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1.
Med Mycol J ; 63(3): 59-64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198582

ABSTRACT

Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a rare infection primarily affecting patients with co-morbidities like immunosuppression and poorly controlled diabetes. Mucormycosis is increasingly being reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). However, reports of coinfection of aspergillosis and mucormycosis involving nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain are rare in literature. We aimed to evaluate the patient demographics, clinical presentation, and management of cases presenting with mixed infection. We carried out retrospective analysis of 12 patients with confirmed diagnosis of mixed invasive fungal infections post-COVID-19 disease out of 70 cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) presenting to a tertiary-level hospital in North India from May to June 2021. All patients had diabetes mellitus; the mean age was 48 years. The common presenting features were headache, nasal congestion, palatal ulcer, and vision loss accompanied by facial pain and swelling. Two patients developed cerebral abscess during the course of treatment; three patients had concurrent COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received systemic liposomal amphotericin B and serial surgical debridements. The overall mortality rate was 16.7%. Our study demonstrates that mucormycosis and aspergillosis are angioinvasive mycoses that are clinically and radiologically identical. KOH direct mount of clinical sample showing septate hyphae should be extensively searched for aseptate hyphae after digestion and clearing of the tissue. A high index of suspicion of mixed infection post-COVID-19 and early initiation of liposomal amphotericin B followed by prompt surgical intervention can reduce the overall morbidity and mortality among patients with this condition.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mucormycosis , Sinusitis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 891, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of corticosteroids on patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is currently unknown. We aimed to investigate the association of corticosteroids on these patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study screened 5447 confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized between Jan 1, 2020 to Apr 18, 2020 in seven centers in China, where the prevalence of chronic HBV infection is moderate to high. Severe patients who had chronic HBV and acute SARS-cov-2 infection were potentially eligible. The diagnosis of chronic HBV infection was based on positive testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or HBV DNA during hospitalization and a medical history of chronic HBV infection. Severe patients (meeting one of following criteria: respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; severe respiratory distress; or SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air; or oxygen index < 300 mmHg) with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were identified. The bias of confounding variables on corticosteroids effects was minimized using multivariable logistic regression model and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity score. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV co-infection in COVID-19 patients was 4.1%. There were 105 patients with severe COVID-19/HBV co-infections (median age 62 years, 57.1% male). Fifty-five patients received corticosteroid treatment and 50 patients did not. In the multivariable analysis, corticosteroid therapy (OR, 6.32, 95% CI 1.17-34.24, P = 0.033) was identified as an independent risk factor for 28-day mortality. With IPTW analysis, corticosteroid treatment was associated with delayed SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (OR, 2.95, 95% CI 1.63-5.32, P < 0.001), increased risk of 28-day and in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.90, 95% CI 1.68-14.28, P = 0.004; OR, 5.64, 95% CI 1.95-16.30, P = 0.001, respectively), and acute liver injury (OR, 4.50, 95% CI 2.57-7.85, P < 0.001). Methylprednisolone dose per day and cumulative dose in non-survivors were significantly higher than in survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19/HBV co-infection, corticosteroid treatment may be associated with increased risk of 28-day and in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
5.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(5): 463-469, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008657

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, there has been a large increase in the consumption of antimicrobials, both as a form of treatment for viral pneumonia, which has been shown to be ineffective, and in the treatment of secondary infections that arise over the course of the severe presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This increase in consumption, often empirical, ends up causing an increase in the incidence of colonization and secondary infections by multi and pan-resistant germs. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of a hyperinflammatory condition induced by the primary infection, associated with the structural damage caused by viral pneumonia and by the greater colonization by bacteria, generally multiresistant, are important risk factors for the acquisition of secondary infections in COVID-19. Consequently, there is an increased prevalence of secondary infections, associated with a higher consumption of antimicrobials and a significant increase in the incidence of infections by multi and pan-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY: Antimicrobial stewardship and improvement in diagnostic techniques, improving the accuracy of bacterial infection diagnosis, may impact the antibiotic consumption and the incidence of infections by resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 236, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. RESULTS: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence around prevalence of bacterial coinfection and pattern of antibiotic use in COVID-19 is controversial although high prevalence rates of bacterial coinfection have been reported in previous similar global viral respiratory pandemics. Early data on the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing in COVID-19 indicates conflicting low and high prevalence of antibiotic prescribing which challenges antimicrobial stewardship programmes and increases risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AIM: To determine current prevalence of bacterial coinfection and antibiotic prescribing in COVID-19 patients. DATA SOURCE: OVID MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE, Cochrane and MedRxiv between January 2020 and June 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY: English language studies of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients which reported (a) prevalence of bacterial coinfection and/or (b) prevalence of antibiotic prescribing with no restrictions to study designs or healthcare setting. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with RT-PCR confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, regardless of study setting. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Proportion (prevalence) data was pooled using random effects meta-analysis approach; and stratified based on region and study design. RESULTS: A total of 1058 studies were screened, of which 22, hospital-based studies were eligible, compromising 76,176 of COVID-19 patients. Pooled estimates for the prevalence of bacterial co-infection and antibiotic use were 5.62% (95% CI 2.26-10.31) and 61.77% (CI 50.95-70.90), respectively. Sub-group analysis by region demonstrated that bacterial co-infection was more prevalent in North American studies (7.89%, 95% CI 3.30-14.18). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 is low, yet prevalence of antibiotic prescribing is high, indicating the need for targeted COVID-19 antimicrobial stewardship initiatives to reduce the global threat of AMR.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Prevalence
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(7): 1131-1137, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Secondary Bacterial Infections (SBIs) of the respiratory system are one of the biggest medical concerns in patients undergoing hospitalization with a diagnosis of COVID-19. This study aims to provide relevant data for the initiation of appropriate empirical treatment after examining the etiology and antimicrobial resistance of SBIs in COVID-19 patients under care in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in the largest pandemic hospital of our country. METHODOLOGY: Between March 16, 2020 and December 31, 2021, 56,993 COVID patients were hospitalized, of which 7684 were admitted to ICUs. A total of 1513 patients diagnosed with SBIs have been included in this study. During the course of the study, demographic data, clinical course, etiology and antimicrobial resistance data of all patients were collected. RESULTS: The most common causative agents of SBIs were inferred as Acinetobacter baumanii (35.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant and colistin-resistant A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were 83.7%; 42.7%, 79.2%, and 5.6%, 42.7%, 1.7%, respectively. Acinetobacter pittii clustering was seen in one of the ICUs in the hospital. Multidrug resistant 92 (5.4%) Corynebacterium striatum isolates were also found as a causative agent with increasing frequency during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: SBI of the respiratory system is one of the major complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the isolated bacteria are generally high, which indicates that more accurate use of antibacterial agents is necessary for SBIs in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Respiratory System , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
9.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 653-663, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974548

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the impact of Clostridioides difficile infection on the course of COVID-19. Methods: The authors included 809 patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study: 55 had C. difficile infection, 23 had C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea and 731 had no diarrhea. C. difficile in feces was determined by immunochromatographic test for its toxins. Results: C. difficile infection was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio = 2.6; p = 0.021), especially after 20 days of disease (hazard ratio = 6.5; p < 0.001). C. difficile infection-associated diarrhea was longer and more severe than C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Unlike patients with C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea, patients with C. difficile infection were admitted to the intensive care unit and needed mechanical ventilation more often than those without diarrhea. Conclusion: C. difficile infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19.


Patients with COVID-19 usually receive antibiotic treatment, which predisposes them to antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In some cases, antibiotic-associated diarrhea can be caused by Clostridioides difficile bacteria. To learn more about the impact of C. difficile infection on COVID-19, the authors analyzed data from the medical records of 809 patients with COVID-19. The authors found that C. difficile co-infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19. The authors suggest that patients with COVID-19 who develop diarrhea after taking antibiotics be tested for C. difficile and treated for this co-infection if the test is positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271795, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients and efficacy of antifungal therapy used in such patients is still unknown. Hence, we conducted this study to find the prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients and patient outcomes in terms of recovery or all-cause mortality following antifungal therapy (AFT) in such patients. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed®, Scopus®, Web of Sciences™, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrial.gov, MedRxiv.org, bioRxiv.org, and Google scholar to identify the literature that used antifungal therapy for the management fungal secondary infections in COVID-19 patients. We included case reports, case series, prospective & retrospective studies, and clinical trials. Mantel Haenszel random-effect model was used for estimating pooled risk ratio for required outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 33 case reports, 3 case series, and 21 cohort studies were selected for final data extraction and analysis. The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients was 28.2%. Azoles were the most commonly (65.1%) prescribed AFT. Study shows that high survival frequency among patients using AFT, received combination AFT and AFT used for >28 days. The meta-analysis showed, no significant difference in all-cause mortality between patients who received AFT and without AFT (p = 0.17), between types of AFT (p = 0.85) and the duration of AFT (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients was 28.2%. The survival frequency was high among patients who used AFT for fungal secondary infections, received combination AFT and AFT used for >28 days. However, meta-analysis results found that all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients with fungal secondary infections is not significantly associated with type and duration of AFT, mostly due to presence of confounding factors such as small number of events, delay in diagnosis of fungal secondary infections, presence of other co-infections and multiple comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Humans , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E19-E26, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955102

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Secondary bacterial infections have been reported in majority of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A study of the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these bacterial strains revealed that they were multidrug resistant, demonstrating their resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Bacterial co-infection remains as an important cause for high mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: In our study, we conducted a retrospective comparative analysis of bacterial co-infections and the antimicrobial resistance profile of bacterial isolates obtained from inpatients admitted in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 intensive care units. The goal was to obtain the etiology and antimicrobial resistance of these infections for more accurate use of antimicrobials in clinical settings. This study involved a total of 648 samples collected from 356 COVID-19 positive patients and 292 COVID-19 negative patients admitted in the intensive care unit over a period of six months from May to October 2020. Results: Among the co-infections found, maximum antimicrobial resistance was found in Acinetobacter species followed by Klebsiella species in both the ICU's. Incidence of bacterial co-infection was found to be higher in COVID-19 intensive care patients and most of these isolates were multidrug resistant strains. Conclusion: Therefore, it is important that co-infections should not be underestimated and instead be made part of an integrated plan to limit the global burden of morbidity and mortality during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(2): 161-169, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on secondary bacterial infection in patients with COVID-19 in Indonesia are still limited, while the use of empirical antibiotics continues to increase. This study aims to determine the secondary bacterial infection rate in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and factors related to secondary bacterial infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing treatment at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from March 2020 to September 2020. Secondary bacterial infection is defined as the identification of a bacterial pathogen from a microbiological examination. RESULTS: From a total of 255 subjects, secondary infection was identified in 14.5%. Predictors of secondary infection were early symptoms of shortness of breath (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.3 - 21.5), decreased consciousness (OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.77 - 13.0), length of stay > 12 days (OR 8.2, 95% CI 2.9 - 23.3), and central venous catheter placement (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1 - 8.0) The most common pathogen of secondary bacterial infection is Acinetobacter sp. (n=9; 28%). Empirical antibiotics were administered to 82.4% of subjects with predominant use of macrolides (n=141; 32.4%). CONCLUSION: The secondary bacterial infection rate in COVID-19 was 14.5% and is associated with dyspnea, decreased consciousness, length of stay >12 days, and central venous catheter placement. The use of antibiotics in COVID-19 reaches 82.4% and requires special attention to prevent the occurrence of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(27): e29823, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927463

ABSTRACT

Beside the changes in the gut microbiota in context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the increased use of high-risk broad-spectrum antibiotics during the actual pandemic raises concerns about a possible increase of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). We retrospectively analyzed 80 consecutive patients, with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and CDI. The mean length of hospitalization was 19.63 days. The mean time of the onset of the digestive symptoms related to CDI was 5.16 days. Patients with an onset of the digestive symptoms from hospital admission have a significantly lower median length in hospital stay. The recovered patients present a statistically significant decreased median age. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cured patients present CDI symptoms much earlier than the deceased patients, when comparing the median days before the occurrence of any digestive symptoms regarding CDI. Among the patients that prior to their hospitalization for COVID-19 were exposed to antibiotics, 54.7% presented CDI digestive symptoms during their hospitalization and 65.6% had a severe or critical COVID-19 form. Although the incidence of CDI in the pandemic is lower compared to the period before the pandemic, the severity of cases and the death rate increased. In the actual setting clinicians need to be aware of possible CDI and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917622

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Bacterial infections are among the major complications of many viral respiratory tract illnesses, such as influenza and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These bacterial co-infections are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. The current observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan among COVID-19 patients with the status of oxygen dependency to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 1251 clinical samples were collected from already diagnosed COVID-19 patients and tested for bacterial identification (cultures) and susceptibility testing (disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration) using gold standard diagnostic methods. Results: From the total collected samples, 234 were found positive for different bacterial isolates. The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 62) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (n = 47). The E. coli isolates have shown the highest resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin, while in the case of A. baumannii, the highest resistance was noted against tetracycline. The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 14.9%, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was 4.5%, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was 3.96%. Conclusions: The results of the current study conclude that empiric antimicrobial treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be considered if properly managed within institutional or national level antibiotic stewardship programs, because it may play a protective role in the case of bacterial co-infections, especially when a patient has other AMR risk factors, such as hospital admission within the previous six months.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
16.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 183-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly become a global threaten since its emergence in the end of 2019. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection could also present with co-infection or secondary infection by other virus, bacteria, or fungi. Among them, mucormycosis is a rare but aggressive fungal disease and it mainly affects patients particularly with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We here did a comprehensive review of literature reporting COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis (CAM) cases, which have been reported worldwide. The prevalence is higher in India, Iran, and Egypt than other countries, particularly highest in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. Poor diabetic control and the administration of systemic corticosteroids are the common precipitating factors causing mucormycosis in the severe and critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19 itself may affect the immune system resulting in vulnerability of the patients to mucormycosis. Appropriate treatments of CAM include strict glycemic control, extensive surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 397-404, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877914

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections are serious complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially co-infections with bacterial and fungal agents. Here we report a rare case of bloodstream co-infection by Trichosporon asahii, an emerging yeast, and Acinetobacterbaumannii, an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, both multidrug resistant, in a tertiary hospital from southern Brazil. A review of the literature regarding similar cases is also included. Treatment with multiple antimicrobials failed, and the patient progressed to death four days after the diagnosis of bacteremia and fungemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycoses , Sepsis , Trichosporon , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/drug therapy , Humans , Mycoses/diagnosis , Sepsis/microbiology
18.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 74, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised for COVID-19 may present with or acquire bacterial or fungal infections that can affect the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed infections in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the hospital charts of a sample of patients deceased with COVID-19 from the Italian National COVID-19 Surveillance, who had laboratory-confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) or lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), evaluating the pathogens responsible for the infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Among 157 patients with infections hospitalised from February 2020 to April 2021, 28 (17.8%) had co-infections (≤ 48 h from admission) and 138 (87.9%) had secondary infections (> 48 h). Most infections were bacterial; LRTI were more frequent than BSI. The most common co-infection was pneumococcal LRTI. In secondary infections, Enterococci were the most frequently recovered pathogens in BSI (21.7% of patients), followed by Enterobacterales, mainly K. pneumoniae, while LRTI were mostly associated with Gram-negative bacteria, firstly Enterobacterales (27.4% of patients, K. pneumoniae 15.3%), followed by A. baumannii (19.1%). Fungal infections, both BSI and LRTI, were mostly due to C. albicans. Antibiotic resistance rates were extremely high in Gram-negative bacteria, with almost all A. baumannii isolates resistant to carbapenems (95.5%), and K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa showing carbapenem resistance rates of 59.5% and 34.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19, secondary infections are considerably more common than co-infections, and are mostly due to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens showing a very high rate of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Fungemia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Fungemia/complications , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/microbiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
19.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(2): 357-364, 2022 Apr.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818596

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in China at the end of 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The lymphopenia seen in COVID-19 increases the incidence of susceptibility to other microorganisms and may cause co-infections. As the signs and symptoms of the diseases overlap with other infectious diseases and due to the intensity in health services, the diagnosis of co-infections becomes difficult and the treatment may be delayed. Therefore, infections accompanying COVID-19 cause an increase in morbidity and mortality.The isolation and quarantine measures taken during the COVID-19 process have reduced the number of infections transmitted from person to person. However, there was no significant decrease in diseases transmitted by food, such as salmonellosis. During the pandemic, salmonellosis continued to be a problem, especially in endemic areas such as Pakistan, and an increase in Salmonella infections associated with backyard poultry has been reported in countries such as the United States. A co-infection of COVID-19 and enteric fever associated with travel to Pakistan was reported for the first time in the literature in February 2021. In this case report, the first co-infection of COVID-19 and Salmonella in our country was presented. A 56-yearold male patient with no known systemic disease was admitted to the hospital with fever, shortness of breath, weakness and myalgia lasting for three days. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test was positive. The patient has been hospitalized and favipiravir, moxifloxacin, and methylprednisolone were started. Blood cultures were taken from the patient whose clinical picture worsened and fever continued despite of the medical treatment. Salmonella enterica spp. enterica was isolated and ceftriaxone treatment was started. The patient's anamnesis was deepened, but no diarrhea, abdominal pain, suspicious food consumption, travel history were determined. From the second day of the ceftriaxone treatment, the patient's fever decreased and no growth was detected in the control blood cultures. Ceftriaxone treatment was completed in 14 days and the patient was discharged on the 28th day. Approximately 87-95% of Salmonella strains isolated in our country are S.enterica spp. enterica, and S.enterica spp. enterica was also isolated in our case. Salmonella infections most commonly present as gastroenteritis, but the risk of bacteremia increases in case of immunosuppression. Although there was no additional disease in our case, it was considered that the infection in the form of bacteremia occurred due to an immunosuppression caused by COVID-19. In this context; drawing blood cultures of patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting co-infections and superinfections, and administering appropriate antibiotic therapy at appropriate treatment times. Presentation of first case of Salmonella bacteremia and simultaneous COVID-19 infection in our country was the strong side of our report. In addition, our case is also important as being the first SARS-CoV-2 and Salmonella co-infection unrelated to Pakistan in the literature. The limitation of our case was that S.enterica spp. enterica detected in the blood culture could not be subtyped and the stool culture could not be examined. However, this does not constitute a diagnostic requirement. In addition, the patient's pre-COVID-19 Salmonella carrier status was also unknown. As a result, patients become vulnerable to other infections due to the lymphopenia seen in COVID-19. Therefore, Salmonella bacteremia can be seen with SARS-CoV-2 infection without a comorbid condition. Drawing blood cultures in hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting concomitant infections in a short time. In patients whose clinical condition does not improve and fever continues despite of treatment, blood cultures should be taken, especially in the case of an advanced immunosuppresive treatment plan, and it should always be kept in mind that secondary infections and co-infections may occur.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Lymphopenia , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella enterica , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 124: 37-46, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics due to diagnostic uncertainty, particularly in critical care. Multi-professional communication became more difficult, weakening stewardship activities. AIM: To determine changes in bacterial co-/secondary infections and antibiotics used in COVID-19 patients in critical care, and mortality rates, between the first and second waves. METHODS: Prospective audit comparing bacterial co-/secondary infections and their treatment during the first two waves of the pandemic in a single-centre teaching hospital intensive care unit. Data on demographics, daily antibiotic use, clinical outcomes, and culture results in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection were collected over 11 months. FINDINGS: From March 9th, 2020 to September 2nd, 2020 (Wave 1), there were 156 patients and between September 3rd, 2020 and February 1st, 2021 (Wave 2) there were 235 patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to intensive care. No significant difference was seen in mortality or positive blood culture rates between the two waves. The proportion of patients receiving antimicrobial therapy (93.0% vs 81.7%; P < 0.01) and the duration of meropenem use (median (interquartile range): 5 (2-7) vs 3 (2-5) days; P = 0.01) was lower in Wave 2. However, the number of patients with respiratory isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4/156 vs 21/235; P < 0.01) and bacteraemia from a respiratory source (3/156 vs 20/235; P < 0.01) increased in Wave 2, associated with an outbreak of infection. There was no significant difference between waves with respect to isolation of other pathogens. CONCLUSION: Reduced broad-spectrum antimicrobial use in the second wave of COVID-19 compared with the first wave was not associated with significant change in mortality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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