these persistent complications between SARS-CoV-2 and the Ebola, Zika, and influenza A viruses. Normal CNS neuronal mitochondrial function requires high oxygen levels for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. Recent studies have shown that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can hijack mitochondrial function. Persistent changes in cognitive functioning have also been reported with other viral infections. SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in long-term effects on immune processes within the CNS by causing microglial dysfunction. This short opinion aims to discuss the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of long-term neuropsychiatric COVID-19 involves microglia, mitochondria, and persistent neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Inflammation/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Neurons/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(4): 469-480, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients present long-lasting physical and neuropsychological impairment, which may require rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: The current cross-sectional study characterizes post COVID-19 sequelae and persistent symptoms in patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program. METHODS: Thirty patients [16 post-ICU and 14 non-ICU; median age = 54(43.8-62) years; 19 men] presenting sequelae and/or persistent symptoms (>3 months after acute COVID-19) were selected of 41 patients referred for neurorehabilitation. Patients underwent physical, neuropsychological and respiratory evaluation and assessment of impact of fatigue and quality of life. RESULTS: The main reasons for referral to rehabilitation were: fatigue (86.6%), dyspnea (66.7%), subjective cognitive impairment (46.7%) and neurological sequelae (33.3%). Post-ICU patient presented sequelae of critical illness myopathy and polyneuropathy, stroke and encephalopathy and lower forced vital capacity compared to non-ICU patients. Cognitive impairment was found in 63.3% of patients, with a similar profile in both sub-groups. Increased physical fatigue, anxiety and depression and low quality of life were prevalent irrespective of acute COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: The variability of post COVID-19 physical and neuropsychological impairment requires a complex screening process both in ICU and non-ICU patients. The high impact of persistent symptoms on daily life activities and quality of life, regardless of acute infection severity, indicate need for rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Fatigue/rehabilitation , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(2): 17-21, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189593

ABSTRACT

"I am now eight-and-a-half months into my journey with long COVID … My symptoms include diagnosed post-COVID tachycardia and acute fatigue. I also have chest tightness and breathlessness from time to time; anxiety; muscle aches and pains, especially in the evening; memory loss; and insomnia."-38-year-old female from the U.K.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Time Factors
16.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(5): 1073-1085, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals never require hospitalization. However, some develop prolonged symptoms. We sought to characterize the spectrum of neurologic manifestations in non-hospitalized Covid-19 "long haulers". METHODS: This is a prospective study of the first 100 consecutive patients (50 SARS-CoV-2 laboratory-positive (SARS-CoV-2+ ) and 50 laboratory-negative (SARS-CoV-2- ) individuals) presenting to our Neuro-Covid-19 clinic between May and November 2020. Due to early pandemic testing limitations, patients were included if they met Infectious Diseases Society of America symptoms of Covid-19, were never hospitalized for pneumonia or hypoxemia, and had neurologic symptoms lasting over 6 weeks. We recorded the frequency of neurologic symptoms and analyzed patient-reported quality of life measures and standardized cognitive assessments. RESULTS: Mean age was 43.2 ± 11.3 years, 70% were female, and 48% were evaluated in televisits. The most frequent comorbidities were depression/anxiety (42%) and autoimmune disease (16%). The main neurologic manifestations were: "brain fog" (81%), headache (68%), numbness/tingling (60%), dysgeusia (59%), anosmia (55%), and myalgias (55%), with only anosmia being more frequent in SARS-CoV-2+ than SARS-CoV-2- patients (37/50 [74%] vs. 18/50 [36%]; p < 0.001). Moreover, 85% also experienced fatigue. There was no correlation between time from disease onset and subjective impression of recovery. Both groups exhibited impaired quality of life in cognitive and fatigue domains. SARS-CoV-2+ patients performed worse in attention and working memory cognitive tasks compared to a demographic-matched US population (T-score 41.5 [37, 48.25] and 43 [37.5, 48.75], respectively; both p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Non-hospitalized Covid-19 "long haulers" experience prominent and persistent "brain fog" and fatigue that affect their cognition and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Headache/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 87: 153-155, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129084

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment has recently attracted researchers as one of the possible neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19, although how the infection perpetuates impairment of cognitive functions is still obscure. We presented a 29-year-old male patient with COVID-19 who developed new-onset transient attention deficit and memory problems following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Structural neuroimaging was normal. MR-spectroscopy (MRS) of the bilateral DLPFC revealed significant for decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate, and glutamate/glutamine ratio. After a follow-up without any medical treatment but with suggestions of memory exercises for three months a control MRS screening of DLPFC showed improved levels of NAA, glutamate, and glutamate/glutamine ratio. This report may suggest that cognitive deficits in SARS-CoV-2 infection can result from glutamatergic dysfunction with decreased NAA and glutamate levels in bilateral DLPFC.


Subject(s)
Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Adult , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Male , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Signal Transduction/physiology
19.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(5): 1138-1143, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A high proportion of patients experience fatigue and impairment of cognitive functions after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore the activity of the main inhibitory intracortical circuits within the primary motor cortex (M1) in a sample of patients complaining of fatigue and presenting executive dysfunction after resolution of COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. METHODS: Twelve patients who recovered from typical COVID-19 pneumonia with neurological complications and complained of profound physical and mental fatigue underwent, 9 to 13 weeks from disease onset, a psychometric evaluation including a self-reported fatigue numeric-rating scale (FRS, Fatigue Rating Scale) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Intracortical activity was evaluated by means of well-established TMS protocols including short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), reflecting GABAA-mediated inhibition, long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a marker of GABAB receptor activity, and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) that indexes central cholinergic transmission. TMS data were compared to those obtained in a control group of ten healthy subjects (HS) matched by age, sex and education level. RESULTS: Post-COVID-19 patients reported marked fatigue according to FRS score (8.1 ± 1.7) and presented pathological scores at the FAB based on Italian normative data (12.2 ± 0.7). TMS revealed marked reduction of SICI, and disruption of LICI as compared to HS. SAI was also slightly diminished. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents for the first time reduced GABAergic inhibition in the M1 in patients who recovered from COVID-19 with neurological complications and manifested fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome. SIGNIFICANCE: TMS may serve as diagnostic tool in cognitive disturbances and fatigue in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , GABAergic Neurons/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiopathology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115107

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a devastating blow to healthcare systems globally. Approximately 3.2% of patients infected with COVID-19 require invasive ventilation during the course of the illness. Within this population, 25% of patients are affected with neurological manifestations. Among those who are affected by severe neurological manifestations, some may have acute cerebrovascular complications (5%), impaired consciousness (15%) or exhibit skeletal muscle hypokinesis (20%). The cause of the severe cognitive impairment and hypokinesis is unknown at this time. Potential causes include COVID-19 viral encephalopathy, toxic metabolic encephalopathy, post-intensive care unit syndrome and cerebrovascular pathology. We present a case of a 60 year old patient who sustained a prolonged hospitalization with COVID-19, had a cerebrovascular event and developed a persistent unexplained encephalopathy along with a hypokinetic state. He was treated successfully with modafinil and carbidopa/levodopa showing clinical improvement within 3-7 days and ultimately was able to successfully discharge home.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Carbidopa/administration & dosage , Hypokinesia , Ischemic Stroke , Levodopa/administration & dosage , Modafinil/administration & dosage , Rehabilitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care/methods , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hypokinesia/diagnosis , Hypokinesia/etiology , Hypokinesia/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...