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1.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 685-691, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend maximal efforts to obtain blood and sputum cultures in patients with COVID-19, as bacterial coinfection is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of bacteriological tests, including blood and sputum cultures, and the association of multiple biomarkers and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This is a substudy of a large observational cohort study (PredictED study). The PredictED included adult patients from whom a blood culture was drawn at the ED of Haga Teaching Hospital, The Netherlands. For this substudy, all patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR in March and April 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of bacterial coinfection. We used logistic regression analysis for associations of procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score with a severe disease course, defined as intensive care unit admission and/or 30-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) quantified the discriminatory performance. RESULTS: We included 142 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. On presentation, the median duration of symptoms was 8 days. 41 (29%) patients had a severe disease course and 24 (17%) died within 30 days. The incidence of bacterial coinfection was 2/142 (1.4%). None of the blood cultures showed pathogen growth while 6.3% was contaminated. The AUCs for predicting severe disease were 0.76 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.84), 0.70 (0.61 to 0.79), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.74), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.72) and 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) for procalcitonin, CRP, ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score, respectively. CONCLUSION: Blood cultures appear to have limited value while procalcitonin and the PSI appear to be promising tools in helping physicians identify patients at risk for severe disease course in COVID-19 at presentation to the ED.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/statistics & numerical data , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 58(5): 520-527, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The variability of Covid-19 severity between patients has driven efforts to identify prognosticating laboratory markers that could aid clinical decision-making. Procalcitonin is classically used as a diagnostic marker in bacterial infections, but its role in predicting Covid-19 disease severity is emerging. We aimed to identify the association between procalcitonin and Covid-19 disease severity in a critical care setting and whether bacterial co-infection is implicated. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed Covid-19 patients with procalcitonin concentrations measured in a critical care setting at our institution between February and September 2020. Laboratory markers including peak procalcitonin values and a range of bacterial culture results were analysed. Outcomes were the requirement and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation as well as inpatient mortality. RESULTS: In total, 60 patients were included; 68% required invasive mechanical ventilation and 45% died as inpatient. Univariate analysis identified higher peak procalcitonin concentrations significantly associated with both the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR: 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-9.0, P = 0.02) and inpatient mortality (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.6, P = 0.03). Higher peak procalcitonin concentrations was an independent predictor of mortality on multivariate analysis (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.4, P = 0.03). There was a significant positive correlation between increased peak procalcitonin concentrations and duration on invasive mechanical ventilation. No significant difference was found between peak procalcitonin concentrations of patients with positive and negative bacterial cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated procalcitonin concentrations in Covid-19 patients are associated with respiratory failure requiring prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation and inpatient mortality. This association may be independent of bacterial co-infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/blood , Critical Care , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 110: 103-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198887

ABSTRACT

It can be a diagnostic challenge to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in whom antibiotics can be safely withheld. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a guideline implemented at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust that recommends withholding antibiotics in patients with low serum procalcitonin (PCT), defined as ≤0.25 ng/mL. Results showed reduced antibiotic consumption in patients with PCT ≤0.25 ng/mL with no increase in mortality, alongside a reduction in subsequent carbapenem prescriptions during admission. The results support the effectiveness of this guideline, and further research is recommended to identify the optimal cut-off value for PCT in this setting.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/standards , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/standards , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Bacterial Infections/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(2): 103289, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179993

ABSTRACT

Elevated PCT level in COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of severe disease and higher risk of overall mortality. An increased PCT level of PCT in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases would be assumed as bacterial coinfection. Could PCT level increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection without bacterial coinfection? Several SARS-CoV-2 proteins activate STAT3-dependent transcriptional pathways particularly in monocytes, that could lead to increased PCT production. STAT3α isoform could cause increased ACE2 expression, resulting more SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and further production of PCT.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Procalcitonin/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology
5.
Acta Trop ; 214: 105782, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064690

ABSTRACT

Originated in Wuhan, China, the coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) has quickly spread worldwide, reaching countries that already faced other endemics and epidemics. In Brazil, such a concerning situation includes arboviruses, among which the dengue virus stands out. Here, we determined the rate of SARS-CoV-2/dengue virus co-infection in a total of 178 patients with COVID-19 symtoms admitted into a large public hospital of the Federal District of Brazil. Furthermore, we evaluated whether prior or active dengue virus infection influenced hematological, biochemical, and clinical parameters of such patients. One hundred and twelve (63%) individuals tested positive for COVID-19, of which 43 (38.4%) were co-infected with dengue virus, and 50 (44.6%) had antibodies indicative of previous dengue infection. Co-infected patients showed lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, higher glucose rates, and a worse pulmonary condition. Of note, prior infections with dengue virus did not influence clinical parameters, but active dengue fever resulted in higher hospitalization rate. In conclusion, amid the current complex epidemiological scenario in Brazil, our data support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 and dengue co-infection affects an important percentage of COVID-19 patients and leads to worse clinical parameters, requiring greater attention from health authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Coinfection/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dengue/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Sampling Studies
7.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(2): 433-440, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962382

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed for differentiating viral vs. bacterial infections. In COVID-19, some preliminary results have shown that PCT testing could act as a predictor of bacterial co-infection and be a useful marker for assessment of disease severity. Methods: We studied 83 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in whom PCT was specifically ordered by attending physicians. PCT results were evaluated according to the ability to accurately predict bacterial co-infections and death in comparison with other known biomarkers of infection and with major laboratory predictors of COVID-19 severity. Results: Thirty-three (39.8%) patients suffered an in-hospital bacterial co-infection and 44 (53.0%) patients died. In predicting bacterial co-infection, PCT showed a relatively low accuracy (area under receiver-operating characteristic [ROC] curve [AUC]: 0.757; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.651-0.845), with a strength for detecting the outcome not significantly different from that of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP). In predicting patient death, PCT showed an AUC of 0.815 (CI: 0.714-0.892), not better than those of other more common laboratory tests, such as blood lymphocyte percentage (AUC: 0.874, p=0.19), serum lactate dehydrogenase (AUC: 0.860, p=0.47), blood neutrophil count (AUC: 0.845, p=0.59), and serum albumin (AUC: 0.839, p=0.73). Conclusions: Procalcitonin (PCT) testing, even when appropriately ordered, did not provide a significant added value in COVID-19 patients when compared with more consolidated biomarkers of infection and poor clinical outcome. The major application of PCT in COVID-19 is its ability, associated with a negative predictive value >90%, to exclude a bacterial co-infection when a rule-out cut-off (<0.25 µg/L) is applied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(3): 597-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. We aimed to describe the characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. METHODS: We enrolled all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection admitted to Tongji Hospital from February 1 to February 29, 2020. Data of demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The characteristics of liver function and its association with the severity and prognosis of disease were described. RESULTS: Of the 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection, elevated levels of liver test were observed in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22, 20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%), and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%). The levels of the indicators mentioned above increased substantially during hospitalization (all P < .05). Fourteen (13.33%) patients developed liver injury. Most of them (10, 71.43%) recovered after 8 (range 6-21) days. Notably the other, 4 (28.57%) patients rapidly progressed to acute-on-chronic liver failure. The proportion of severe COVID-19 was higher in patients with liver injury (P = .042). Complications including acute-on-chronic liver failure, acute cardiac injury and shock happened more frequently in patients with liver injury (all P < .05). The mortality was higher in individuals with liver injury (28.57% vs 3.30%, P = .004). CONCLUSION: Liver injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection was associated with severity and poor prognosis of disease. During the treatment of COVID-19 in chronic HBV-infected patients, liver function should be taken seriously and evaluated frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Liver/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 78, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926884

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the most recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) that causes COVID-19, subjected the entire world in turmoil health-wise and economically. With higher burden of malaria in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries coupled with fragile healthcare system and delivery, these may pose a threat in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients co-infected with malaria. Free radicals have been implicated in the progression and pathogenesis of malaria and COVID-19 through Fenton's reaction and cytokine storm respectively. METHODS: the current research comprises of seventy-four (74) participants; 20 apparently healthy controls and 54 COVID-19 patients (34 among which were co-infected with malaria). Serum levels of 8-iso PGF2α and Alphatocopherol were determined among the study participants using ELISA technique and colorimetric assay, respectively. RESULTS: results revealed statistically significant elevation of 8-iso PGF2α in COVID-19 patients co-infected with malaria compared to COVID-19 patients only, and this may be due to increase production of free radicals. Furthermore, a significant decrease of Alphatocopherol was observed in COVID-19 co-infected with malaria compared to COVID-19 patients due to increase utilization of antioxidants in counterbalancing the negative effect of free radicals generated. CONCLUSION: conclusively, SARS-COV-2 patients co-infected with malaria might be predisposed to oxidative stress and low Alphatocopherol. The increase in oxidative stress is proportional to malaria parasite density and inversely related to Alphatocopherol levels. This implies that oxidative stress is notably higher and such patients may have a severer form of the COVID-19. Increased 8-iso-PGF2α in co-infection and decreased alphatocopherol levels can reflect the severity and adverse outcomes compared to COVID-19 naïve because of their tremendous involvement in the pathogenesis and progression of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Coinfection/blood , Dinoprost/analogs & derivatives , Malaria/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Tocopherol/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dinoprost/blood , Female , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/parasitology , Male , Nigeria , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1691-1693, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-766131

ABSTRACT

A key unsolved question in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the duration of acquired immunity. Insights from infections with the four seasonal human coronaviruses might reveal common characteristics applicable to all human coronaviruses. We monitored healthy individuals for more than 35 years and determined that reinfection with the same seasonal coronavirus occurred frequently at 12 months after infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Reinfection/immunology , Seasons , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/blood , Reinfection/blood , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen that mainly spreads by droplets. Most published studies have been focused on adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data concerning pediatric patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to determine epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed data on pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, including basic information, epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment, outcome, and follow-up results. RESULTS: A total of 74 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. Of the 68 case patients whose epidemiological data were complete, 65 (65 of 68; 95.59%) were household contacts of adults. Cough (32.43%) and fever (27.03%) were the predominant symptoms of 44 (59.46%) symptomatic patients at onset of the illness. Abnormalities in leukocyte count were found in 23 (31.08%) children, and 10 (13.51%) children presented with abnormal lymphocyte count. Of the 34 (45.95%) patients who had nucleic acid testing results for common respiratory pathogens, 19 (51.35%) showed coinfection with other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. Ten (13.51%) children had real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for fecal specimens, and 8 of them showed prolonged existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 presented with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and radiologic characteristics from adult patients. Nearly one-half of the infected children had coinfection with other common respiratory pathogens. It is not uncommon for pediatric patients to have prolonged fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Blood Purif ; 49(6): 758-760, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-138996

ABSTRACT

We describe a 2 weeks corrected gestational age infant admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated to Bordetella pertussis and Coronavirus infection. He developed leukocytosis as soon as ARDS required intubation and aggressive mechanical ventilation: hence he underwent 3 early therapeutic leukapheresis treatments in order to avoid the worsening of related cardiopulmonary complications, according to recent literature on pertussis infection in infants. The infant was discharged from PICU healthy.


Subject(s)
Bordetella pertussis/isolation & purification , Coinfection/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Leukapheresis , Leukocytosis/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Whooping Cough/complications , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Leukocytosis/etiology , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Whooping Cough/blood
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