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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236361

ABSTRACT

Patients with long-term health sequelae of COVID-19 (post-COVID-19 condition) experience both physical and cognitive manifestations. However, there is still uncertainty about the prevalence of physical impairment in these patients and whether there is a link between physical and cognitive function. The aim was to assess the prevalence of physical impairment and investigate the association with cognition in patients assessed in a post-COVID-19 clinic. In this cross-sectional study, patients referred to an outpatient clinic ≥ 3 months after acute infection underwent screening of their physical and cognitive function as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment. Physical function was assessed with the 6-Minute Walk Test, the 30 s Sit-to-Stand Test and by measuring handgrip strength. Cognitive function was assessed with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry and the Trail Making Test-Part B. Physical impairment was tested by comparing the patients' performance to normative and expected values. Association with cognition was investigated using correlation analyses and the possible explanatory variables regarding physical function were assessed using regression analyses. In total, we included 292 patients, the mean age was 52 (±15) years, 56% were women and 50% had been hospitalised during an acute COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of physical impairment ranged from 23% in functional exercise capacity to 59% in lower extremity muscle strength and function. There was no greater risk of physical impairment in previously hospitalised compared with the non-hospitalised patients. There was a weak to moderate association between physical and cognitive function. The cognitive test scores had statistically significant prediction value for all three outcomes of physical function. In conclusion, physical impairments were prevalent amongst patients assessed for post-COVID-19 condition regardless of their hospitalisation status and these were associated with more cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology
2.
PLoS Med ; 20(4): e1004162, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies have identified declines in mental health during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in different age groups, including older people. As anxiety and depression are common neuropsychiatric symptoms among people with cognitive impairment, the mental health experiences of older people during the pandemic should take cognitive function into consideration, along with assessments made prior to the pandemic. This study addresses evidence gaps to test whether changes in depression and anxiety among older people through the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with cognitive impairment. It also investigates whether associations varied according to key sources of sociodemographic inequality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) collected from 2018/2019 to November/December 2020, we estimated changes in depression and anxiety for people aged 50+ in England across 3 cognitive function groups: no impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Conditional growth curve models were estimated for continuous measures over 3 time points (N = 5,286), with mixed-effects logistic regression used for binary measures. All models adjusted for demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, and cohabiting partnership), socioeconomics (education, wealth, and employment status), geography (urban/rural and English region), and health (self-rated and the presence of multimorbidity). We found that depression (measured with CES-D score) worsened from 2018/2019 to November/December 2020 for people with mild cognitive impairment (1.39 (95% CI: 1.29 to 1.49) to 2.16 (2.02 to 2.30)) or no impairment (1.17 (95%CI: 1.12 to 1.22) to 2.03 (1.96 to 2.10)). Anxiety, using a single-item rating of 0 to 10 also worsened among those with mild cognitive impairment (2.48 (2.30 to 2.66) to 3.14 (2.95 to 3.33)) or no impairment (2.20 (2.11 to 2.28) to 2.85 (2.77 to 2.95)). No statistically significant increases were found for those with dementia. Using a clinical cutoff for likely depression (CES-D ≥4), we found statistically significant increases in the probability of depression between 2018/2019 and November/December 2020 for those with no impairment (0.110 (0.099 to 0.120) to 0.206 (0.191 to 0.222)) and mild impairment (0.139 (0.120 to 0.159) to 0.234 (0.204 to 0.263)). We also found that differences according to cognitive function that existed before the pandemic were no longer present by June/July 2020, and there were no statistically significant differences in depression or anxiety among cognitive groups in November/December 2020. Wealth and education appeared to be stronger drivers for depression and anxiety, respectively, than cognitive impairment. For example, those with no impairment in the richest two-thirds scored 1.76 (1.69 to 1.82) for depression in June/July, compared to 2.01 (1.91 to 2.12) for those with no impairment in the poorest third and 2.03 (1.87 to 2.19) for those with impairment in the poorest third. Results may be limited by the small number of people with dementia and are generalizable only to people living in the community, not to those in institutional care settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a convergence in mental health across cognitive function groups during the pandemic. This suggests mental health services will need to meet an increased demand from older adults, especially those not living with cognitive impairment. Further, with little significant change among those with dementia, their existing need for support will remain; policymakers and care practitioners should ensure this group continues to have equitable access to mental health support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Dementia/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Depression/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Anxiety , Aging
3.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 140: 104413, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, are a global health problem. Digital healthcare technology is an innovative management tool for delaying the progression of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Thanks to digital technology, the possibility of safe and effective care for patients at home and in the community is increasing, even in situations that threaten the continuity of care, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is difficult to select appropriate technology and alternatives due to the lack of comprehensive reviews on the types and characteristics of digital technology for cognitive impairment, including their effects and limitations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the types of digital healthcare technology for dementia and mild cognitive impairment and comprehensively examine how its outcome measures were constructed in line with each technology's purpose. METHODS: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines, a literature search was conducted in August 2021 using Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The search terms were constructed based on Population-Concept-Context mnemonic: 'dementia', 'cognitive impairment', and 'cognitive decline'; digital healthcare technology, such as big data, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, robots, applications, and so on; and the outcomes of digital technology, such as accuracy of diagnosis and physical, mental, and social health. After grasping overall research trends, the literature was classified and analysed in terms of the type of service users and technology. RESULTS: In total, 135 articles were selected. Since 2015, an increase in literature has been observed, and various digital healthcare technologies were identified. For people with mild cognitive impairment, technology for predicting and diagnosing the onset of dementia was studied, and for people with dementia, intervention technology to prevent the deterioration of health and induce significant improvement was considered. Regarding caregivers, many studies were conducted on monitoring and daily living assistive technologies that reduce the burden of care. However, problems such as data collection, storage, safety, and the digital divide persisted at different intensities for each technology type. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that appropriate technology options and considerations may differ depending on the characteristics of users. It also emphasises the role of humans in designing and managing technology to apply digital healthcare technology more effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics
4.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(5): 1043-1061, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274121

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The lack of cognitive assessment tools suitable for people with minimal formal education is a barrier to identify cognitive impairment in Vietnam. Our aims were to (i) evaluate the feasibility of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B) and Informant Questionnaire On Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) remotely on the Vietnamese older adults, (ii) examine the association between the two tests, (iii) identify demographic factors correlated with these tools. Methods: The MoCA-B was adapted from the original English version, and a remote testing procedure was conducted. One hundred seventy-three participants aged 60 and above living in the Vietnamese southern provinces were recruited via an online platform during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: IQCODE results showed that the proportions of rural participants classified as having mild cognitive impairment and dementia were substantially higher than those in urban areas. Levels of education and living areas were associated with IQCODE scores. Education attainment was also the main predictor of MoCA-B scores (30% of variance explained), with an average of 10.5 points difference between those with no formal education and those who attended university. Conclusions: It is feasible to administer the IQCODE and MoCA-B remotely in the Vietnamese older population. Education attainment played a stronger role in predicting MoCA-B scores than IQCODE, suggesting the influence of this factor on MoCA-B scores. Further study is needed to develop socio-culturally appropriate cognitive screening tests for the Vietnamese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Southeast Asian People , Vietnam/epidemiology , Neuropsychological Tests , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 15(1): 70, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a reliable, easy-to-use, widely available, and validated tool for timely cognitive impairment identification. We created a computerized cognitive screening tool (Santé-Cerveau digital tool (SCD-T)) including validated questionnaires and the following neuropsychological tests: 5 Word Test (5-WT) for episodic memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) for executive functions, and a number coding test (NCT) adapted from the Digit Symbol Substitution Test for global intellectual efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of SCD-T to identify cognitive deficit and to determine its usability. METHODS: Three groups were constituted including 65 elderly Controls, 64 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (NDG): 50 AD and 14 non-AD, and 20 post-COVID-19 patients. The minimum MMSE score for inclusion was 20. Association between computerized SCD-T cognitive tests and their standard equivalent was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Two algorithms (a simple clinician-guided algorithm involving the 5-WT and the NCT; and a machine learning classifier based on 8 scores from the SCD-T tests extracted from a multiple logistic regression model, and data from the SCD-T questionnaires) were evaluated. The acceptability of SCD-T was investigated through a questionnaire and scale. RESULTS: AD and non-AD participants were older (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 72.61 ± 6.79 vs 69.91 ± 4.86 years old, p = 0.011) and had a lower MMSE score (Mean difference estimate ± standard error: 1.74 ± 0.14, p < 0.001) than Controls; post-COVID-19 patients were younger than Controls (mean ± SD: 45.07 ± 11.36 years old, p < 0.001). All the computerized SCD-T cognitive tests were significantly associated with their reference version. In the pooled Controls and NDG group, the correlation coefficient was 0.84 for verbal memory, -0.60 for executive functions, and 0.72 for global intellectual efficiency. The clinician-guided algorithm demonstrated 94.4% ± 3.8% sensitivity and 80.5% ± 8.7% specificity, and the machine learning classifier 96.8% ± 3.9% sensitivity and 90.7% ± 5.8% specificity. The acceptability of SCD-T was good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the high accuracy of SCD-T in screening cognitive disorders and its good acceptance even in individuals with prodromal and mild dementia stages. SCD-T would be useful in primary care to faster refer subjects with significant cognitive impairment (and limit unnecessary referrals) to specialized consultation, improve the AD care pathway and the pre-screening in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests , Cognition , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
6.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 115(2): 233-243, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic has highlighted and exacerbated health inequities in both acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its longer-term sequelae. Given the heterogeneity in definitions of long COVID and the lack of centralized registries of patients with the disease, little is known about the differential prevalence among racial, ethnic, and sex subgroups. This study examines long COVID among Black, White, Asian, and Hispanic Americans and evaluates differences in the associated cognitive symptomology. METHOD: Data from four releases of the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey detailing COVID-19 incidence and the duration and type of symptoms among a nationally representative sample of adults from June 1, 2022, through October 17, 2022, were combined. Binary logistic regression assessed the relative likelihood of long COVID among those who had been diagnosed COVID between racial, ethnic, and sex subgroups. Among those reporting long COVID, differences in the prevalence of difficulty understanding and difficulty remembering were assessed. Empirical models accounted for household, regional, vaccination, and insurance differences between respondents. Two-stage selection models were applied to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: Among respondents who tested positive for COVID-19, Blacks (OR=1.097, CI=1.034-1.163), females (OR=1.849, CI=1.794-1.907), and Hispanics (OR=1.349, CI=1.286-1.414) were more likely to experience long COVID (symptoms lasting for 3 months or longer) compared to Whites, males, and non-Hispanics respectively. However, those with private health insurance (OR=0.634, CI=0.611-0.658) and who received the COVID vaccine (OR=0.901, CI=0.864-0.94) were less likely to have endured COVID symptoms than their counterparts. Symptoms of long COVID varied significantly between population subgroups. Compared to Whites, Blacks were more likely to have trouble remembering (OR=1.878, CI=1.765-1.808) while Hispanics were more likely to report difficult understanding (OR=1.827, CI=1.413, 2.362). Females, compared to males, were less likely to experience trouble understanding (OR=0.664, CI=0.537, 0.821), but more likely to report trouble remembering (OR=1.34, CI=1.237, 1.451). CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID is more prevalent among Blacks, Hispanics, and females, but each group appears to experience long COVID differently. Therefore, additional research is needed to determine the best method to treat and manage this poorly understood condition.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Black or African American/psychology , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , Cognition , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Incidence , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/diagnosis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/ethnology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/psychology , United States/epidemiology , White/psychology , White/statistics & numerical data , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/ethnology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Race Factors , Sex Factors , Asian/psychology , Asian/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/psychology , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 76, 2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular cognitive training can boost or maintain cognitive and brain functions known to decline with age. Most studies administered such cognitive training on a computer and in a lab setting. However, everyday life activities, like musical practice or physical exercise that are complex and variable, might be more successful at inducing transfer effects to different cognitive domains and maintaining motivation. "Body-mind exercises", like Tai Chi or psychomotor exercise, may also positively affect cognitive functioning in the elderly. We will compare the influence of active music practice and psychomotor training over 6 months in Mild Cognitive Impairment patients from university hospital memory clinics on cognitive and sensorimotor performance and brain plasticity. The acronym of the study is COPE (Countervail cOgnitive imPairmEnt), illustrating the aim of the study: learning to better "cope" with cognitive decline. METHODS: We aim to conduct a randomized controlled multicenter intervention study on 32 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients (60-80 years), divided over 2 experimental groups: 1) Music practice; 2) Psychomotor treatment. Controls will consist of a passive test-retest group of 16 age, gender and education level matched healthy volunteers. The training regimens take place twice a week for 45 min over 6 months in small groups, provided by professionals, and patients should exercise daily at home. Data collection takes place at baseline (before the interventions), 3, and 6 months after training onset, on cognitive and sensorimotor capacities, subjective well-being, daily living activities, and via functional and structural neuroimaging. Considering the current constraints of the COVID-19 pandemic, recruitment and data collection takes place in 3 waves. DISCUSSION: We will investigate whether musical practice contrasted to psychomotor exercise in small groups can improve cognitive, sensorimotor and brain functioning in MCI patients, and therefore provoke specific benefits for their daily life functioning and well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The full protocol was approved by the Commission cantonale d'éthique de la recherche sur l'être humain de Genève (CCER, no. 2020-00510) on 04.05.2020, and an amendment by the CCER and the Commission cantonale d'éthique de la recherche sur l'être humain de Vaud (CER-VD) on 03.08.2021. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (20.09.2020, no. NCT04546451).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Music , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognition , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229634

ABSTRACT

The current pilot study was set to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of a personalized computerized cognitive training (CCT) intervention to improve cognitive function among people living with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Seventy three adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction more than 3 months after a diagnosis of COVID-19 took part in an 8-week training study. Participants' general cognitive function was assessed before they completed as many cognitive daily training sessions as they wished during an 8-week period, using a personalized CCT application at home. At the end of this period, participants repeated the general cognitive function assessment. The differences between the scores at 8 weeks and baseline in five cognitive domains (attention, memory, coordination, perception, reasoning), complemented with analyses of the changes based on the participants' age, training time, self-reported health level at baseline and time since the initial COVID-19 infection. Participants had significant cognitive dysfunction and self-reported negative health levels at baseline. Most of the participants obtained higher scores after CCT in each of the domains as compared with baseline. The magnitude of this score increase was high across domains. It is concluded that a self-administered CCT based on gamified cognitive tasks could be an effective way to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in persons with PASC. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT05571852.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Humans , Pilot Projects , Feasibility Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognition , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 766, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted exercise training is a promising strategy for promoting cognitive function and preventing dementia in older age. Despite the utility of exercise as an intervention, variation still exists in exercise-induced cognitive gains and questions remain regarding the type of training (i.e., what), as well as moderators (i.e., for whom) and mechanisms (i.e., how) of benefit. Both aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) enhance cognitive function in older adults without cognitive impairment; however, the vast majority of trials have focused exclusively on AT. Thus, more research is needed on RT, as well as on the combination of AT and RT, in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of dementia. Therefore, we aim to conduct a 6-month, 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial in older adults with MCI to assess the individual effects of AT and RT, and the combined effect of AT and RT on cognitive function and to determine the possible underlying biological mechanisms. METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen community-dwelling adults, aged 65 to 85 years, with MCI from metropolitan Vancouver will be recruited to participate in this study. Randomization will be stratified by biological sex and participants will be randomly allocated to one of the four experimental groups: (1) 4×/week balance and tone (BAT; i.e., active control); (2) combined 2×/week AT + 2×/week RT; (3) 2×/week AT + 2×/week BAT; or (4) 2×/week RT + 2×/week BAT. The primary outcome is cognitive function as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, health-related quality of life, physical function, actigraphy measures, questionnaires, and falls. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 6 months (i.e., trial completion), and 18 months (i.e., 12-month follow-up). DISCUSSION: Establishing the efficacy of different types and combinations of exercise training to minimize cognitive decline will advance our ability to prescribe exercise as "medicine" to treat MCI and delay the onset and progression of dementia. This trial is extremely timely as cognitive impairment and dementia pose a growing threat to global public health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02737878 . Registered on April 14, 2016.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Humans , Prescriptions , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200889

ABSTRACT

Studies on cognitive problems of persons with mild COVID-19 courses are still lacking. This study aimed to determine the frequency and associated factors of subjective and objective cognitive problems after COVID-19 in non-hospitalized persons. Study participants were examined at the University Hospital of Augsburg from 04/11/2020 to 26/05/2021. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IV digit span, Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), Regensburger verbal fluency test (RWT) and, subjective ratings of memory and concentration were applied. Of the 372 participants (mean age 46.8 ± 15.2 years, 54.3% women, median time after infection 9.1 months), 24.9% reported concentration and 21.9% memory problems. Overall, 55.6% of the participants had at least a mild negative alteration in any cognitive test. The strongest impairments were found regarding memory functions (41.1% mild alterations, 6.2% distinct impairments) and verbal fluency (12.4% mild alterations, 5.4% distinct impairments). SCWT showed negative alterations in no more than 3.0% of the participants. Level of school education, age, and depressiveness emerged as significantly related to the cognitive tests. The number of complaints and depressiveness were significantly associated with subjective memory and concentration problems. It is important to identify mild cognitive impairment in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients early to offer them effective interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987792

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Preventive measures to control the spread of COVID-19 are essential, but they often cause social isolation and diminish the physical and mental health of older adults. In cognitively impaired individuals, the pandemic has worsened behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Here, we explored the factors contributing to the worsening of BPSD during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: Potential patients were identified at a memory clinic in Japan between June 2017 and June 2021. Eligible patients had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia during the study period. The outcome was BPSD, as assessed by using the Dementia Behavioral Disorders Scale. Information on patients' lifestyle habits and use of care services was obtained for use as primary explanatory variables; multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between BPSD and care services use or lifestyle habits. The model was adjusted for sociodemographic factors, and the interaction terms of the pandemic period with lifestyle and service use were included to evaluate the effects of COVID-19. (3) Results: We identified 977 participants with MCI and 1380 with dementia (MCI group: 69.8% age 75 years or older, 54.2% female; dementia group: 79.8% age 75 years or older, 64.8% female). After adjustment for possible confounders, significantly worse BPSD was demonstrated in those who used daycare services during COVID-19 (both MCI and dementia patients; p = 0.007 and p = 0.025 respectively) and in those with poor nutritional function (dementia patients; p = 0.040). (4) Conclusions and Implications: During COVID-19, poor nutritional status and use of daycare services were associated with BPSD in those with cognitive decline. These findings indicate the need to fully examine the quantity and quality of care services for people with cognitive decline during emergencies and to continue to provide effective services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Behavioral Symptoms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(2): 537-547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of social deprivation, such as COVID-19-related lockdowns, are associated with deleterious effects on cognitive functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gauge the effect of prolonged social isolation on the cognitive function of older adults with neurocognitive disorders. METHODS: We recruited 125 older adults with minor or major neurocognitive disorders divided into two groups. The control group was tested at the first period of the study (October 2018-May 2019), whereas the experimental group was evaluated at the second chronological period of the study (October 2020-May 2021) during the second wave of COVID-19. Neuropsychological tests were performed at baseline and six months after baseline. RESULTS: In the control group, significant changes in the scores from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; p = 0.049) and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia (FRSSD; p = 0.005) were found between baseline and follow-up assessments, whereas no changes were identified in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; p = 0.229) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; p = 0.619) scores. In the experimental group, the scores from all neuropsychological tests (MoCA, MMSE, GDS, and FRSSD; p < 0.001 for all) were significantly different at follow-up when compared with those at baseline measurements. Moreover, significant deterioration of specific functions assessed in MMSE and FRSSD was detected, especially in the experimental group. CONCLUSION: This study highlights cognitive functions directly affected by social deprivation of individuals with neurocognitive disorders. The findings can be used in the rehabilitation from confinement and its negative consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Neurocognitive Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics
15.
Neurol Sci ; 43(8): 4599-4604, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection entails neuroinvasive, neuroinflammatory, and treatment-related features accounting for cognitive deficits in COVID-19-recovered patients. Although screening for such dysfunctions in this population is considered clinically relevant, contributions to cognitive phenotyping including premorbid and disease-related confounders are scarcely represented. This study thus aimed at describing the cognitive outcome at the function-/domain-level of post-infectious SARS-CoV-2 patients being already at risk (RCD +) or not (RCD -) for cognitive decline. METHODS: Fifty-four COVID-19-recovered individuals were classified as either RCD + or RCD - according to medical records. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Addebrooke Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Attentive Matrices (AM) were administered (N = 54, 34, 28, and 28 patients, respectively). RESULTS: Prevalence of defective (cutoff = 24.89) MMSE scores was 24.3% in RCD + patients and 5.9% in the RCD - group. ACE-R-total below cutoff scores were less frequent (RCD + : 5.4%; RCD - : 5.9%). Abnormal performances at the FAB an AM were respectively detected in 18.9% and 8.1% of RCD + patients and 0% and 11.8% of the RCD - group. Within the ACE-R subtests, those assessing orientation, attention, and fluency were the most frequently impaired in both groups. Disease-related variables were mostly unassociated with cognitive measures. DISCUSSION: Both RCD + and RCD - COVID-19-recovered individuals might show cognitive deficits within the dysexecutive-inattentive and amnesic spectrum. Non-instrumental, executive/attentive dysfunctions are predominant in this population and can be detected by both screening and domain-specific psychometric tests-although the latter might be more sensitive in RCD - patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 375, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To answer whether older adults' cognitive function benefits from ICT use, we (1) examined the relationship between ICT use and cognitive decline during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) explored the potential role of ICT use in mitigating the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From February to March 2021, a mail survey was distributed to 1,400 older adults aged 70-89 years old. Responded participants were 1,003 (71.6% response rate). Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) was the independent variable. ICT use was assessed based on ICT use history and current ICT use activities. Loneliness was based on the Japanese version of the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was a total score of six items. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed and stratified by age groups (70-79 and ≥ 80 years). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of people aged ≥ 80 years who reported cognitive decline was twice that of 70s. Non-ICT use was independently associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline in participants aged ≥ 80 years. Furthermore, the significant associations between cognitive decline and interaction items (non-ICT use by loneliness or social isolation) were observed in the ≥ 80 age group. No association was found in the 70-79 age group. CONCLUSIONS: Non-ICT users with high loneliness or social isolation scores were more likely to experience cognitive decline for adults age ≥ 80 years. For older adults who were vulnerable to poor social relationships, ICT use is potentially an efficient intervention. Further longitudinal investigations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Technology
17.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 101: 104706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of socially isolated older adults has increased owing to the coronavirus disease pandemic, thus leading to a decrease in cognitive functions among this group. Smartphone use is expected to be a reasonable preventive measure against cognitive decline in this social context. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of social isolation and smartphone use on cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We divided 4,601 community-dwelling older adults into four groups based on their levels of social isolation and smartphone use. Then, we conducted cognitive functions tests including a word list memory task, trail-making test, and symbol digit substitution task. Social isolation was defined when participants met two or more of the following measures: domestic isolation, less social contact, and social disengagement. We used an analysis of covariance adjusted by background information to measure between-group differences in levels of cognitive functions and social isolation. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association of standardized scores of cognitive function tests with smartphone use. RESULTS: Smartphone users' scores of the symbol digit substitution task were superior compared with both non-users with social isolation and without. All cognitive functions were associated with smartphone use among non-socially and socially isolated participants. Socially isolated older adults showed an association only between trail making test- part A and smartphone use. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone use was associated with cognitive functions (memory, attentional function, executive function, and processing speed) even in socially isolated community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Smartphone , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Social Isolation
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(1): 305-315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793085

ABSTRACT

Wang et al. analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment accuracy as screening tests for detecting dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such tests are at the center of controversy regarding recognition and treatment of AD. The continued widespread use of tools such as MMSE (1975) underscores the failure of advancing cognitive screening and assessment, which has hampered the development and evaluation of AD treatments. It is time to employ readily available, efficient computerized measures for population/mass screening, clinical assessment of dementia progression, and accurate determination of approaches for prevention and treatment of AD and related conditions.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Mass Screening , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785847

ABSTRACT

Numerous data indicate the presence of cognitive impairment in people who have undergone COVID-19, often called COVID Fog (CF). This phenomenon persists even 6 months after infection, and its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully known. The aim of this article was to analyze the relationship among cognitive functioning, clinical data and nutrition indexes in patients discharged from the COVID-19 hospital of the Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. The sample comprised 17 individuals-10 women and 7 men, with ages of 65 ± 14 years. Cognitive impairment was measured with the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The nutrition parameters included: hemoglobin, red blood cells, total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, phosphates, calcium and sodium. The analysis showed that albumin concentration significantly correlated with the total MoCA score and especially with the short-term memory test score. Conversely, total cholesterol, and especially LDL concentrations, were highly and negatively associated with the MoCA score. In conclusion: markers of nutritional status are correlated with the severity of CF. Individuals with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition should be screened for CF. Further studies need to be performed in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Malnutrition , Aged , Albumins , COVID-19/complications , Cholesterol , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/psychology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Patient Discharge
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785634

ABSTRACT

Older adults are vulnerable towards cognitive frailty that can lead to adverse health outcomes and telerehabilitation appears to be a potential platform to reverse cognitive frailty among older adults. The aim of this coping review is to identify the usage of telerehabilitation and its common platform of delivery among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or cognitive frailty (CF). Articles published from January 2015 until October 2020 were selected. Out of the 1738 articles retrieved, six studies were identified. Two articles were randomized controlled trials, one was a pilot study and three were qualitative studies. The outcome suggests that telerehabilitation may improve the quality of life among participants as well as it can be a useful and supportive digital platform for health care. Some types of technologies commonly used were smartphones or telephones with internet, television-based assistive integrated technology, mobile application and videoconference. Telerehabilitation utilization in managing cognitive frailty among older adults is still limited and more research is required to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability. Although telerehabilitation appears to be implemented among older adults with MCI and CF, some social support is still required to improve the adherence and effectiveness of telerehabilitation. Future research should focus on the evaluation of acceptance and participants' existing knowledge towards telerehabilitation to achieve its target.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Telerehabilitation , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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