Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 39(6): 393-408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective treatment is needed for long-COVID patients which suffer from symptoms of vision and/or cognition impairment such as impaired attention, memory, language comprehension, or fatigue. OBJECTIVE: Because COVID-19infection causes reduced blood flow which may cause neuronal inactivation, we explored if neuromodulation with non-invasive brain stimulation using microcurrent (NIBS), known to enhance blood flow and neuronal synchronization, can reduce these symptoms. METHODS: Two female long-COVID patients were treated for 10-13 days with alternating current stimulation of the eyes and brain. While one patient (age 40) was infected with the SARS CoV-2 virus, the other (age 72) developed symptoms following AstraZeneca vaccination. Before and after therapy, cognition was assessed subjectively by interview and visual fields quantified using perimetry. One patient was also tested with a cognitive test battery and with a retinal dynamic vascular analyser (DVA), a surrogate marker of vascular dysregulation in the brain. RESULTS: In both patients NIBS markedly improved cognition and partially reversed visual field loss within 3-4 days. Cognitive tests in one patient confirmed recovery of up to 40-60% in cognitive subfunctions with perimetry results showing stable and visual field recovery even during follow-up. DVA showed that NIBS reduced vascular dysregulation by normalizing vessel dynamics (dilation/constriction), with particularly noticeable changes in the peripheral veins and arteries. CONCLUSIONS: NIBS was effective in improving visual and cognitive deficits in two confirmed SARS-COV-2 patients. Because recovery of function was associated with restoration of vascular autoregulation, we propose that (i) hypometabolic, "silent" neurons are the likely biological cause of long-COVID associated visual and cognitive deficits, and (ii) reoxygenation of these "silent" neurons provides the basis for neural reactivation and neurological recovery. Controlled trials are now needed to confirm these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Vision Disorders , Adult , Aged , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Vision Disorders/therapy , Vision Disorders/virology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0248446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571977

ABSTRACT

We examined the changes in cognitive function due to restrictions in daily life during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive decline. This was a retrospective, case-control study. The participants include 88 older adults with mild cognitive decline (mean age = 81.0 [standard deviation = 6.5] years) who participated in a class designed to help prevent cognitive decline. This class was suspended from early-March to end of May 2020 to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and resumed in June 2020. We collected demographic and cognitive function test data (Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale [TDAS]) before and after class suspension and questionnaire data on their lifestyle and thoughts during the suspension. Change in TDAS scores from before and after the suspension was used to divide the participants into decline (2 or more points worsening) and non-decline (all other participants) groups, with 16 (18.2%) and 72 (81.8%) participants in each group, respectively. A logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio (OR) for cognitive decline was lower in participants whose responses were "engaged in hobbies" (OR = 0.07, p = 0.015), "worked on a worksheet about cognitive training provided by the town hall" (OR = 0.19, p = 0.026), and "had conversations over the phone" (OR = 0.28, p = 0.0495). There was a significant improvement in TDAS scores after class was resumed (p < 0.01). A proactive approach to intellectual activities and social ties may be important for the prevention of cognitive decline during periods of restrictions due to COVID-19. We found that cognitive function test scores before class suspension significantly improved after resuming classes. We speculate that continued participation in this class led to positive behavioral changes in daily life during periods of restriction due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Independent Living/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Humans , Japan , Life Style , Logistic Models , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Ann Neurol ; 91(1): 150-157, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527416

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 causes a persistent central nervous system infection. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody index and SARS-CoV-2 RNA were studied in cerebrospinal fluid following COVID-19. Cerebrospinal fluid was assessed between days 1 and 30 (n = 12), between days 31 and 90 (n = 8), or later than 90 days (post-COVID-19, n = 20) after COVID-19 diagnosis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was absent in all patients, and in none of the 20 patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome were intrathecally produced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected. The absence of evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid argues against a persistent central nervous system infection as a cause of neurological or neuropsychiatric post-COVID-19 syndrome. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:150-157.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459395

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has emerged as a human catastrophe worldwide, and it has impacted human life more detrimentally than the combined effect of World Wars I and II. Various research studies reported that the disease is not confined to the respiratory system but also leads to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting that the virus is potent to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the damage to CNS may continue to rise even after the COVID-19 infection subsides which may further induce a long-term impact on the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging techniques is the ideal platform to detect and quantify pathological manifestations in the brain of COVID-19 survivors. In this context, a scheme based on structural, spectroscopic, and behavioral studies could be executed to monitor the gradual changes in the brain non-invasively due to COVID-19 which may further help in quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of the survivors. Extensive research is required in this direction for identifying the mechanism and implications of COVID-19 in the brain. Cohort studies are urgently required for monitoring the effects of this pandemic on individuals of various subtypes longitudinally.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain Mapping/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
5.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305620

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has emerged as a human catastrophe worldwide, and it has impacted human life more detrimentally than the combined effect of World Wars I and II. Various research studies reported that the disease is not confined to the respiratory system but also leads to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting that the virus is potent to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the damage to CNS may continue to rise even after the COVID-19 infection subsides which may further induce a long-term impact on the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging techniques is the ideal platform to detect and quantify pathological manifestations in the brain of COVID-19 survivors. In this context, a scheme based on structural, spectroscopic, and behavioral studies could be executed to monitor the gradual changes in the brain non-invasively due to COVID-19 which may further help in quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of the survivors. Extensive research is required in this direction for identifying the mechanism and implications of COVID-19 in the brain. Cohort studies are urgently required for monitoring the effects of this pandemic on individuals of various subtypes longitudinally.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain Mapping/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
7.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1607-1613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290003

ABSTRACT

Long-term complications after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are common in hospitalized patients, but the spectrum of symptoms in milder cases needs further investigation. We conducted a long-term follow-up in a prospective cohort study of 312 patients-247 home-isolated and 65 hospitalized-comprising 82% of total cases in Bergen during the first pandemic wave in Norway. At 6 months, 61% (189/312) of all patients had persistent symptoms, which were independently associated with severity of initial illness, increased convalescent antibody titers and pre-existing chronic lung disease. We found that 52% (32/61) of home-isolated young adults, aged 16-30 years, had symptoms at 6 months, including loss of taste and/or smell (28%, 17/61), fatigue (21%, 13/61), dyspnea (13%, 8/61), impaired concentration (13%, 8/61) and memory problems (11%, 7/61). Our findings that young, home-isolated adults with mild COVID-19 are at risk of long-lasting dyspnea and cognitive symptoms highlight the importance of infection control measures, such as vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Norway , Patient Isolation , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(1): 139-154, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281270

ABSTRACT

Recently, much attention has been drawn to the importance of the impact of infectious disease on human cognition. Several theories have been proposed, to explain the cognitive decline following an infection as well as to understand better the pathogenesis of human dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. This article aims to review the state of the art regarding the knowledge about the impact of acute viral infections on human cognition, laying a foundation to explore the possible cognitive decline followed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To reach this goal, we conducted a narrative review systematizing six acute viral infections as well as the current knowledge about COVID-19 and its impact on human cognition. Recent findings suggest probable short- and long-term COVID-19 impacts in cognition, even in asymptomatic individuals, which could be accounted for by direct and indirect pathways to brain dysfunction. Understanding this scenario might help clinicians and health leaders to deal better with a wave of neuropsychiatric issues that may arise following COVID-19 pandemic as well as with other acute viral infections, to alleviate the cognitive sequelae of these infections around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 883-898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259331

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment following SARS-CoV-2 infection is being increasingly recognized as an acute and possibly also long-term sequela of the disease. Direct viral entry as well as systemic mechanisms such as cytokine storm are thought to contribute to neuroinflammation in these patients. Biomarkers of COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some limited evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET. Possible confounders include cognitive impairment due to hypoxia and mechanical ventilation and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conversely, patients already suffering from dementia, as well as their caregivers, have been greatly impacted by the disruption of their care caused by COVID-19. Patients with dementia have experienced worsening of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms, and the rate of COVID-19-related deaths is disproportionately high among cognitively impaired people. Multiple factors, such as difficulties in remembering and executing safeguarding procedures, age, comorbidities, residing in care homes, and poorer access to hospital standard of care play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions and new technologies have shown a potential for the management of patients with dementia, and for the support of their caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(10): 671-676, 2021 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Post-COVID cognitive deficits usually manifest as a frontal dysexecutive syndrome combined with fatigue and dysphoria and/or with attentional and memory deficits. Several pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID encephalopathy are understood, but no specific treatment strategies have been established so far. We assume that general practitioners, psychiatrists, neurologists and social workers will need to take care of the activation, reintegration and expert appraisals of patients with post-COVID fatigue and cognitive deficits during the years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to provide the clinical presentation and physical therapist management for a patient with post-COVID syndrome. Secondarily, the report highlights the importance of assessing cognitive and emotional health in patients with post-COVID syndrome. METHODS (CASE DESCRIPTION): A 37-year-old woman tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and developed mild COVID-19 disease but did not require supplemental oxygen or hospitalization. The patient experienced persistent symptoms, including dyspnea, headaches, and cognitive fog. On day 62, they participated in an outpatient physical therapist evaluation that revealed deficits in exercise capacity, obtaining 50% of their age-predicted 6-minute walk distance. They had minor reductions in muscle strength and cognitive function. Self-reported quality of life was 50, and they scored above established cut-off scores for provisional diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: The patient participated in biweekly physical therapist sessions for 8 weeks, which included aerobic training, strengthening exercises, diaphragmatic breathing techniques, and mindfulness training. Metabolic equivalent for task levels increased with variability over the course of the program. The patient's muscle strength, physical function, and exercise capacity improved. 6-Minute walk distance increased by 199 m, equating to 80% of their age-predicted distance. Quality of life and PTSD scores did not improve. At evaluation after physical therapy, the patient was still experiencing migraines, dyspnea, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This case report described the clinical presentation and physical therapist management of a person with post-COVID syndrome, a novel health condition for which little evidence exists to guide rehabilitation examination and interventions. Physical therapists should consider cognitive function and emotional health in their plan of care for patients with post-COVID syndromes. IMPACT: This case alerts physical therapists to post-COVID syndrome-which can include debilitating symptoms of decreased aerobic tolerance, anxiety, PTSD, and cognitive dysfunction-and to the role that therapists can play in assessing these symptoms and managing these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Physical Therapy Modalities , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Walk Test
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931447, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106510

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now recognized. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the terminology for this emerging chronic clinical syndrome, which includes long COVID, chronic COVID syndrome, post-COVID-19 syndrome, post-acute COVID-19, and long-hauler COVID-19. In this review, I will use the term "long COVID". A review of the medical history and epidemiology of past pandemics and epidemics in modern literature review identifies common long-term post-infectious disorders, with the common finding of altered cognition. In the brain, the cerebral hypoxia induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in "brain fog". Historically, the common symptom of altered cognition has been reported during earlier pandemics, which include the influenza pandemics of 1889 and 1892 (Russian flu), the Spanish flu pandemic (1918-1919), encephalitis lethargica, diphtheria, and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome or post-viral fatigue syndrome). There are similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome and the "brain fog" described in long COVID. During past viral epidemics and pandemics, a commonality of neural targets may have increased viral survival by conformational matching. The neurological and psychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or long COVID, may have emerged from neural effects that have emerged from an invertebrate and vertebrate virosphere. This review aims to present a historical overview of infections and disorders associated with neurological and psychiatric sequelae that have shown similarities with long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 191-195, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059483

ABSTRACT

As cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mount worldwide, attention is needed on potential long-term neurologic impacts for the majority of patients who experience mild to moderate illness managed as outpatients. To date, there has not been discussion of persistent neurocognitive deficits in patients with milder COVID-19. We present two cases of non-hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19 with persistent neurocognitive symptoms. Commonly used cognitive screens were normal, while more detailed testing revealed working memory and executive functioning deficits. An observational cohort study of individuals recovering from COVID-19 (14 or more days following symptom onset) identified that among the first 100 individuals enrolled, 14 were non-hospitalized patients reporting persistent cognitive issues. These 14 participants had a median age of 39 years (interquartile range: 35-56), and cognitive symptoms were present for at least a median of 98 days (interquartile range: 71-120 following acute COVID-19 symptoms); no participants with follow-up evaluation reported symptom resolution. We discuss potential mechanisms to be explored in future studies, including direct viral effects, indirect consequences of immune activation, and immune dysregulation causing auto-antibody production.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Executive Function/physiology , Female , Humans , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Outpatients , Time Factors
15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(6): 1056-1065, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The increasing evidence of SARS-CoV-2 impact on the central nervous system (CNS) raises key questions on its impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementia. METHODS: The Alzheimer's Association and representatives from more than 30 countries-with technical guidance from the World Health Organization-have formed an international consortium to study the short-and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS-including the underlying biology that may contribute to AD and other dementias. This consortium will link teams from around the world covering more than 22 million COVID-19 cases to enroll two groups of individuals including people with disease, to be evaluated for follow-up evaluations at 6, 9, and 18 months, and people who are already enrolled in existing international research studies to add additional measures and markers of their underlying biology. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing evidence and understanding of SARS-CoV-2's impact on the CNS raises key questions on the impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, AD, and other dementia. This program of studies aims to better understand the long-term consequences that may impact the brain, cognition, and functioning-including the underlying biology that may contribute to AD and other dementias.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dementia/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 35: 1533317520976761, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975841

ABSTRACT

By incorporating appropriate drug(s) into lipid (biobased) nanocarriers, one obtains a combination therapeutic for dementia treatment that targets certain cell-surface scavenger receptors (mainly class B type I, or "SR-BI") and thereby crosses the blood-brain barrier. The cardiovascular risk factors for dementia trigger widespread inflammation -- which lead to neurodegeneration, gradual cognitive/memory decline, and eventually (late-onset) dementia. Accordingly, one useful strategy to delay dementia could be based upon nanotargeting drug(s), using lipid nanocarriers, toward a major receptor class responsible for inflammation-associated (cytokine-mediated) cell signaling events. At the same time, the immune response and excessive inflammation, commonly observed in the very recent human coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, may accelerate the progression of brain inflammatory neurodegeneration-which increases the probability of post-infection memory impairment and accelerating progression of Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the proposed multitasking combination therapeutic, using a (biobased) lipid nanocarrier, may also display greater effectiveness at different stages of dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Dementia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873485

ABSTRACT

Early case series suggest that about one-third of patients with COVID-19 present with neurological manifestations, including cerebrovascular disease, reported in 2%-6% of hospitalised patients. These are generally older patients with severe infection and comorbidities. Here we discuss the case of a previously fit and well 39-year-old man who presented with fever and respiratory symptoms, evolving in pneumonia with hypoxia but only requiring continuous positive airway pressure. After resolution of the respiratory disease, the patient developed focal neurology and was found to have bilateral occipital, thalamic and cerebellar infarcts. A diagnosis of COVID-19 central nervous system vasculopathy was made. He developed a florid neuropsychiatric syndrome, including paranoia, irritability, aggression and disinhibition, requiring treatment with antipsychotics and transfer to neurorehabilitation. Neuropsychometry revealed a wide range of cognitive deficits. The rapid evolution of the illness was matched by fast resolution of the neuropsychiatric picture with mild residual cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms , Brain Infarction , Brain Stem , Cerebellar Diseases , Cerebellum , Cognitive Dysfunction , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/physiopathology , Behavioral Symptoms/rehabilitation , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain Infarction/diagnosis , Brain Infarction/physiopathology , Brain Infarction/psychology , Brain Infarction/rehabilitation , Brain Stem/blood supply , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cerebellar Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebellar Diseases/psychology , Cerebellar Diseases/rehabilitation , Cerebellar Diseases/virology , Cerebellum/blood supply , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Male , Neurologic Examination/methods , Neuropsychological Tests , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychiatric Rehabilitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925641, 2020 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis (AHNE) is a rare manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. AHNE usually involves the subcortical white matter but not the cortical grey matter. This study describes the disruptive effects of AHNE associated with SARS-CoV-2 on cognitive function in a previously healthy and sound middle-aged woman resulting from alterations in cortical areas involved in the cognitive network. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old previously healthy woman with a history of inter-state travel developed a flu-like illness, followed by acute, steadily progressive cognitive impairment. She was admitted in a comatose state after a first tonic-clonic seizure. Blood tests were non-informative. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was indicative of AHNE. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed mild lymphocytosis with normal protein and normal glucose but an elevated IgG index. After testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, she was administered steroids. Treatment was ineffective, and the patient died. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 is a potential central nervous system (CNS) pathogen, which may manifest as AHNE. These patients may present with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and frontal dysexecutive syndrome, with cognitive impairment being the presenting feature of neuro-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The patient described in this report is unique for acute-onset and isolated cognitive impairments due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of clinical or radiological respiratory manifestations. These findings may help in the early detection and diagnosis of neuro-COVID-19, especially among clinicians and neurologists working in areas of endemic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/cerebrospinal fluid , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL