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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 375, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To answer whether older adults' cognitive function benefits from ICT use, we (1) examined the relationship between ICT use and cognitive decline during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) explored the potential role of ICT use in mitigating the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From February to March 2021, a mail survey was distributed to 1,400 older adults aged 70-89 years old. Responded participants were 1,003 (71.6% response rate). Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) was the independent variable. ICT use was assessed based on ICT use history and current ICT use activities. Loneliness was based on the Japanese version of the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was a total score of six items. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed and stratified by age groups (70-79 and ≥ 80 years). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of people aged ≥ 80 years who reported cognitive decline was twice that of 70s. Non-ICT use was independently associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline in participants aged ≥ 80 years. Furthermore, the significant associations between cognitive decline and interaction items (non-ICT use by loneliness or social isolation) were observed in the ≥ 80 age group. No association was found in the 70-79 age group. CONCLUSIONS: Non-ICT users with high loneliness or social isolation scores were more likely to experience cognitive decline for adults age ≥ 80 years. For older adults who were vulnerable to poor social relationships, ICT use is potentially an efficient intervention. Further longitudinal investigations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Technology
2.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 101: 104706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of socially isolated older adults has increased owing to the coronavirus disease pandemic, thus leading to a decrease in cognitive functions among this group. Smartphone use is expected to be a reasonable preventive measure against cognitive decline in this social context. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of social isolation and smartphone use on cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We divided 4,601 community-dwelling older adults into four groups based on their levels of social isolation and smartphone use. Then, we conducted cognitive functions tests including a word list memory task, trail-making test, and symbol digit substitution task. Social isolation was defined when participants met two or more of the following measures: domestic isolation, less social contact, and social disengagement. We used an analysis of covariance adjusted by background information to measure between-group differences in levels of cognitive functions and social isolation. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association of standardized scores of cognitive function tests with smartphone use. RESULTS: Smartphone users' scores of the symbol digit substitution task were superior compared with both non-users with social isolation and without. All cognitive functions were associated with smartphone use among non-socially and socially isolated participants. Socially isolated older adults showed an association only between trail making test- part A and smartphone use. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone use was associated with cognitive functions (memory, attentional function, executive function, and processing speed) even in socially isolated community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Smartphone , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Social Isolation
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(1): 305-315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793085

ABSTRACT

Wang et al. analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment accuracy as screening tests for detecting dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such tests are at the center of controversy regarding recognition and treatment of AD. The continued widespread use of tools such as MMSE (1975) underscores the failure of advancing cognitive screening and assessment, which has hampered the development and evaluation of AD treatments. It is time to employ readily available, efficient computerized measures for population/mass screening, clinical assessment of dementia progression, and accurate determination of approaches for prevention and treatment of AD and related conditions.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Mass Screening , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests
4.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785847

ABSTRACT

Numerous data indicate the presence of cognitive impairment in people who have undergone COVID-19, often called COVID Fog (CF). This phenomenon persists even 6 months after infection, and its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully known. The aim of this article was to analyze the relationship among cognitive functioning, clinical data and nutrition indexes in patients discharged from the COVID-19 hospital of the Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. The sample comprised 17 individuals-10 women and 7 men, with ages of 65 ± 14 years. Cognitive impairment was measured with the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The nutrition parameters included: hemoglobin, red blood cells, total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, phosphates, calcium and sodium. The analysis showed that albumin concentration significantly correlated with the total MoCA score and especially with the short-term memory test score. Conversely, total cholesterol, and especially LDL concentrations, were highly and negatively associated with the MoCA score. In conclusion: markers of nutritional status are correlated with the severity of CF. Individuals with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition should be screened for CF. Further studies need to be performed in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Malnutrition , Aged , Albumins , COVID-19/complications , Cholesterol , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/psychology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Patient Discharge
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785634

ABSTRACT

Older adults are vulnerable towards cognitive frailty that can lead to adverse health outcomes and telerehabilitation appears to be a potential platform to reverse cognitive frailty among older adults. The aim of this coping review is to identify the usage of telerehabilitation and its common platform of delivery among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or cognitive frailty (CF). Articles published from January 2015 until October 2020 were selected. Out of the 1738 articles retrieved, six studies were identified. Two articles were randomized controlled trials, one was a pilot study and three were qualitative studies. The outcome suggests that telerehabilitation may improve the quality of life among participants as well as it can be a useful and supportive digital platform for health care. Some types of technologies commonly used were smartphones or telephones with internet, television-based assistive integrated technology, mobile application and videoconference. Telerehabilitation utilization in managing cognitive frailty among older adults is still limited and more research is required to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability. Although telerehabilitation appears to be implemented among older adults with MCI and CF, some social support is still required to improve the adherence and effectiveness of telerehabilitation. Future research should focus on the evaluation of acceptance and participants' existing knowledge towards telerehabilitation to achieve its target.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Telerehabilitation , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775932

ABSTRACT

Social isolation and loneliness in older adults are associated with poor health outcomes and have been linked to an increased risk of cognitive impairment and incident dementia. Social engagement has been identified as a key factor in promoting positive health behaviors and quality of life and preventing social isolation and loneliness. Studies involving cognitively healthy older adults have shown the protective effects of both in-person and technology-based social engagement. However, the benefits of social engagement for people who are already at-risk of developing dementia, namely those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have yet to be elucidated. We present a narrative review of the literature, summarizing the research on social engagement in MCI. First, we identified social networks (quality, size, frequency, and closeness) and social activities (frequency, format, purpose, type, and content) as two overarching dimensions of an integrative framework for social engagement derived from literature examining typical cognitive aging. We then used this framework as a lens to examine studies of social engagement in MCI to explore (i) the relationship between in-person and technology-based social engagement and cognitive, emotional, and physical health, and (ii) interventions that target social engagement including technology-based approaches. Overall, we found that persons with MCI (PwMCI) may have different levels of social engagement than those experiencing typical cognitive aging. Moreover, in-person social engagement can have a positive impact on cognitive, emotional, and physical health for PwMCI. With respect to activity and network dimensions in our framework, we found that cognitive health has been more widely examined in PwMCI relative to physical and emotional health. Very few intervention studies have targeted social engagement, but both in-person and technology-based interventions appear to have promising health and well-being outcomes. Our multidimensional framework of social engagement provides guidance for research on characterizing the protective benefits of social engagement for PwMCI and informs the development of novel interventions including technology-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life , Social Participation , Technology
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 40-46, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that patients suffering post-acute COVID syndrome frequently report cognitive complaints, but their characteristics and pathophysiology are unknown. This study aims to determine the characteristics of cognitive dysfunction in patients reporting cognitive complaints after COVID-19 and to evaluate the correlation between cognitive function and anxiety, depression, sleep, and olfactory function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COVID-19 reporting cognitive complaints 9.12 ± 3.46 months after the acute infection. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological protocol, and scales of fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep and an olfactory test. Normative data and an age- and education matched healthy control group were used for comparison. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed a diminished performance on several tests evaluating attention and executive function, with alterations in processing speed, divided attention, selective attention, visual vigilance, intrinsic alertness, working memory, and inhibition; episodic memory; and visuospatial processing. Cognitive performance was correlated with olfactory dysfunction, and sleep quality and anxiety to a lesser extent, but not depression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 reporting cognitive symptoms showed a reduced cognitive performance, especially in the attention-concentration and executive functioning, episodic memory, and visuospatial processing domains. Future studies are necessary to disentangle the specific mechanisms associated with COVID-19 cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
8.
Psychogeriatrics ; 22(3): 360-372, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food art therapy (FAT) has multiple modalities in which cognition, emotion, and social changes are stimulated. The purpose of this study was to design a multimodal approach to a food art therapy (MM-FAT) program and identify its effects on cognitive ability, daily living functioning, depression, self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-expression, and social functioning in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia by employing a mixed methods research design. METHODS: The participants included 39 patients from a public dementia care centre in Seoul, Korea. The intervention group, which comprised 20 participants, received 12 MM-FAT sessions 3 times a week for 4 weeks, and the control group, which included 19 participants, received usual care. The MM-FAT program was evaluated based on its effectiveness on cognitive, daily living, emotional, and social functioning outcome measures at three time points using repeated measures analysis of variance. Semi-structured interviews (n = 9) were conducted to evaluate the overall experience of the MM-FAT program and its outcomes. RESULTS: The findings reveal that MM-FAT has a positive effect on the cognitive, emotional, and social functioning of individuals with MCI and mild dementia. However, there were no enhancements in individuals' daily living functioning, and the lasting effects of the intervention could not be assessed. Cognition and depression increased significantly at the end of the MM-FAT program. Self-expression and self-efficacy were significantly higher in the MM-FAT group than in the control group. The semi-structured interviews revealed improvements in participants' behaviour, communication, and interaction. CONCLUSION: This mixed methods study focused on individuals with MCI or mild dementia contributes to an understanding of the effectiveness of a FAT program employing a multimodal approach. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was able to enrich the effects of MM-FAT on cognitive, emotional, and social functioning through qualitative findings.


Subject(s)
Art Therapy , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 122(1): 23-29, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653825

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has taken the lives of nearly 5.2 million up to now. With no definite treatment and considering close contact as the primary mode of transmission, telemedicine has emerged as an essential medical care platform. Virtual medical communications have offered clinicians the opportunity to visit and follow up on patients more efficiently during the lockdown. Not only has telemedicine improved multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' health and quality of life during the pandemic, but it could also be used as a cost-effective platform for physical and cognitive MS rehabilitation programs. Cognitive impairment is a common problem among MS patients even at the initial phases of the disease. Rehabilitation training programs such as RehaCom, BrainHQ, Speed of Processing Training (PST), and COGNI-TRAcK have made great strides in improving a wide range of cognitive functions that MS patients are challenged with. Regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the cognitive aspects of MS patients, efforts to implement rehabilitation training applications have been increased. Web-based mobile applications, virtual visits, and telephone follow-ups are examples of such efforts. Having said that, limitations such as privacy, socioeconomic disparities, e-health literacy, study settings, and challenges of neurologic examinationss have been raised. Since most MS patients are young, all the beneficiaries are encouraged to embrace the research in the field to pave the road for more feasible and efficient ways of cognitive enhancement in MS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Communicable Disease Control , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Telemedicine , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life
12.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 206-213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite emerging evidence about the association between social frailty and cognitive impairment, little is known about the role of executive function in this interplay, and whether the co-existence of social frailty and cognitive impairment predisposes to adverse health outcomes in healthy community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine independent associations between social frailty with the MMSE and FAB, and to determine if having both social frailty and cognitive impairment is associated with worse health outcomes than either or neither condition. METHODS: We studied 229 cognitively intact and functionally independent community-dwelling older adults (mean age= 67.2±7.43). Outcome measures comprise physical activity; physical performance and frailty; geriatric syndromes; life space and quality of life. We compared Chinese Mini Mental State Examination (CMMSE) and Chinese Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores across the socially non-frail, socially pre-frail and socially frail. Participants were further recategorized into three subgroups (neither, either or both) based on presence of social frailty and cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score below the educational adjusted cut-offs in either CMMSE or FAB. We performed logistic regression adjusted for significant covariates and mood to examine association with outcomes across the three subgroups. RESULTS: Compared with CMMSE, Chinese FAB scores significantly decreased across the social frailty spectrum (p<0.001), suggesting strong association between executive function with social frailty. We derived three subgroups relative to relationship with socially frailty and executive dysfunction: (i) Neither, N=140(61.1%), (ii) Either, N=79(34.5%), and (iii) Both, N=10(4.4%). Compared with neither or either subgroups, having both social frailty and executive dysfunction was associated with anorexia (OR=4.79, 95% CI= 1.04-22.02), near falls and falls (OR= 5.23, 95% CI= 1.10-24.90), lower life-space mobility (odds ratio, OR=9.80, 95% CI=2.07-46.31) and poorer quality of life (OR= 13.2, 95% CI= 2.38-73.4). CONCLUSION: Our results explicated the association of executive dysfunction with social frailty, and their synergistic relationship independent of mood with geriatric syndromes, decreased life space and poorer quality of life. In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the association between social frailty and executive dysfunction merits further study as a possible target for early intervention in relatively healthy older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Executive Function , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/psychology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Syndrome
13.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 7(4): 294-298, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389817

ABSTRACT

Individuals experiencing brain aging, cognitive decline, and dementia are currently confronted with several more complex challenges due to the current Sars-Cov-2 pandemic as compared to younger and cognitively healthy people. During the first six months of the pandemic, we are experiencing critical issues related to the management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The evolving, highly contagious global viral spread has created a pressure test of unprecedented proportions for the existing brain health care infrastructure and related services for management, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Social distancing and lock-down measures are catalyzing and accelerating a technological paradigm shift, away from a traditional model of brain healthcare focused on late symptomatic disease stages and towards optimized preventive strategies to slow brain aging and increase resilience at preclinical asymptomatic stages. Digital technologies transform global healthcare for accessible equality of opportunities in order to generate better outcomes for brain aging aligned with the paradigm of preventive medicine.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17416, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380910

ABSTRACT

Burden of COVID-19 on Hospitals across the globe is enormous and has clinical and economic implications. In this retrospective study including consecutive adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted between 3/2020 and 30/9/20, we aimed to identify post-discharge outcomes and risk factors for re-admission among COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Mortality and re-admissions were documented for a median post discharge follow up of 59 days (interquartile range 28,161). Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for re-admission were performed. Overall, 618 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included. Of the 544 patient who were discharged, 10 patients (1.83%) died following discharge and 50 patients (9.2%) were re-admitted. Median time to re-admission was 7 days (interquartile range 3, 24). Oxygen saturation or treatment prior to discharge were not associated with re-admissions. Risk factors for re-admission in multivariate analysis included solid organ transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.73-7.5, p = 0.0028) and higher Charlson comorbidity index (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.46, p < 0.0001). Mean age of post discharge mortality cases was 85.0 (SD 9.98), 80% of them had cognitive decline or needed help in ADL at baseline. In conclusion, re-admission rates of hospitalized COVID-19 are fairly moderate. Predictors of re-admission are non-modifiable, including baseline comorbidities, rather than COVID-19 severity or treatment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living/psychology , COVID-19/mortality , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313840

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(7): 1019-1023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292126

ABSTRACT

To prevent cognitive decline, non-pharmacological therapies such as reminiscence for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are required, however, the use of nursing homes was limited due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, the demand for remote-care is increasing. We hypothesized that immersive virtual reality (iVR) could be used more effectively than conventional reminiscence for anxiety. We first examined the effectiveness and safety of reminiscence using iVR (iVR reminiscence session) in patients with MCI. After COVID-19 imposed restriction on visiting nursing homes, we conducted online iVR reminiscence session (remote iVR reminiscence session) and compared its effectiveness with that of interpersonal iVR reminiscence session (face-to-face iVR reminiscence session). The results of two elderly with MCI suggested that iVR reminiscence could reduce anxiety and the burden of care without serious side effects. The effects of remote iVR reminiscence might be almost as effective as those of face-to-face one.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Imagery, Psychotherapy/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Virtual Reality , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications , Nursing Homes , Patient Satisfaction , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome
18.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(4): 469-480, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients present long-lasting physical and neuropsychological impairment, which may require rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: The current cross-sectional study characterizes post COVID-19 sequelae and persistent symptoms in patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program. METHODS: Thirty patients [16 post-ICU and 14 non-ICU; median age = 54(43.8-62) years; 19 men] presenting sequelae and/or persistent symptoms (>3 months after acute COVID-19) were selected of 41 patients referred for neurorehabilitation. Patients underwent physical, neuropsychological and respiratory evaluation and assessment of impact of fatigue and quality of life. RESULTS: The main reasons for referral to rehabilitation were: fatigue (86.6%), dyspnea (66.7%), subjective cognitive impairment (46.7%) and neurological sequelae (33.3%). Post-ICU patient presented sequelae of critical illness myopathy and polyneuropathy, stroke and encephalopathy and lower forced vital capacity compared to non-ICU patients. Cognitive impairment was found in 63.3% of patients, with a similar profile in both sub-groups. Increased physical fatigue, anxiety and depression and low quality of life were prevalent irrespective of acute COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: The variability of post COVID-19 physical and neuropsychological impairment requires a complex screening process both in ICU and non-ICU patients. The high impact of persistent symptoms on daily life activities and quality of life, regardless of acute infection severity, indicate need for rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Fatigue/rehabilitation , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169654

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 39-48, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157293

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than 100 million people and clinics are being established for diagnosing and treating lingering symptoms, so called long-COVID. A key concern are neurological and long-term cognitive complications. At the same time, the prevalence and nature of the cognitive sequalae of COVID-19 are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency, pattern and severity of cognitive impairments 3-4 months after COVID-19 hospital discharge, their relation to subjective cognitive complaints, quality of life and illness variables. We recruited patients at their follow-up visit at the respiratory outpatient clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg, approximately four months after hospitalisation with COVID-19. Patients underwent pulmonary, functional and cognitive assessments. Twenty-nine patients were included. The percentage of patients with clinically significant cognitive impairment ranged from 59% to 65% depending on the applied cut-off for clinical relevance of cognitive impairment, with verbal learning and executive functions being most affected. Objective cognitive impairment scaled with subjective cognitive complaints, lower work function and poorer quality of life. Cognitive impairments were associated with d-dimer levels during acute illness and residual pulmonary dysfunction. In conclusion, these findings provide new evidence for frequent cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 and indicate an association with the severity of the lung affection and potentially restricted cerebral oxygen delivery. Further, the associations with quality of life and functioning call for systematic cognitive screening of patients after recovery from severe COVID-19 illness and implementation of targeted treatments for patients with persistent cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Patient Discharge/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
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