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1.
Neuropharmacology ; 209: 109023, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821424

ABSTRACT

Acute neurological alterations have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, it is becoming clear that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors may experience long-term neurological abnormalities, including cognitive deficits and mood alterations. The mechanisms underlying acute and long-term impacts of COVID-19 in the brain are being actively investigated. Due to the heterogeneous manifestations of neurological outcomes, it is possible that different mechanisms operate following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may include direct brain infection by SARS-CoV-2, mechanisms resulting from hyperinflammatory systemic disease, or a combination of both. Inflammation is a core feature of COVID-19, and both central and systemic inflammation are known to lead to acute and persistent neurological alterations in other diseases. Here, we review evidence indicating that COVID-19 is associated with neuroinflammation, along with blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Similar neuroinflammatory signatures have been associated with Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder. Current evidence demonstrates that patients with pre-existing cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits show worse outcomes upon infection by SARS-CoV-2 and, conversely, COVID-19 survivors may be at increased risk of developing dementia and mood disorders. Considering the high prevalence of COVID-19 patients that recovered from infection in the world and the alarming projections for the prevalence of dementia and depression, investigation of possible molecular similarities between those diseases may shed light on mechanisms leading to long-term neurological abnormalities in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Depression/etiology , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Affect/physiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Depression/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/complications
2.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 20-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636011
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 883-898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259331

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment following SARS-CoV-2 infection is being increasingly recognized as an acute and possibly also long-term sequela of the disease. Direct viral entry as well as systemic mechanisms such as cytokine storm are thought to contribute to neuroinflammation in these patients. Biomarkers of COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some limited evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET. Possible confounders include cognitive impairment due to hypoxia and mechanical ventilation and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conversely, patients already suffering from dementia, as well as their caregivers, have been greatly impacted by the disruption of their care caused by COVID-19. Patients with dementia have experienced worsening of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms, and the rate of COVID-19-related deaths is disproportionately high among cognitively impaired people. Multiple factors, such as difficulties in remembering and executing safeguarding procedures, age, comorbidities, residing in care homes, and poorer access to hospital standard of care play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions and new technologies have shown a potential for the management of patients with dementia, and for the support of their caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(10): 671-676, 2021 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Post-COVID cognitive deficits usually manifest as a frontal dysexecutive syndrome combined with fatigue and dysphoria and/or with attentional and memory deficits. Several pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID encephalopathy are understood, but no specific treatment strategies have been established so far. We assume that general practitioners, psychiatrists, neurologists and social workers will need to take care of the activation, reintegration and expert appraisals of patients with post-COVID fatigue and cognitive deficits during the years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
J Nucl Med ; 62(7): 910-915, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167265

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is a frequent complaint in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be related to cortical hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET at the subacute stage. However, it is unclear if these changes are reversible. Methods: We prospectively assessed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and 18F-FDG PET scans of 8 COVID-19 patients at the subacute stage (once no longer infectious) and the chronic stage (˜6 mo after symptom onset). The expression of the previously established COVID-19-related covariance pattern was analyzed at both stages to examine the time course of post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment. For further validation, we also conducted a conventional group analysis. Results: Follow-up 18F-FDG PET revealed that there was a significant reduction in the initial frontoparietal and, to a lesser extent, temporal hypometabolism and that this reduction was accompanied by a significant improvement in cognition. The expression of the previously established COVID-19-related pattern was significantly lower at follow-up and correlated inversely with Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. However, both 18F-FDG PET and cognitive assessment suggest a residual impairment. Conclusion: Although a significant recovery of regional neuronal function and cognition can be clearly stated, residuals are still measurable in some patients 6 mo after manifestation of COVID-19. Given the current pandemic situation and tremendous uncertainty concerning the long-term effects of COVID-19, the present study provides novel insights of the highest medical and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Neocortex/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chronic Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are sporadic hereditary conditions characterized by progressive dysfunction of the nervous system. Among the symptoms, vestibulopathy is one of the causes of discomfort and a decrease in quality of life. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a heterogeneous group of hereditary degenerative diseases involving the disorder of a single gene and is characterized by the progressive retrograde degeneration of fibers in the spinal cord. OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits of vestibular rehabilitation involving virtual reality by comparing pre intervention and post intervention assessments in individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial from the Rebec platform RBR-3jmx67 in which allocation concealment was performed and the evaluators be blinded will be included. The participants will include 40 patients diagnosed with hereditary spastic paraplegia. The interventions will include vestibular rehabilitation with virtual reality using the Wii® console, Wii-Remote and Wii Balance Board (Nintendo), and the studies will include pre- and post intervention assessments. Group I will include twenty volunteers who performed balance games. Group II will include twenty volunteers who performed balance games and muscle strength games. The games lasted from 30 minutes to an hour, and the sessions were performed twice a week for 10 weeks (total: 20 sessions). RESULTS: This study provides a definitive assessment of the effectiveness of a virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation program in halting the progression of hereditary spastic paraplegia, and this treatment can be personalized and affordable. CONCLUSION: The study will determine whether a vestibular rehabilitation program with the Nintendo Wii® involving virtual reality can reduce the progressive effect of hereditary spastic paraplegia and serve as an alternative treatment option that is accessible and inexpensive. Rebec platform trial: RBR-3JMX67.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Postural Balance/genetics , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/rehabilitation , Spinal Cord/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Female , Games, Recreational , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pain/physiopathology , Pain/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/genetics , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Virtual Reality , Young Adult
12.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(5): 1138-1143, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A high proportion of patients experience fatigue and impairment of cognitive functions after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore the activity of the main inhibitory intracortical circuits within the primary motor cortex (M1) in a sample of patients complaining of fatigue and presenting executive dysfunction after resolution of COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. METHODS: Twelve patients who recovered from typical COVID-19 pneumonia with neurological complications and complained of profound physical and mental fatigue underwent, 9 to 13 weeks from disease onset, a psychometric evaluation including a self-reported fatigue numeric-rating scale (FRS, Fatigue Rating Scale) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Intracortical activity was evaluated by means of well-established TMS protocols including short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), reflecting GABAA-mediated inhibition, long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a marker of GABAB receptor activity, and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) that indexes central cholinergic transmission. TMS data were compared to those obtained in a control group of ten healthy subjects (HS) matched by age, sex and education level. RESULTS: Post-COVID-19 patients reported marked fatigue according to FRS score (8.1 ± 1.7) and presented pathological scores at the FAB based on Italian normative data (12.2 ± 0.7). TMS revealed marked reduction of SICI, and disruption of LICI as compared to HS. SAI was also slightly diminished. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents for the first time reduced GABAergic inhibition in the M1 in patients who recovered from COVID-19 with neurological complications and manifested fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome. SIGNIFICANCE: TMS may serve as diagnostic tool in cognitive disturbances and fatigue in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , GABAergic Neurons/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiopathology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931447, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106510

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now recognized. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the terminology for this emerging chronic clinical syndrome, which includes long COVID, chronic COVID syndrome, post-COVID-19 syndrome, post-acute COVID-19, and long-hauler COVID-19. In this review, I will use the term "long COVID". A review of the medical history and epidemiology of past pandemics and epidemics in modern literature review identifies common long-term post-infectious disorders, with the common finding of altered cognition. In the brain, the cerebral hypoxia induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in "brain fog". Historically, the common symptom of altered cognition has been reported during earlier pandemics, which include the influenza pandemics of 1889 and 1892 (Russian flu), the Spanish flu pandemic (1918-1919), encephalitis lethargica, diphtheria, and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome or post-viral fatigue syndrome). There are similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome and the "brain fog" described in long COVID. During past viral epidemics and pandemics, a commonality of neural targets may have increased viral survival by conformational matching. The neurological and psychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or long COVID, may have emerged from neural effects that have emerged from an invertebrate and vertebrate virosphere. This review aims to present a historical overview of infections and disorders associated with neurological and psychiatric sequelae that have shown similarities with long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 383-392, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064861

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of risk factors for COVID­19, including pre-existing medical conditions and genetic variations, is limited. To what extent the pre-existing clinical condition and genetic background have implications for COVID-19 still needs to be explored. METHODS: Our study included 389,620 participants of European descent from the UK Biobank, of whom 3,884 received the COVID-19 test and 1,091 were tested positive for COVID-19. We examined the association of COVID-19 status with an extensive list of 974 medical conditions and 30 blood biomarkers. Additionally, we tested the association of genetic variants in two key genes related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), with COVID-19 or any other phenotypes. RESULTS: The most significant risk factors for COVID-19 include Alzheimer's disease (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.16), dementia (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.36-3.42), and the overall category of delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24-2.90). Evidence suggesting associations of genetic variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-related genes with COVID-19 (rs7282236, OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14-1.54, p = 2.31 × 10-4) and other phenotypes, such as an immune deficiency (p = 5.65 × 10-5) and prostate cancer (p = 1.1 × 10-5), was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Our unbiased and extensive search identified pre-existing Alzheimer's disease and dementia as top risk factors for hospital admission due to COVID-19, highlighting the importance of providing special protective care for patients with cognitive disorders during this pandemic. We also obtained evidence suggesting a direct association of genetic variants with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , /genetics
15.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 191-195, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059483

ABSTRACT

As cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mount worldwide, attention is needed on potential long-term neurologic impacts for the majority of patients who experience mild to moderate illness managed as outpatients. To date, there has not been discussion of persistent neurocognitive deficits in patients with milder COVID-19. We present two cases of non-hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19 with persistent neurocognitive symptoms. Commonly used cognitive screens were normal, while more detailed testing revealed working memory and executive functioning deficits. An observational cohort study of individuals recovering from COVID-19 (14 or more days following symptom onset) identified that among the first 100 individuals enrolled, 14 were non-hospitalized patients reporting persistent cognitive issues. These 14 participants had a median age of 39 years (interquartile range: 35-56), and cognitive symptoms were present for at least a median of 98 days (interquartile range: 71-120 following acute COVID-19 symptoms); no participants with follow-up evaluation reported symptom resolution. We discuss potential mechanisms to be explored in future studies, including direct viral effects, indirect consequences of immune activation, and immune dysregulation causing auto-antibody production.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Executive Function/physiology , Female , Humans , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Outpatients , Time Factors
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930886, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045272

ABSTRACT

Alterations in brain functioning, especially in regions associated with cognition, can result from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and are predicted to result in various psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can directly or indirectly affect the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, diseases associated with sequelae of COVID-19, or 'long COVID', also include serious long-term mental and cognitive changes, including the condition recently termed 'brain fog'. Hypoxia in the microenvironment of select brain areas may benefit the reproductive capacity of the virus. It is possible that in areas of cerebral hypoxia, neuronal cell energy metabolism may become compromised after integration of the viral genome, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Because of their need for constant high metabolism, cerebral tissues require an immediate and constant supply of oxygen. In hypoxic conditions, neurons with the highest oxygen demand become dysfunctional. The resulting cognitive impairment benefits viral spread, as infected individuals exhibit behaviors that reduce protection against infection. The effects of compromised mitochondrial function may also be an evolutionary advantage for SARS-CoV-2 in terms of host interaction. A high viral load in patients with COVID-19 that involves the CNS results in the compromise of neurons with high-level energy metabolism. Therefore, we propose that selective neuronal mitochondrial targeting in SARS-CoV-2 infection affects cognitive processes to induce 'brain fog' and results in behavioral changes that favor viral propagation. Cognitive changes associated with COVID-19 will have increasing significance for patient diagnosis, prognosis, and long-term care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Health Behavior , Hypoxia, Brain/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Hypoxia, Brain/psychology , Microbial Viability , Viral Load , Virus Replication
18.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 90, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989848

ABSTRACT

Delirium, a syndrome characterized by an acute change in attention, awareness and cognition, is caused by a medical condition that cannot be better explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. Multiple predisposing factors (for example, pre-existing cognitive impairment) and precipitating factors (for example, urinary tract infection) for delirium have been described, with most patients having both types. Because multiple factors are implicated in the aetiology of delirium, there are likely several neurobiological processes that contribute to delirium pathogenesis, including neuroinflammation, brain vascular dysfunction, altered brain metabolism, neurotransmitter imbalance and impaired neuronal network connectivity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) is the most commonly used diagnostic system upon which a reference standard diagnosis is made, although many other delirium screening tools have been developed given the impracticality of using the DSM-5 in many settings. Pharmacological treatments for delirium (such as antipsychotic drugs) are not effective, reflecting substantial gaps in our understanding of its pathophysiology. Currently, the best management strategies are multidomain interventions that focus on treating precipitating conditions, medication review, managing distress, mitigating complications and maintaining engagement to environmental issues. The effective implementation of delirium detection, treatment and prevention strategies remains a major challenge for health-care organizations globally.


Subject(s)
Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology
19.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 383-392, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of risk factors for COVID­19, including pre-existing medical conditions and genetic variations, is limited. To what extent the pre-existing clinical condition and genetic background have implications for COVID-19 still needs to be explored. METHODS: Our study included 389,620 participants of European descent from the UK Biobank, of whom 3,884 received the COVID-19 test and 1,091 were tested positive for COVID-19. We examined the association of COVID-19 status with an extensive list of 974 medical conditions and 30 blood biomarkers. Additionally, we tested the association of genetic variants in two key genes related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), with COVID-19 or any other phenotypes. RESULTS: The most significant risk factors for COVID-19 include Alzheimer's disease (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.16), dementia (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.36-3.42), and the overall category of delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24-2.90). Evidence suggesting associations of genetic variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-related genes with COVID-19 (rs7282236, OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14-1.54, p = 2.31 × 10-4) and other phenotypes, such as an immune deficiency (p = 5.65 × 10-5) and prostate cancer (p = 1.1 × 10-5), was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Our unbiased and extensive search identified pre-existing Alzheimer's disease and dementia as top risk factors for hospital admission due to COVID-19, highlighting the importance of providing special protective care for patients with cognitive disorders during this pandemic. We also obtained evidence suggesting a direct association of genetic variants with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , /genetics
20.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 35(3): 518-540, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The increased use of online pharmacy services in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic provides an important backdrop against which to examine the role of neurocognitive functions in health-related Internet navigation skills among persons with chronic medical conditions, such as HIV disease. Prospective memory (PM) is reliably impaired in HIV disease and is related to laboratory-based measures of medication management capacity in other populations. This study examined whether PM shows veridicality in relationship to online pharmacy navigation skills in persons with HIV disease. METHOD: Participants included 98 persons with HIV disease age 50 and older who completed the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) and the Medication-Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) as part of a neuropsychological study. Participants also completed the Test of Online Pharmacy Skills (TOPS), which required them to navigate a simulated, experimenter-controlled online pharmacy to perform several naturalistic tasks (e.g., refill an existing prescription). RESULTS: Lower PM had medium associations with poorer MMT-R and TOPS accuracy scores that were not better explained by other neurocognitive functions. The association between PM and TOPS accuracy was driven by errors of omission and did not vary meaningfully based on whether the intention was cued by time or an event. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that PM cue detection processes show veridicality with online pharmacy navigation skills. Future studies might examine the benefits of PM-based strategies (e.g., salient prompts) in supporting online health navigation skills in populations that experience clinically impactful PM failures.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cues , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Memory, Episodic , Pharmaceutical Services, Online , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Memory Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged
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