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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 202-204, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761197

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been conducted on ventilator-associated complications (VACs) in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). However, in these studies, the causative organisms were similar, and there were no reports on VAC corresponding with Corynebacteria. Coryneforms are frequently cultured in cases of polymicrobial infections and are usually considered contaminants in respiratory specimens. However, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum or C. striatum is known to be a pathogen in lower respiratory tract infections. We report three cases of VAC, probably due to C. pseudodiphtheriticum, in patients with COVID-19. If purulent lower respiratory tract specimens showed coryneform predominantly upon Gram staining, empirical therapy should be started. Furthermore, species identification and drug susceptibility testing should be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Corynebacterium Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Coinfection/complications , Corynebacterium , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
2.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 64(4): 218-223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The second wave of COVID-19 has emerged with the addition of vivid types of oral manifestations. Immunosuppression caused by COVID-19 results in an exacerbation of pre-existing infections. Recently, in the backdrop of COVID-19 expression, a notable rise in the incidence of secondary infections, both fungal and bacterial, have been reported either during the disease or as a post-COVID manifestation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old male diabetic COVID-19 patient reported with a chief complaint of pain in the right side maxillary region for 3 months and the passage of content from the oral cavity into the nose. Intraoral examination revealed missing teeth i.r.t. 12 to 17, denuded mucosa with exposed necrotic bone and an oroantral opening. Sequestrectomy was done and the tissue was sent for histopathological examination which revealed necrotic bone interspersed with broad aseptate fungal hyphae branched at right angles along with actinomycotic colonies and Candidal hyphae in few areas. Based on histopathological findings, a final diagnosis of mixed infections leading to Maxillary Osteomyelitis was given. No recurrence was noticed after 3 months of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of oral infections even after the remission period of COVID-19 signifies an alarming sign both for the patient and clinicians monitoring the oral health status during the follow-up period. To our knowledge, this is the first such case (three oral infections as a post covid manifestation in a single diabetic patient) reported in the literature till date.


Subject(s)
Actinomycosis , COVID-19 , Candidiasis , Coinfection , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Osteomyelitis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Candidiasis/complications , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 121-124, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436206

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in patients with underlying chronic conditions, with increased risk of mortality. There is concern that people living with HIV (PLWH), especially those with severe immunosuppression, and COVID-19 may have severe disease and a negative clinical outcome. Most studies on COVID-19 in PLWH are from Asia, Europe and America where population dynamics, antiretroviral treatment coverage and coexisting opportunistic infections may differ from that in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the clinical profile and outcome of three cases of PLWH co-infected with SARS-CoV-2. They all presented with fever, cough and breathlessness and also had advanced HIV infection as evidenced by opportunistic infections, high HIV viral loads and low CD4 counts. The patients responded favourably to the standard of care and were discharged home. Our findings suggest that PLWH with advanced immunosuppression may not necessarily have an unfavourable disease course and outcome. However, case-controlled studies with a larger population size are needed to better understand the impact of COVID-19 in this patient population. FUNDING: Not declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV , Opportunistic Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Viral Load
4.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 202-204, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389797

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been conducted on ventilator-associated complications (VACs) in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). However, in these studies, the causative organisms were similar, and there were no reports on VAC corresponding with Corynebacteria. Coryneforms are frequently cultured in cases of polymicrobial infections and are usually considered contaminants in respiratory specimens. However, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum or C. striatum is known to be a pathogen in lower respiratory tract infections. We report three cases of VAC, probably due to C. pseudodiphtheriticum, in patients with COVID-19. If purulent lower respiratory tract specimens showed coryneform predominantly upon Gram staining, empirical therapy should be started. Furthermore, species identification and drug susceptibility testing should be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Corynebacterium Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Coinfection/complications , Corynebacterium , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 363-367, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374605

ABSTRACT

The risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue coinfection is increased in tropical countries; however, the extrapulmonary clinical manifestations have not been fully characterized. We report a 42-year-old woman whose clinical manifestations began with fever, diarrhea, headache, chest pain, myalgia, odynophagia, and arthralgia. Despite mild respiratory symptoms and normal chest computed tomography scan results, she was diagnosed with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Because she had erythema and petechiae with a decreased platelet count, the dengue NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM/IgG test were performed, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention RT-PCR assay detected the dengue virus serotype 1 infection. Additionally, increased liver enzyme serum levels were found in the patient, who later developed hepatomegaly. Hence, the mechanism of hepatic pathology associated with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue coinfection needs further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Female , Fever , Hematology/methods , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serogroup , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196472

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
7.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(2): 103289, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179993

ABSTRACT

Elevated PCT level in COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of severe disease and higher risk of overall mortality. An increased PCT level of PCT in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases would be assumed as bacterial coinfection. Could PCT level increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection without bacterial coinfection? Several SARS-CoV-2 proteins activate STAT3-dependent transcriptional pathways particularly in monocytes, that could lead to increased PCT production. STAT3α isoform could cause increased ACE2 expression, resulting more SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and further production of PCT.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Procalcitonin/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 641920, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170079

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a biofilm-forming opportunistic pathogen which causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients and leads to high mortality rate. It is identified as a common coinfecting pathogen in COVID-19 patients causing exacerbation of illness. In our hospital, P. aeruginosa is one of the top coinfecting bacteria identified among COVID-19 patients. We collected a strong biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa strain displaying small colony variant morphology from a severe COVID-19 patient. Genomic and transcriptomic sequencing analyses were performed with phenotypic validation to investigate its adaptation in SARS-CoV-2 infected environment. Genomic characterization predicted specific genomic islands highly associated with virulence, transcriptional regulation, and DNA restriction-modification systems. Epigenetic analysis revealed a specific N6-methyl adenine (m6A) methylating pattern including methylation of alginate, flagellar and quorum sensing associated genes. Differential gene expression analysis indicated that this isolate formed excessive biofilm by reducing flagellar formation (7.4 to 1,624.1 folds) and overproducing extracellular matrix components including CdrA (4.4 folds), alginate (5.2 to 29.1 folds) and Pel (4.8-5.5 folds). In summary, we demonstrated that P. aeuginosa clinical isolates with novel epigenetic markers could form excessive biofilm, which might enhance its antibiotic resistance and in vivo colonization in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Adhesins, Bacterial/genetics , Adhesins, Bacterial/metabolism , Alginates , Bacteria , Biofilms/growth & development , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Genome, Bacterial , Humans , Pseudomonas Infections/immunology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification , Quorum Sensing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Virulence
9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 353: 577521, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serious neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognized. CASE: We report a novel case of HHV6 myelitis with parainfectious MOG-IgG in the setting of COVID-19-induced lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient experienced complete neurological recovery with gancyclovir, high dose corticosteroids, and plasma exchange. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HHV6 reactivation in the central nervous system in the setting of COVID19 infection and the first case of MOG-IgG myelitis in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 and HHV6 coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with neurological manifestations in the setting of COVID19-related immunodeficiency should be tested for opportunistic infections including HHV6. Viral infection is a known trigger for MOG-IgG and therefore this antibody should be checked in patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated demyelination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Lymphopenia/virology , Myelitis, Transverse/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/immunology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Activation/immunology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2947-2954, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039177

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across the world and is responsible for over 1,686,267 deaths worldwide. Co-infection with influenza A virus (IFV-A) during the upcoming flu season may complicate diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Little is known about epidemiology and outcomes of co-infection. Data for 213 COVID-19 patients treated at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from January 28, 2020 to March 24, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-seven of the patients (45.5%) tested positive for anti- IFV-A immunoglobulin M antibodies. The clinical characteristics were described and analyzed for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only and patients with SARS-CoV-2/IFV-A co-infection. Patients with co-infection showed similar patterns of symptoms and clinical outcomes to patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only. However, an increased expression of serum cytokines (interleukin-2R [IL-2R], IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and cardiac troponin I, and higher incidence of lymphadenopathy were observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only. Male patients and patients aged less than 60 years in the SARS-CoV-2 infection group also had significantly higher computed tomography scores than patients in co-infection group, indicating that co-infection with IFV-A had no effect on the disease outcome but alleviated inflammation in certain populations of COVID-19 patients. The study will provide a reference for diagnosing and treating IFV-A and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection cases in the upcoming flu season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001928

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 461-465, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000469

ABSTRACT

In the African context, there is a paucity of data on SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 in pregnancy. Given the endemicity of infections such as malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis (TB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), it is important to evaluate coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 and their impact on maternal/infant outcomes. Robust research is critically needed to evaluate the effects of the added burden of COVID-19 in pregnancy, to help develop evidence-based policies toward improving maternal and infant outcomes. In this perspective, we briefly review current knowledge on the clinical features of COVID-19 in pregnancy; the risks of preterm birth and cesarean delivery secondary to comorbid severity; the effects of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the fetus/neonate; and in utero mother-to-child SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We further highlight the need to conduct multicountry surveillance as well as retrospective and prospective cohort studies across SSA. This will enable assessments of SARS-CoV-2 burden among pregnant African women and improve the understanding of the spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations in this population, which may be living with or without HIV, TB, and/or other coinfections/comorbidities. In addition, multicountry studies will allow a better understanding of risk factors and outcomes to be compared across countries and subregions. Such an approach will encourage and strengthen much-needed intra-African, south-to-south multidisciplinary and interprofessional research collaborations. The African Forum for Research and Education in Health's COVID-19 Research Working Group has embarked upon such a collaboration across Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Research , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intersectoral Collaboration , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(172): 20200393, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991016

ABSTRACT

The basic reproductive number, R0, is one of the most common and most commonly misapplied numbers in public health. Often used to compare outbreaks and forecast pandemic risk, this single number belies the complexity that different epidemics can exhibit, even when they have the same R0. Here, we reformulate and extend a classic result from random network theory to forecast the size of an epidemic using estimates of the distribution of secondary infections, leveraging both its average R0 and the underlying heterogeneity. Importantly, epidemics with lower R0 can be larger if they spread more homogeneously (and are therefore more robust to stochastic fluctuations). We illustrate the potential of this approach using different real epidemics with known estimates for R0, heterogeneity and epidemic size in the absence of significant intervention. Further, we discuss the different ways in which this framework can be implemented in the data-scarce reality of emerging pathogens. Lastly, we demonstrate that without data on the heterogeneity in secondary infections for emerging infectious diseases like COVID-19 the uncertainty in outbreak size ranges dramatically. Taken together, our work highlights the critical need for contact tracing during emerging infectious disease outbreaks and the need to look beyond R0.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/complications , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 80-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979832

ABSTRACT

The interaction between existing chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and COVID-19 has not been studied. We analysed 70 COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection (CHI) to determine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome. We investigated clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 patients of seven hospitals from Jan 20 to March 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse risk factors for progression of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. Compared with COVID-19 without HBV infection (WHI) group, patients with dual infection had a higher proportion of severe/critically ill disease (32.86% vs. 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031]. The utilization rates of Arbidol and immunoglobulin were significantly higher than those in the co-infected group [48.57% vs. 35.64%, P < .05; 21.43% vs. 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group. Age and c-reactive protein (CRP) level were independent risk factors for recovery of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. The original characteristics of COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection were higher rate of liver injury, coagulation disorders, severe/critical tendency and increased susceptibility. The elderly and patients with higher level of CRP were more likely to experience a severe outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(4): 1343-1353, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982796

ABSTRACT

Since the initial reports of COVID-19 in December 2019, the world has been gripped by the disastrous acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There are an ever-increasing number of reports of neurological symptoms in patients, from severe (encephalitis), to mild (hyposmia), suggesting the potential for neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2. This Perspective investigates the hypothesis that the reliance on self-reporting of hyposmia has resulted in an underestimation of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients. While the acute effect of the virus on the nervous system function is vastly overshadowed by the respiratory effects, we propose that it will be important to monitor convalescent individuals for potential long-term implications that may include neurodegenerative sequelae such as viral-associated parkinsonism. As it is possible to identify premorbid harbingers of Parkinson's disease, we propose long-term screening of SARS-CoV-2 cases post-recovery for these expressions of neurodegenerative disease. An accurate understanding of the incidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 requires long-term monitoring for sequelae after remission and a strategized health policy to ensure healthcare systems all over the world are prepared for a third wave of the virus in the form of parkinsonism.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Parkinsonian Disorders/psychology , Parkinsonian Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Agnosia/virology , COVID-19 , Coinfection/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2645-2653, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959199

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, the infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, has resulted in a global pandemic with unprecedented health, societal, and economic impact. The disease often manifests with flu-like symptoms and is dominated by pulmonary complications, but widely diverse clinical manifestations involving multiple organ systems can result. We posit that viral tropism and the aberrant host immune response mediate the protean findings and severity in this disease. In general, extrapulmonary manifestations are a harbinger of or contemporaneously associate with disease progression, but in the case of some extrapulmonary findings (gastrointestinal and dermatologic), may track with milder disease. The precise underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated, and additional immune phenotyping studies are warranted to reveal early correlates of disease outcomes and novel therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Viral Tropism
18.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(3): 286-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection may vary from simple colds to a severe acute respiratory syndrome, metabolic acidosis, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Current evidence indicates that the risk of severe illness increases with age, in the male sex, and with certain chronic medical problems. Many people living with HIV have other conditions that increase their risk. ; Case presentation: In the first 3 months of the pandemic, four patients with HIV were hospitalized in our clinic because of COVID-19. The disease severity was mild in two patients with normal CD4+ T count. However, one patient with a low CD4+T count died and the other developed retinal detachment one month after discharge. The deceased patient had a malignancy. ; Conclusion: In this study, the effect of the immunological status of the patients on the course of COVID-19 and the developing vascular complications was evaluated in 4 patients with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/mortality , Fatal Outcome , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retinal Degeneration/mortality
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 141-148, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) history on clinical characteristics of patients with co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients with laboratory-confirmed co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV in a designated hospital. Patients were divided into medicine group (n = 12) and non-medicine group (n = 8) according to previous ART history before SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The median age was 46.5 years and 15 (75%) were female. Ten patients had initial negative RT-PCR on admission, 5 of which had normal CT appearance and 4 were asymptomatic. Lymphocytes were low in 9 patients (45%), CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 were low in all patients. The predominant CT features in 19 patients were multiple (42%) ground-glass opacities (58%) and consolidations (32%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in the medicine group was significantly lower than that in the non-medicine group [median (interquartile range, IQR):14.0 (10.0-34.0) vs. 51.0 (35.8-62.0), P = 0.005]. Nineteen patients (95%) were discharged with a median hospital stay of 30 days (IQR, 26-30). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with SARS-CoV-2 and HIV co-infection exhibited mild to moderate symptoms. The milder extent of inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection might be associated with a previous history of ART in HIV-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(3): 597-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. We aimed to describe the characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. METHODS: We enrolled all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection admitted to Tongji Hospital from February 1 to February 29, 2020. Data of demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The characteristics of liver function and its association with the severity and prognosis of disease were described. RESULTS: Of the 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection, elevated levels of liver test were observed in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22, 20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%), and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%). The levels of the indicators mentioned above increased substantially during hospitalization (all P < .05). Fourteen (13.33%) patients developed liver injury. Most of them (10, 71.43%) recovered after 8 (range 6-21) days. Notably the other, 4 (28.57%) patients rapidly progressed to acute-on-chronic liver failure. The proportion of severe COVID-19 was higher in patients with liver injury (P = .042). Complications including acute-on-chronic liver failure, acute cardiac injury and shock happened more frequently in patients with liver injury (all P < .05). The mortality was higher in individuals with liver injury (28.57% vs 3.30%, P = .004). CONCLUSION: Liver injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection was associated with severity and poor prognosis of disease. During the treatment of COVID-19 in chronic HBV-infected patients, liver function should be taken seriously and evaluated frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Liver/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
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