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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705332

ABSTRACT

Coinfection rates with other pathogens in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varied during the pandemic. We assessed the latest prevalence of coinfection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi in COVID-19 patients for more than one year and its impact on mortality. A total of 436 samples were collected between August 2020 and October 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to detect pathogens. The coinfection rate of respiratory viruses in COVID-19 patients was 1.4%. Meanwhile, the rates of bacteria and fungi were 52.6% and 10.5% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were the most commonly detected pathogens. Ninety percent of isolated A. baumannii was non-susceptible to carbapenem. Based on a multivariate analysis, coinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 6.095), older age (OR = 1.089), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.006) were risk factors for mortality as a critical outcome. In particular, coinfection with bacteria (OR = 11.250), resistant pathogens (OR = 11.667), and infection with multiple pathogens (OR = 10.667) were significantly related to death. Screening and monitoring of coinfection in COVID-19 patients, especially for hospitalized patients during the pandemic, are beneficial for better management and survival.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477819

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has unveiled the secondary infection as one of the mortal causes of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the factors related to secondary bacterial or fungi infection remains largely unexplored. We here systematically investigated the factors that might contribute to secondary infection. By clinical examination index analysis of patients, combined with the integrative analysis with RNA-seq analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolated shortly from initial infection, this study showed that the antibiotic catabolic process and myeloid cell homeostasis were activated while the T-cell response were relatively repressed in those with the risk of secondary infection. Further monitoring analysis of immune cell and liver injury analysis showed that the risk of secondary infection was accompanied by severe lymphocytopenia at the intermediate and late stages and liver injury at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the metagenomics analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the microbial culture analysis, to some extent, showed that the severe pneumonia-related bacteria have already existed in the initial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Liver/injuries , Liver/virology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0113821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476402

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic means, host factors, delay of occurrence, and outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and fungal coinfections in the intensive care unit (ICU). From 1 February to 31 May 2020, we anonymously recorded COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), fungemia (CA-fungemia), and pneumocystosis (CA-PCP) from 36 centers, including results on fungal biomarkers in respiratory specimens and serum. We collected data from 154 episodes of CAPA, 81 of CA-fungemia, 17 of CA-PCP, and 5 of other mold infections from 244 patients (male/female [M/F] ratio = 3.5; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.8 years). CA-PCP occurred first after ICU admission (median, 1 day; interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 3 days), followed by CAPA (9 days; IQR, 5 to 13 days), and then CA-fungemia (16 days; IQR, 12 to 23 days) (P < 10-4). For CAPA, the presence of several mycological criteria was associated with death (P < 10-4). Serum galactomannan was rarely positive (<20%). The mortality rates were 76.7% (23/30) in patients with host factors for invasive fungal disease, 45.2% (14/31) in those with a preexisting pulmonary condition, and 36.6% (34/93) in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Antimold treatment did not alter prognosis (P = 0.370). Candida albicans was responsible for 59.3% of CA-fungemias, with a global mortality of 45.7%. For CA-PCP, 58.8% of the episodes occurred in patients with known host factors of PCP, and the mortality rate was 29.5%. CAPA may be in part hospital acquired and could benefit from antifungal prescription at the first positive biomarker result. CA-fungemia appeared linked to ICU stay without COVID-19 specificity, while CA-PCP may not really be a concern in the ICU. Improved diagnostic strategy for fungal markers in ICU patients with COVID-19 should support these hypotheses. IMPORTANCE To diagnose fungal coinfections in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, it is necessary to implement the correct treatment and to prevent them if possible. For COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), respiratory specimens remain the best approach since serum biomarkers are rarely positive. Timing of occurrence suggests that CAPA could be hospital acquired. The associated mortality varies from 36.6% to 76.7% when no host factors or host factors of invasive fungal diseases are present, respectively. Fungemias occurred after 2 weeks in ICUs and are associated with a mortality rate of 45.7%. Candida albicans is the first yeast species recovered, with no specificity linked to COVID-19. Pneumocystosis was mainly found in patients with known immunodepression. The diagnosis occurred at the entry in ICUs and not afterwards, suggesting that if Pneumocystis jirovecii plays a role, it is upstream of the hospitalization in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Fungemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/mortality , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Galactose/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/mortality , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4499, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383120

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to compare clinical characteristics and mortality among adults infected with human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to the ward of a university teaching hospital for suspected viral infection from October 2012 to December 2017. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test for respiratory viruses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare mortality among patients with HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43 infections. The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Of 8071 patients tested, 1689 were found to have a respiratory virus infection. Of these patients, 133 had HCoV infection, including 12 mixed infections, 44 HCoV 229E infections, and 77 HCoV OC43 infections. HCoV 229E infections peaked in January and February, while HCoV OC43 infections occurred throughout the year. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 25.0% among patients with HCoV 229E infection, and 9.1% among patients with HCoV OC43 infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-10.75). Infections with HCoVs 229E and OC43 appear to have different seasonal patterns, and HCoV 229E might be more virulent than HCoV OC43.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Aged , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 6-10, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020, and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients with 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory test results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Although there was a trend toward increased rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak C-reactive protein values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, although HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all 3 patients died during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared with matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine whether the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 307-315, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323440

ABSTRACT

Steroids are expected to be effective in the treatment of cytokine release syndrome, which is considered to be associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the use of steroids and its effects. We conducted a retrospective chart review and an analysis of 226 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients were divided into those who received steroids (steroid group) and those who did not (no steroid group). Inverse probability weighted analysis was performed to assess the effect of steroids on in-hospital mortality. The steroid group had higher rates of preexisting hypertension and peripheral vascular disease as well as higher lactate dehydrogenase levels, d-dimer levels, and inflammatory markers than the no steroid group (all P <0.05). The steroid group had significantly higher rates of multifocal pneumonia than the no steroid group at admission (75.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.001). Notably, the steroid group had higher rates of developing bacterial infection (25% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.041) and fungal infection (12.7% versus 0.7%, P <0.001) during the hospital course than the no steroid group. After adjustment, it was observed that steroids did not decrease or increase in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [0.60-1.73, P = 0.94]). There was an increase in bacterial and fungal infections with steroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Steroids/therapeutic use
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 127, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. RESULTS: We found evidence of co-infection in 34 COVID-19 patients (71%). Influenza A H1N1 (n = 17), Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 13) and human adenovirus (n = 10) were the most commonly detected pathogens. Viral co-infection was associated with increased ICU admission (r = 0.1) and higher mortality (OR 1.78, CI = 0.38-8.28) compared to bacterial co-infections (OR 0.44, CI = 0.08-2.45). Two thirds of COVID-19 critically ill patients who died, had a co-infection; and Influenza A H1N1 was the only pathogen for which a direct relationship with mortality was seen (r = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of screening for co-infecting viruses in COVID-19 patients, that could be the leading cause of disease severity and death. Given the high prevalence of Influenza co-infection in our study, increased coverage of flu vaccination is encouraged to mitigate the transmission of influenza virus during the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the risk of severe outcome and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 147-153, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns over secondary infections because it has limited treatment options and empiric antimicrobial treatment poses serious risks of aggravating antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Studies have shown that COVID-19 patients are predisposed to develop secondary infections. This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and profiles of co- & secondary infections in patients at the COVID-19 facility in North India. METHODS: We studied the profile of pathogens isolated from 290 clinical samples. Bacterial and fungal pathogens were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Vitek2® system. Additionally, respiratory samples were tested for any viral/atypical bacterial co-infections and the presence of AMR genes by FilmArray test. The clinical and outcome data of these patients were also recorded for demographic and outcome measures analyses. RESULTS: A total of 151 (13%) patients had secondary infections, and most got infected within the first 14 days of hospital admission. Patients aged >50 years developed severe symptoms (p = 0.0004) and/or had a fatal outcome (p = 0.0005). In-hospital mortality was 33%.K.pneumoniae (33.3%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by A. baumannii (27.1%). The overall resistance was up to 84%.Majority of the organisms were multidrug-resistant (MDR) harbouring MDR genes. CONCLUSION: A high rate of secondary infections with resistant pathogens in COVID-19 patients highlights the importance of antimicrobial stewardship programs focussing on supporting the optimal selection of empiric treatment and rapid-de-escalation, based on culture reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/mortality , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Tertiary Healthcare , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251170, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218426

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recovery of other pathogens in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported, either at the time of a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis (co-infection) or subsequently (superinfection). However, data on the prevalence, microbiology, and outcomes of co-infection and superinfection are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of co-infections and superinfections and their outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched literature databases for studies published from October 1, 2019, through February 8, 2021. We included studies that reported clinical features and outcomes of co-infection or superinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. We followed PRISMA guidelines, and we registered the protocol with PROSPERO as: CRD42020189763. RESULTS: Of 6639 articles screened, 118 were included in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%-25%, I2 = 98%) and that of superinfection was 24% (95% CI: 19%-30%). Pooled prevalence of pathogen type stratified by co- or superinfection were: viral co-infections, 10% (95% CI: 6%-14%); viral superinfections, 4% (95% CI: 0%-10%); bacterial co-infections, 8% (95% CI: 5%-11%); bacterial superinfections, 20% (95% CI: 13%-28%); fungal co-infections, 4% (95% CI: 2%-7%); and fungal superinfections, 8% (95% CI: 4%-13%). Patients with a co-infection or superinfection had higher odds of dying than those who only had SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.82-5.99). Compared to those with co-infections, patients with superinfections had a higher prevalence of mechanical ventilation (45% [95% CI: 33%-58%] vs. 10% [95% CI: 5%-16%]), but patients with co-infections had a greater average length of hospital stay than those with superinfections (mean = 29.0 days, standard deviation [SD] = 6.7 vs. mean = 16 days, SD = 6.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that as many as 19% of patients with COVID-19 have co-infections and 24% have superinfections. The presence of either co-infection or superinfection was associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. Our findings support the need for diagnostic testing to identify and treat co-occurring respiratory infections among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Superinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/mortality , Mycoses/therapy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Superinfection/mortality , Superinfection/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/mortality , Virus Diseases/therapy
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1008-1012, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206808

ABSTRACT

In the last months of 2019, an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease started in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to other parts of the world. It was named COVID-19, and to date, thousands of cases of infection and death are reported worldwide. This disease is associated with a wide range of symptoms, which makes accurate diagnosis of it difficult. During previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic in 2003, researchers found that the patients with fever, cough, or sore throat had a 5% influenza virus-positive rate. This finding made us think that the wide range of symptoms and also relatively high prevalence of death in our patients may be due to the coinfection with other viruses. Thus, we evaluated the coinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with other respiratory viruses in dead patients in North Khorasan. We evaluated the presence of influenza A/B virus, human metapneumovirus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses in 105 SARS-CoV-2 positive dead patients, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR tests. We found coinfection with influenza virus in 22.3%, RSV, and bocavirus in 9.7%, parainfluenza viruses in 3.9%, human metapneumovirus in 2.9%, and finally adenovirus in 1.9% of SARS-CoV-2 positive dead cases. Our findings highlight a high prevalence of coinfection with influenza A virus and the monopoly of coinfection with Human metapneumovirus in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Cadaver , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Young Adult
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1687-1693, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We present the clinical outcomes of HIV patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a matched comparison with historical controls. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV patients admitted for COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2020 to Newark Beth Israel Medical Center. Data on baseline clinical characteristics and hospital course were documented and compared with that of a matched control group of COVID-19 patients who had no history of HIV. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank tests were used to estimate and compare in-hospital survival between both unmatched and matched groups. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with HIV were hospitalized with COVID-19. The median age was 59 years. The rates of in-hospital death, the need for mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 13% (n = 3), 9% (n = 2), and 9% (n = 2), respectively. The HIV infection was well-controlled in all patients except for three patients presented with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). All AIDS patients were discharged home uneventfully. A one-to-one propensity matching identified 23 COVID-19 patients who served as a control group. In both pre- and post-match cohorts, survival between HIV and control groups were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of HIV-infected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, there was no difference in mortality, ICU admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation when compared with a matched control of COVID-19 patients with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , HIV Infections/mortality , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1180-1183, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196465

ABSTRACT

To compare characteristics and outcomes of patients who had COVID-19 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to those without M. pneumoniae antibodies. We retrospectively reviewed cases admitted over a 4-week period between 17 March 2020 and 14 April 2020 to the Hoboken University Medical Center, NJ, USA. We compared the outcomes of COVID-19 patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM with those who were negative for M. pneumoniae IgM. The primary outcome was mortality. The adjusted odds ratio was calculated after controlling for baseline differences. Of 139 patients admitted with COVID-19, 79 were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM. The mortality among those who were M. pneumoniae IgM positive was significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 5.03) compared with those who were M. pneumoniae IgM negative. Patients with coinfection (COVID-19 and mycoplasma) have higher mortality compared with patients with just COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/mortality , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/mortality , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/virology , Aged , Coinfection/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1489-1495, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196455

ABSTRACT

Bacterial coinfection is associated with poor outcomes in patients with viral pneumonia, but data on its role in the mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. This is a single-center retrospective analysis of 242 patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to both intensive care and non-intensive care settings. Bacterial coinfection was determined by the presence of characteristic clinical features and positive culture results. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association of concomitant bacterial infection with inpatient death after adjusting for demographic factors and comorbidities. Antibiotic use pattern was also determined. Bacterial coinfection was detected in 46 (19%) patients. Genitourinary source was the most frequent, representing 57% of all coinfections. The overall mortality rate was 21%. Concomitant bacterial infections were independently associated with increased inpatient mortality (OR, 5.838; 95% CI, 2.647-12.876). Patients with bacterial coinfection were relatively older (71.35 ± 11.20 vs 64.78 ± 15.23; P = .006). A total of 67% of patients received antibiotic therapy, yet 72% did not have an obvious source of bacterial infection. There was a significantly higher rate of inpatient mortality in patients who received antibiotics compared to those who did not (30% vs 5%; P < .0001). Bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Aged , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 145-154, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 predisposes patients to secondary infections; however, a better understanding of the impact of coinfections on the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients is still necessary. AIM: To analyse death risk due to coinfections in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The odds of death of 212 severely ill COVID-19 patients were evaluated, with detailed focus on the risks for each pathogen, site of infection, comorbidities and length of hospitalization. FINDINGS: The mortality rate was 50.47%. Fungal and/or bacterial isolation occurred in 89 patients, of whom 83.14% died. Coinfected patients stayed hospitalized longer and had an increased odds of dying (odds ratio (OR): 13.45; R2 = 0.31). The risk of death was increased by bacterial (OR: 11.28) and fungal (OR: 5.97) coinfections, with increased levels of creatinine, leucocytes, urea and C-reactive protein. Coinfections increased the risk of death if patients suffered from cardiovascular disease (OR: 11.53), diabetes (OR: 6.00) or obesity (OR: 5.60) in comparison with patients with these comorbidities but without pathogen isolation. The increased risk of death was detected for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (OR: 25.39), Candida non-albicans (OR: 11.12), S. aureus (OR: 10.72), Acinetobacter spp. (OR: 6.88), Pseudomonas spp. (OR: 4.77), and C. albicans (OR: 3.97). The high-risk sites of infection were blood, tracheal aspirate, and urine. Patients with coinfection undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation were 3.8 times more likely to die than those without positive cultures. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 patients with secondary coinfections required longer hospitalization and had higher risk of death. The early diagnosis of coinfections is essential to identify high-risk patients and to determine the right interventions to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/complications , Respiration, Artificial
15.
Acta Biomed ; 92(1): e2021025, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155016

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) has involved millions of people all over the world. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to affect millions of people every year with high mortality. There is limited literature on the occurrence of COVID 19 in patients with TB. We reviewed the available data on various clinical details, management, and outcome among patients with COVID-19 and TB. 8 studies reported a total of 80 patients with this coinfection. These patients were reported from ten different countries, with Italy reporting the largest number of cases. Migrant, males constituted a major proportion of cases. Most reported patients were symptomatic. Fever, dry cough, and dyspnea were the most commonly reported symptoms. Bilateral ground glass opacities were more common in COVID 19 infection and cavitary lesions were more common in patients with TB. Most reported TB patients had been found to have mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum culture in the background of pulmonary TB. Most patients of TB were treated with multidrug regimen antitubercular therapy. In all 8 studies, COVID 19 was treated as per the local protocol. Mortality was reported in more than 10% of patients. Mortality was higher in elderly patients (> 70 years) and amongst patient with multiple medical comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/mortality
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 41: 102026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147251

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coroanvirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had raised possibilities of coinfection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in countries were these two viruses were reported. In this study, we describe the clinical presentation and demographics of eight patients who were coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a case series of hospitalized patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). We collected demographics, underlying conditions, presenting symptoms and clinical outcome from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: During the study period from March 14, 2020 to October 19, 2020, there was a total of 67 SARS-CoV-2 ICU admitted patients who underwent simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV testing by PCR. Of those patients, 8 (12%) tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. There were 6 (75%) males, the mean age ± SD was 44.4 ± 11.8 years, and 7 (87.5%) were obese. Of the patients, 7 (87.5%) were non-smokers, 1 (12.5%) had diabetes mellitus, 1 (12.5%) had heart failure, and 1 (12.5%) had been on anti-platelet therapy. The mean hospital length of stay (LOS) was 21.1 ± 11.6 days and the average ICU LOS was 10.9 ± 6.03 days. All patients received supportive therapy and all were treated with corticosteroid. Of all the patients, 4 (50%) were discharged home and 3 (37.5%) died. CONCLUSION: This case series is an important addition to the medical knowledge as it showed the interaction of the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 782-793, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138766

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and garnered international attention. The causative pathogen of COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel, highly contagious coronavirus. Numerous studies have reported that liver injury is quite common in patients with COVID-19. Hepatitis B has a worldwide distribution as well as in China. At present, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because both viruses challenge liver physiology, it raises questions as to how coinfection with HBV and SARS-CoV-2 affect disease progression and mortality. Is there an increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with HBV infection? In this review, we summarize the current reports of SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection and elaborate the interaction of the two diseases. The emphasis was placed on evaluating the impact of HBV infection on disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and discussing the potential mechanism behind this effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coinfection/physiopathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/mortality , Disease Progression , Global Health , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Future Microbiol ; 16(3): 135-142, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110198

ABSTRACT

The ability of influenza A virus to evolve, coupled with increasing antimicrobial resistance, could trigger an influenza pandemic with great morbidity and mortality. Much of the 1918 influenza pandemic mortality was likely due to bacterial coinfection, including Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. S. aureus resists many antibiotics. The lack of new antibiotics suggests alternative antimicrobials, such as bacteriophages, are needed. Potential delivery routes for bacteriophage therapy (BT) include inhalation and intravenous injection. BT has recently been used successfully in compassionate access pulmonary infection cases. Phage lysins, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls and which are bactericidal, are efficacious in animal pneumonia models. Clinical trials will be needed to determine whether BT can ameliorate disease in influenza and S. aureus coinfection.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/physiology , Coinfection/therapy , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Phage Therapy , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/virology , Animals , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology
19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(5): 524-534, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether asthma has an influence on contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or having worse outcomes from COVID-19 disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 and the relationship between asthma and patients with COVID-19 with poor outcomes. METHODS: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The pooled effect size (ES) was used to evaluate the association between asthma and patients with COVID-19 with poor outcomes. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 worldwide was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.6-9.0) based on 116 articles (119 studies) with 403,392 cases. The pooled ES based on unadjusted effect estimates revealed that asthma was not associated with reduced risk of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 (ES, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.06). Similarly, the pooled ES based on unadjusted effect estimates revealed that asthma was not associated with the reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19 (ES, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73-1.05). However, the pooled ES based on adjusted effect estimates indicated that asthma was significantly associated with reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19 (ES 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86). CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 was similar to that in the general population, and asthma might be an independent protective factor for the death of patients with COVID-19, which suggests that we should pay high attention to patients co-infected asthma and COVID-19 and take locally tailored interventions and treatment. Further well-designed studies with large sample sizes are required to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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