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1.
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20239353

ABSTRACT

En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.


SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
4.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2022: 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241303

ABSTRACT

Including social determinants of health (SDoH) data in health outcomes research is essential for studying the sources of healthcare disparities and developing strategies to mitigate stressors. In this report, we describe a pragmatic design and approach to explore the encoding needs for transmitting SDoH screening tool responses from a large safety-net hospital into the National Covid Cohort Collaborative (N3C) OMOP dataset. We provide a stepwise account of designing data mapping and ingestion for patient-level SDoH and summarize the results of screening. Our approach demonstrates that sharing of these important data - typically stored as non-standard, EHR vendor specific codes - is feasible. As SDoH screening gains broader use nationally, the approach described in this paper could be used for other screening instruments and improve the interoperability of these important data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , Cohort Studies , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mass Screening
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(2): 1248-1255, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236617

ABSTRACT

People with severe mental illness (SMI; including schizophrenia/psychosis, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD)) experience large disparities in physical health. Emerging evidence suggests this group experiences higher risks of infection and death from COVID-19, although the full extent of these disparities are not yet established. We investigated COVID-19 related infection, hospitalisation and mortality among people with SMI in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort study. Overall, 447,296 participants from UKB (schizophrenia/psychosis = 1925, BD = 1483 and MDD = 41,448, non-SMI = 402,440) were linked with healthcare and death records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine differences in COVID-19 outcomes by diagnosis, controlling for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. In unadjusted analyses, higher odds of COVID-19 mortality were seen among people with schizophrenia/psychosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00-7.34), BD (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.00-6.35), and MDD (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.69-2.33) compared to people with no SMI. Higher odds of infection and hospitalisation were also seen across all SMI groups, particularly among people with schizophrenia/psychosis (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.32-1.96; OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.47-4.72) and BD (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.85; OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.22-4.73). In fully adjusted models, mortality and hospitalisation odds remained significantly higher among all SMI groups, though infection odds remained significantly higher only for MDD. People with schizophrenia/psychosis, BD and MDD have higher risks of COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation and mortality. Only a proportion of these disparities were accounted for by pre-existing demographic characteristics or comorbidities. Vaccination and preventive measures should be prioritised in these particularly vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Schizophrenia , Biological Specimen Banks , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(19): 3013-3026, 2023 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged symptoms after corona virus disease 2019 (Long-COVID) in dialysis-dependent patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients are important as a possible risk factor for organ dysfunctions, especially gastrointestinal (GI) problems, during immunosuppressive therapy. AIM: To identify the characteristics of GI manifestations of Long-COVID in patients with dialysis-dependent or KT status. METHODS: This observational, prospective study included patients with COVID-19 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with the onset of symptoms between 1 January 2022 and 31 July 2022 which was explored at 3 mo after the onset, either through the out-patient follow-up or by telephone interviews. RESULTS: The 645 eligible participants consisted of 588 cases with hemodialysis (HD), 38 patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 19 KT recipients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection during the observation. Of these, 577 (89.5%) cases agreed to the interviews, while 64 (10.9%) patients with HD and 4 (10.5%) cases of PD were excluded. The mean age was 52 ± 11 years with 52% women. The median dialysis duration was 7 ± 3 and 5 ± 1 years for HD and PD groups, respectively, and the median time post-transplantation was 6 ± 2 years. Long-COVID was identified in 293/524 (56%) and 21/34 (62%) in HD and PD, respectively, and 7/19 (37%) KT recipients. Fatigue was the most prevalent (96%) of the non-GI tract symptoms, whereas anorexia (90.9%), loss of taste (64.4%), and abdominal pain (62.5%) were the first three common GI manifestations of Long-COVID. Notably, there were 6 cases of mesenteric panniculitis from 19 patients with GI symptoms in the KT group. CONCLUSION: Different from patients with non-chronic kidney disease, there was a high prevalence of GI manifestations of Long-COVID in dialysis-dependent patients and KT recipients. An appropriate long-term follow-up in these vulnerable populations after COVID-19 infection is possibly necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Prospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e070637, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify population health risks for domiciliary care workers (DCWs) in Wales, UK, working during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A population-level retrospective study linking occupational registration data to anonymised electronic health records maintained by the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank in a privacy-protecting trusted research environment. SETTING: Registered DCW population in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Records for all linked DCWs from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcome was confirmed COVID-19 infection; secondary outcomes included contacts for suspected COVID-19, mental health including self-harm, fit notes, respiratory infections not necessarily recorded as COVID-19, deaths involving COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Confirmed and suspected COVID-19 infection rates increased over the study period to 24% by 30 November 2021. Confirmed COVID-19 varied by sex (males: 19% vs females: 24%) and age (>55 years: 19% vs <35 years: 26%) and were higher for care workers employed by local authority social services departments compared with the private sector (27% and 23%, respectively). 34% of DCWs required support for a mental health condition, with mental health-related prescribing increasing in frequency when compared with the prepandemic period. Events for self-harm increased from 0.2% to 0.4% over the study period as did the issuing of fit notes. There was no evidence to suggest a miscoding of COVID-19 infection with non-COVID-19 respiratory conditions. COVID-19-related and all-cause mortality were no greater than for the general population aged 15-64 years in Wales (0.1% and 0.034%, respectively). A comparable DCW workforce in Scotland and England would result in a comparable rate of COVID-19 infection, while the younger workforce in Northern Ireland may result in a greater infection rate. CONCLUSIONS: While initial concerns about excess mortality are alleviated, the substantial pre-existing and increased mental health burden for DCWs will require investment to provide long-term support to the sector's workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Home Care Services , Male , Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Wales/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Information Storage and Retrieval
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233332

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, although presenting less severe forms of the disease in children, seems to play a role in the development of other conditions, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). After the beginning of the pandemic, an increase in the number of T1DM pediatric patients was observed in several countries, thus leading to many questions about the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM. Our study aimed to highlight possible correlations between SARS-CoV-2 serology and T1DM onset. Therefore, we performed an observational retrospective cohort study that included 158 children diagnosed with T1DM in the period April 2021-April 2022. The presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 and T1DM-specific antibodies and other laboratory findings were assessed. In the group of patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 serology, a higher percentage had detectable IA-2A antibodies, more children were positive for all three islet autoantibodies determined (GADA, ICA, and IA-2A), and a higher mean HbA1c value was found. No difference existed between the two groups regarding DKA presence and severity. A lower C-peptide level was found in the patients presenting diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at T1DM onset. When compared to a group of patients diagnosed before the pandemic, an increased incidence of both DKA and severe DKA, as well as a higher age at diagnosis and higher levels of HbA1c were present in our study group. These findings have important implications for the ongoing monitoring and management of children with T1DM after the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the need for further research to better understand the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Humans , Autoantibodies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ ; 381: e075719, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe gender and geographical inequalities in invitations to review and the response to these invitations and to assess whether inequalities increased during the covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 19 specialist medical journals and two large general medical journals from BMJ Publishing Group. POPULATION: Reviewers invited to review manuscripts submitted between 1 January 2018 and 31 May 2021. The cohort was followed up to 28 February 2022. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reviewer's agreement to review. RESULTS: A total of 257 025 reviewers were invited (38.6% (88 454/228 869) women), and 90 467 (35.2%) agreed to review. Invited reviewers were mainly (217 682; 84.7%) affiliated with high income countries: Europe (122 414; 47.6%), North America (66 931; 26.0%), Africa (25 735; 10.0%), Asia (22 693; 8.8%), Oceania (16 175; 6.3%), and South America (3076; 1.2%). Independent factors associated with agreement to review were gender (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.92, for women compared with men), geographical affiliation (2.89, 2.73 to 3.06, for Asia; 3.32, 2.94 to 3.75 for South America; 1.35, 1.27 to 1.43, for Oceania; and 0.35, 0.33 to 0.37, for Africa compared with Europe), and country income (0.47, 0.45 to 0.49, for upper middle income; 5.12, 4.67 to 5.61, for lower middle income; and 4.66, 3.79 to 5.73, for low income compared with high income country). Agreement was also independently associated with editor's gender (0.96, 0.93 to 0.99, for women compared with men), last author's geographical affiliation (0.80, 0.78 to 0.83, for Asia; 0.89, 0.85 to 0.94, for Oceania compared with Europe), impact factor (1.78, 1.27 to 2.50, for >10 compared with <5), and type of peer review process (0.52, 0.35 to 0.77, for open compared with anonymised). During the first and second phases of the pandemic, agreement was lower than in the pre-pandemic period (P<0.001). The interaction between time periods and covid-19 related topic and reviewer's gender was non-significant. However, significant interaction was found between time periods and covid-19 related topic and reviewer's geographical affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce bias and improve diversity, editors need to identify and implement effective strategies and continually evaluate progress against these to ensure that more women and researchers from upper middle income and low income countries are involved in review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodicals as Topic , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(7): 1757-1768, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To uncover clinical epidemiology, microbiological characteristics and outcome determinants of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) in Turkish ICU patients. METHODS: The EUROBACT II was a prospective observational multicontinental cohort study. We performed a subanalysis of patients from 24 Turkish ICUs included in this study. Risk factors for mortality were identified using multivariable Cox frailty models. RESULTS: Of 547 patients, 58.7% were male with a median [IQR] age of 68 [55-78]. Most frequent sources of HA-BSIs were intravascular catheter [182, (33.3%)] and lower respiratory tract [175, (32.0%)]. Among isolated pathogens (n = 599), 67.1% were Gram-negative, 21.5% Gram-positive and 11.2% due to fungi. Carbapenem resistance was present in 90.4% of Acinetobacter spp., 53.1% of Klebsiella spp. and 48.8% of Pseudomonas spp. In monobacterial Gram-negative HA-BSIs (n = 329), SOFA score (aHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27), carbapenem resistance (aHR 2.46, 95% CI 1.58-3.84), previous myocardial infarction (aHR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.08), COVID-19 admission diagnosis (aHR 2.95, 95% CI 1.25-6.95) and not achieving source control (aHR 2.02, 95% CI 1.15-3.54) were associated with mortality. However, availability of clinical pharmacists (aHR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.90) and source control (aHR 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.77) were associated with survival. In monobacterial Gram-positive HA-BSIs (n = 93), SOFA score (aHR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17-1.43) and age (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.08) were associated with mortality, whereas source control (aHR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.87) was associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Considering high antimicrobial resistance rate, importance of source control and availability of clinical pharmacists, a multifaceted management programme should be adopted in Turkish ICUs.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Humans , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , Carbapenems , Hospitals , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(6): 647-652, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the association between chronic liver disease (CLD) caused by viral hepatitis and COVID-19 hospitalisation, as well as the risk of disease progression and mortality among COVID-19 hospitalised patients in relation to their prior CLD status. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study. Place and Duration of the study: Bahawal Victoria Hospital and Sir Sadiq Abbasi hospital, affiliated with Qauid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from July to December 2021. METHODOLOGY: In the main group analysis, the risk of hospitalisation for COVID-19 among CLD patients was determined, with the presence of CLD due to chronic viral hepatitis B and C as the exposure variable and hospitalisation for COVID-19 as the outcome measure. Patients hospitalised for a medical condition other than COVID-19 (non-COVID medical admissions) served as an external control group. In the sub-group analysis, the risk of disease severity and mortality were determined among COVID-19 admitted patients having a prior status of CLD, with disease progression to death serving as the primary outcome measure while the exposure variable remained the same as in the main analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,976 participants [mean age 51 ±14.8 years; 54.1% men; 1616 hospitalised with COVID-19, including 27 (1.7%) exposed to CLD; and 2,360 non-COVID medical admissions, including 208 (8.8%) exposed to CLD] were evaluated. There was less likelihood of hospitalisation for COVID-19 among patients with CLD (1.7% vs. 8.8%; RR=0.270; 95% CI=0.189, 0.386; p<0.001). There was less risk of death among CLD patients admitted for COVID-19 when compared with those admitted for non-COVID CLD-related complications (14.8% vs. 35.1%; RR= 0.422; 95% CI=0.168-1.06; p=0.035). Among COVID-19 admissions, CLD was associated with a decreased risk of death compared with other comorbid conditions (14.8% vs. 36.9%; RR=0.401; 95% CI=0.162-0.994; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: CLD caused by viral hepatitis was significantly less likely to be present among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. There was a lower risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality owing to it among CLD patients compared to those with other comorbid conditions. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Hospitalisations, Chronic liver disease, Viral hepatitis, COVID-19 severity, Death outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Disease Progression , Chronic Disease
12.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1016, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a public health crisis has led to a significant increase in mental health difficulties. Smoking is strongly associated with mental health conditions, which is why the pandemic might have influenced the otherwise decline in smoking rates. Persons belonging to socioeconomically disadvantaged groups may be particularly affected, both because the pandemic has exacerbated existing social inequalities and because this group was more likely to smoke before the pandemic. We examined smoking prevalence in a French cohort study, focusing on differences between educational attainment. In addition, we examined the association between interpersonal changes in tobacco consumption and educational level from 2018 to 2021. METHODS: Using four assessments of smoking status available from 2009 to 2021, we estimated smoking prevalence over time, stratified by highest educational level in the TEMPO cohort and the difference was tested using chi2 test. We studied the association between interpersonal change in smoking status between 2018 and 2021 and educational attainment among 148 smokers, using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence was higher among those with low education. The difference between the two groups increased from 2020 to 2021 (4.8-9.4%, p < 0.001). Smokers with high educational level were more likely to decrease their tobacco consumption from 2018 to 2021 compared to low educated smokers (aOR = 2.72 [1.26;5.89]). CONCLUSION: Current findings showed a widening of the social inequality gap in relation to smoking rates, underscoring the increased vulnerability of persons with low educational level to smoking and the likely inadequate focus on social inequalities in relation to tobacco control policies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Cohort Studies , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Educational Status , Smoking/epidemiology , Prevalence
13.
Gerontology ; 69(5): 641-649, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Delaying the onset of disability is important for maintaining independence and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. Given that social isolation is a significant risk factor for disability, effective means associated with social isolation are needed to alleviate disability. Although information and communication technology (ICT) may be a reasonable measure considering the recent social contexts due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, further insights are required. This study aimed to investigate whether ICT use can alleviate the onset of disability in community-dwelling older adults with and without social isolation. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study on 4,346 community-dwelling independent Japanese older adults (mean age, 73.5 ± 5.3 years) was conducted between 2017 and 2018. Participants were classified into four groups based on social isolation (the condition where two or more of the following measures were met: domestic isolation, less social contact, and social disengagement) and ICT users (those who had recently used a computer or a smartphone) and followed up to assess disability incidence for 24 months after baseline assessments. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to identify the effect of social isolation and ICT use on the risk of disability onset by adjusting for age, sex, education history, number of medications, eye disease, level of annual income, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale 15, and gait speed. RESULTS: The group comprised nonsocial isolation and ICT users (44.7%), social isolation and ICT users (5.4%), nonsocial isolation and ICT nonusers (41.7%), and social isolation and ICT nonusers (8.2%). At the follow-up, 2.2%, 2.4%, 5.5%, and 12.4% of the participants in the above order developed disability (p < 0.01). Cox regression models revealed a significantly higher risk of disability onset in the social isolation and ICT nonusers group than in the social isolation and ICT users group (HR = 2.939; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.029-8.397; p = 0.044). In the subgroup analysis stratified by social isolation, ICT use significantly reduced the risk of disability onset in the socially isolated group (HR = 0.320; 95% CI 0.109-0.943; p = 0.039), although the same association was not observed in the nonsocially isolated group (HR = 0.845; 95% CI 0.565-1.264; p = 0.411). CONCLUSION: ICT use can alleviate the onset of disability in socially isolated older adults in a community setting. Considering ICT-applied methods for alleviating disability is beneficial for older adults in social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Cohort Studies , Independent Living , Communication , Technology
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 154-159, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms need to appropriately transition their care to a GI outpatient clinic in a timely manner to have their health needs met and avoid significant morbidity. When this transition isn't optimal, patients are lost to follow-up, potentially placing them at risk for adverse events. We sought to study the effectiveness of implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) based transition-of-care (TOC) program from the ED to outpatient GI clinics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single center cohort study of patients discharged from the ED of a tertiary care academic medical center referred to outpatient GI clinic before (Pre-TOC patients) and after implementation of an EMR based TOC program (TOC patients). We further stratified patients based on the Distressed Communities Index (DCI), which is a composite measure of economic well-being. We compared rates of appointment scheduling and appointment attendance between the two groups, as well as 30-day readmission rates to the ED. We also performed a subgroup analysis to determine if socioeconomic status would affect patient follow-up rates. RESULTS: We included 380 Pre-TOC and 399 TOC patients in our analysis. TOC patients were found to both schedule appointments (50% vs 27% p-value <0.01) as well as show up to appointments (34% vs 24% p-value <0.01) at significantly higher rates compared to Pre-TOC patients. There was no significant difference between 30-day readmission rates between the two groups. In addition, TOC patients from At-Risk and Distressed Communities were over 22 times more likely to schedule an appointment compared to Pre-TOC patients from similar neighborhoods (OR 22.18, 95% CI 4.23-116.32). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that patients who are discharged from the ED with outpatient GI follow-up are more likely to both schedule and show up to appointments with implementation of an EMR-based direct referral program compared to no patient navigation, particularly among patients of lower socioeconomic status.


Subject(s)
Gastroenterology , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appointments and Schedules , Emergency Service, Hospital
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2318045, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239516

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although telehealth services expanded rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic, the association between state policies and telehealth availability has been insufficiently characterized. Objective: To investigate the associations between 4 state policies and telehealth availability at outpatient mental health treatment facilities throughout the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study measured whether mental health treatment facilities offered telehealth services each quarter from April 2019 through September 2022. The sample comprised facilities with outpatient services that were not part of the US Department of Veterans Affairs system. Four state policies were identified from 4 different sources. Data were analyzed in January 2023. Exposures: For each quarter, implementation of the following policies was indexed by state: (1) payment parity for telehealth services among private insurers; (2) authorization of audio-only telehealth services for Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) beneficiaries; (3) participation in the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact (IMLC), permitting psychiatrists to provide telehealth services across state lines; and (4) participation in the Psychology Interjurisdictional Compact (PSYPACT), permitting clinical psychologists to provide telehealth services across state lines. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was the probability of a mental health treatment facility offering telehealth services in each quarter for each study year (2019-2022). Information on the facilities was obtained from the Mental Health and Addiction Treatment Tracking Repository based on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Behavioral Health Treatment Service Locator. Separate multivariable fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the difference in the probability of offering telehealth services after vs before policy implementation, adjusting for characteristics of the facility and county in which the facility was located. Results: A total of 12 828 mental health treatment facilities were included. Overall, 88.1% of facilities offered telehealth services in September 2022 compared with 39.4% of facilities in April 2019. All 4 policies were associated with increased odds of telehealth availability: payment parity for telehealth services (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), reimbursement for audio-only telehealth services (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.64-1.81), IMLC participation (AOR, 1.40, 95% CI, 1.24-1.59), and PSYPACT participation (AOR, 1.21, 95% CI, 1.12-1.31). Facilities that accepted Medicaid as a form of payment had lower odds of offering telehealth services (AOR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86) over the study period, as did facilities in counties with a higher proportion (>20%) of Black residents (AOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.68). Facilities in rural counties had higher odds of offering telehealth services (AOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.48-1.88). Conclusion and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that 4 state policies that were introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with marked expansion of telehealth availability for mental health care at mental health treatment facilities throughout the US. Despite these policies, telehealth services were less likely to be offered in counties with a greater proportion of Black residents and in facilities that accepted Medicaid and CHIP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Mental Health , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care Facilities
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1110755, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239023

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although there is extended research on the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in adult cancer patients (ACP), the immunogenicity to the variants of concern (VOCs) in childhood cancer patients (CCP) and safety profiles are now little known. Methods: A prospective, multi-center cohort study was performed by recruiting children with a solid cancer diagnosis and childhood healthy control (CHC) to receive standard two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. An independent ACP group was included to match CCP in treatment history. Humoral response to six variants was performed and adverse events were followed up 3 months after vaccination. Responses to variants were compared with ACP and CHC by means of propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Results: The analysis included 111 CCP (27.2%, median age of 8, quartile 5.5-15 years), 134 CHC (32.8%), and 163 ACP (40.0%), for a total 408 patients. Pathology included carcinoma, neural tumors, sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Median chemotherapy time was 7 (quartile, 5-11) months. In PSM sample pairs, the humoral response of CCP against variants was significantly decreased, and serology titers (281.8 ± 315.5 U/ml) were reduced, as compared to ACP (p< 0.01 for the rate of neutralization rate against each variant) and CHC (p< 0.01 for the rate of neutralization against each variant) groups. Chemotherapy time and age (Pearson r ≥ 0.8 for all variants) were associated with the humoral response against VOCs of the CHC group. In the CCP group, less than grade II adverse events were observed, including 32 patients with local reactions, and 29 patients had systemic adverse events, including fever (n = 9), rash (n = 20), headache (n = 3), fatigue (n = 11), and myalgia (n = 15). All reactions were well-managed medically. Conclusions: The humoral response against VOCs after the CoronaVac vaccination in CCP was moderately impaired although the vaccine was safe. Age and chemotherapy time seem to be the primary reason for poor response and low serology levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcoma , Humans , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 14(2): 294-307, 2022 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237773

ABSTRACT

Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) is the national longitudinal study of children and young people in the Republic of Ireland and has followed two cohorts for over ten years to date: Cohort '98 who were recruited into the study at age nine years and Cohort '08, recruited at age nine months. The study aims to describe the lives of Irish children and young people in terms of their development, with a view to positively affecting policies and services available for them. Traditionally, data collection involved in-home visits from an interviewer who conducted face-to-face interviews, recorded physical measurements of study participants and administered cognitive assessments. However, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated restrictions, significant adaptations were required to these methods to ensure data collection for the pilot and main fieldwork for Cohort '08 at age 13 could continue to the expected timeline. Face-to-face interviews with participants were replaced with telephone and web-based modes, interviewer training was conducted online, online resources were made available for interviewers and participants and COVID-19 related items were added to questionnaires. In addition to the scheduled data collection, a special COVID-19 survey was also conducted on both GUI cohorts in December 2020 to explore the impact of the pandemic on participants' lives. This paper outlines the adaptations made to traditional data collection methods in GUI, highlighting the challenges that were met, but also the benefits of some changes that may be worth incorporating into future waves of GUI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Ireland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 135-142, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) nasopharyngeal colonization precedes disease pathogenesis and varies among settings and countries. We sought to assess colonization prevalence, density, Spn serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in children in the first 6 months of life in pediatric primary care settings. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Rochester, NY during 2018-2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 101 children at age 1, 2, and 3 weeks, then 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Spn serotypes were determined by Quellung. Oxacillin resistance for Spn and ß-lactamase production by Hflu and Mcat was tested. All children received PCV13 vaccine according to U.S. recommended schedule. RESULTS: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat colonization was detected in only 5% of infants before age 2 months old. Cumulative prevalence was 34% for Spn, 10% for Hflu, and 53% for Mcat in children ≤6 months of age. Nasopharyngeal bacterial density of Spn, Hflu, and Mcat (x = 2.71 log) in children ≤6 months of age was lower than at 7-24 months of age (x = 3.15 log, p < 0.0001). Predominant serotypes detected ≤6 months of age were 23B (16.7%), 22F (12.9%), 15B/C (11%), and 16F (9.2%). In total, 14.8% of Spn isolates were oxacillin resistant and 66.7% of Hflu isolates were ß-lactamase producing. CONCLUSION: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat nasopharyngeal colonization was uncommon and of low density among children ≤6 months old, especially among children <2 months of age. Non-PCV13 serotypes predominated and a different serotype distribution was observed in ≤6-month olds compared to 7- to 24-month olds.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Infant , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Moraxella catarrhalis , Prospective Studies , New York/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , beta-Lactamases , Oxacillin , Carrier State
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315908, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237398

ABSTRACT

Importance: While the COVID-19 pandemic enters a new phase and the proportion of individuals with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis increases, the national patterns in kidney use and medium-term kidney transplant (KT) outcomes among patients receiving kidneys from active or resolved COVID-19-positive donors remain unknown. Objective: To evaluate the patterns in kidney use and KT outcomes among adult recipients of kidneys from deceased donors with active or resolved COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using national US transplant registry data from 35 851 deceased donors (71 334 kidneys) and 45 912 adult patients who received KTs from March 1, 2020, to March 30, 2023. Exposure: The exposure was donor SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) results, with positive NAT results within 7 days before procurement defined as active COVID-19 and positive NAT results 1 week (>7 days) before procurement defined as resolved COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were kidney nonuse, all-cause kidney graft failure, and all-cause patient death. Secondary outcomes were acute rejection (ie, rejection in the first 6 months after KT), transplant hospitalization length of stay (LOS), and delayed graft function (DGF). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for kidney nonuse, rejection, and DGF; multivariable linear regression analyses were performed for LOS; and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed for graft failure and all-cause death. All models were adjusted for inverse probability treatment weighting. Results: Among 35 851 deceased donors, the mean (SD) age was 42.5 (15.3) years; 22 319 (62.3%) were men and 23 992 (66.9%) were White. Among 45 912 recipients, the mean (SD) age was 54.3 (13.2) years; 27 952 (60.9%) were men and 15 349 (33.4%) were Black. The likelihood of nonuse of kidneys from active or resolved COVID-19-positive donors decreased over time. Overall, kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.38-1.76) and kidneys from resolved COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.16-1.48) had a higher likelihood of nonuse compared with kidneys from COVID-19-negative donors. From 2020 to 2022, kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (2020: AOR, 11.26 [95% CI, 2.29-55.38]; 2021: AOR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.58-2.79]; 2022: AOR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70]) had a higher likelihood of nonuse compared with kidneys from donors without COVID-19. Kidneys from resolved COVID-19-positive donors had a higher likelihood of nonuse in 2020 (AOR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.26-11.90) and 2021 (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.54-2.45) but not in 2022 (AOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.94-1.28). In 2023, kidneys from both active COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75-1.63) and resolved COVID-19-positive donors (AOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.80-1.73) were not associated with higher odds of nonuse. No higher risk of graft failure or death was found in patients receiving kidneys from active COVID-19-positive donors (graft failure: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.03 [95% CI, 0.78-1.37]; patient death: AHR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.84-1.66]) or resolved COVID-19-positive donors (graft failure: AHR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.88-1.39]; patient death: AHR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.70-1.28]). Donor COVID-19 positivity was not associated with longer LOS, higher risk of acute rejection, or higher risk of DGF. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the likelihood of nonuse of kidneys from COVID-19-positive donors decreased over time, and donor COVID-19 positivity was not associated with worse KT outcomes within 2 years after transplant. These findings suggest that the use of kidneys from donors with active or resolved COVID-19 is safe in the medium term; further research is needed to assess longer-term transplant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Graft Survival , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Kidney
20.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(4): 247-253, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237072

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-COVID-19 syndrome covers a wide range of new, recurring or ongoing health conditions, which can occur in anyone who has recovered from COVID-19. The condition may affect multiple systems and organs. Aims: To evaluate the frequency and nature of persistent COVID-19 symptoms among healthcare providers in Jordan. Methods: Post-COVID-19 syndrome refers to symptoms extending beyond 4-12 weeks. We conducted a historical cohort study among 140 healthcare staff employed at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan. All of them had been infected with COVID-19 virus during March 2020 to February 2022. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results: Some 59.3% of the study population reported more than 1 persisting COVID-19 symptom, and among them 97.5%, 62.6% and 40.9% reported more than 1 COVID-19 symptom at 1-3, 3-6 and 6-12 months, respectively, after the acute phase of the infection. Post-COVID-19 syndrome was more prevalent among females than males (79.5% vs 20.5%) (P = 0.006). The most frequent reported symptom was fatigue. Females scored higher on the Fatigue Assessment Scale than males [23.26, standard deviation (SD) 8.00 vs 17.53, SD 5.40] (P < 0.001). No significant cognitive impairment was detected using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scales. Conclusion: More than half (59.3%) of the healthcare workers in our study reported post-COVID-19 syndrome. Further studies are needed to better understand the frequency and severity of the syndrome among different population groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Jordan/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Personnel , Fatigue
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