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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523122

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are recognized as important circulating effector cells in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, their role within the inflamed lungs is incompletely understood. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and parallel blood samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and compared BAL fluid parameters with those of mechanically ventilated patients with influenza, as a non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort. Compared with those of patients with influenza, BAL fluids of patients with COVID-19 contained increased numbers of hyperactivated degranulating neutrophils and elevated concentrations of the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-17A, TNF-α, and G-CSF; the chemokines CCL7, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL11, and CXCL12α; and the protease inhibitors elafin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. In contrast, α-1 antitrypsin levels and net proteolytic activity were comparable in COVID-19 and influenza BAL fluids. During antibiotic treatment for bacterial coinfections, increased BAL fluid levels of several activating and chemotactic factors for monocytes, lymphocytes, and NK cells were detected in patients with COVID-19 whereas concentrations tended to decrease in patients with influenza, highlighting the persistent immunological response to coinfections in COVID-19. Finally, the high proteolytic activity in COVID-19 lungs suggests considering protease inhibitors as a treatment option.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/metabolism , Coinfection/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21259, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a serious public health concern worldwide. Notably, co-infection with other pathogens may worsen the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and increase fatality. Here, we show that co-infection with influenza A virus (IAV) causes more severe body weight loss and more severe and prolonged pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. Each virus can efficiently spread in the lungs without interference by the other. However, in immunohistochemical analyses, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were not detected at the same sites in the respiratory organs of co-infected hamsters, suggesting that either the two viruses may have different cell tropisms in vivo or each virus may inhibit the infection and/or growth of the other within a cell or adjacent areas in the organs. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-6 was detected in the sera of hamsters co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and IAV at 7 and 10 days post-infection, suggesting that IL-6 may be involved in the increased severity of pneumonia. Our results strongly suggest that IAV co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 can have serious health risks and increased caution should be applied in such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 127, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. RESULTS: We found evidence of co-infection in 34 COVID-19 patients (71%). Influenza A H1N1 (n = 17), Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 13) and human adenovirus (n = 10) were the most commonly detected pathogens. Viral co-infection was associated with increased ICU admission (r = 0.1) and higher mortality (OR 1.78, CI = 0.38-8.28) compared to bacterial co-infections (OR 0.44, CI = 0.08-2.45). Two thirds of COVID-19 critically ill patients who died, had a co-infection; and Influenza A H1N1 was the only pathogen for which a direct relationship with mortality was seen (r = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of screening for co-infecting viruses in COVID-19 patients, that could be the leading cause of disease severity and death. Given the high prevalence of Influenza co-infection in our study, increased coverage of flu vaccination is encouraged to mitigate the transmission of influenza virus during the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the risk of severe outcome and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(12)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269823

ABSTRACT

T cells are involved in control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but limited knowledge is available on the relationship between antigen-specific T cell response and disease severity. Here, we used flow cytometry to assess the magnitude, function, and phenotype of SARS coronavirus 2-specific (SARS-CoV-2-specific) CD4+ T cells in 95 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 38 of them being HIV-1 and/or tuberculosis (TB) coinfected, and 38 non-COVID-19 patients. We showed that SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell attributes, rather than magnitude, were associated with disease severity, with severe disease being characterized by poor polyfunctional potential, reduced proliferation capacity, and enhanced HLA-DR expression. Moreover, HIV-1 and TB coinfection skewed the SARS-CoV-2 T cell response. HIV-1-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion associated with suboptimal T cell and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and a decrease in the polyfunctional capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells was observed in COVID-19 patients with active TB. Our results also revealed that COVID-19 patients displayed reduced frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells, with possible implications for TB disease progression. These results corroborate the important role of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 pathogenesis and support the concept of altered T cell functions in patients with severe disease.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Tuberculosis/pathology
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1156-1168, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe risk of secondary infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus is becoming a practical problem that must be addressed as the flu season merges with the COVID-19 pandemic. As SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus have been found in patients, understanding the in vivo characteristics of the secondary infection between these two viruses is a high priority. Here, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with the H1N1 virus at a nonlethal dose during the convalescent stage on 7 and 14 days post SARS-CoV-2 infection, and importantly, subsequent H1N1 infection showed enhanced viral shedding and virus tissue distribution. Histopathological observation revealed an extensive pathological change in the lungs related to H1N1 infection in mice recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, with severe inflammation infiltration and bronchiole disruption. Moreover, upon H1N1 exposure on 7 and 14 dpi of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the lymphocyte population activated at a lower level with T cell suppressed in both PBMC and lung. These findings will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutics and vaccines as well as guiding public health work.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/physiology
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 200, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237988

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus may circulate simultaneously with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leading to more serious respiratory diseases during this winter. However, the influence of these viruses on disease outcome when both influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 are present in the host remains unclear. Using a mammalian model, sequential infection was performed in ferrets and in K18-hACE2 mice, with SARS-CoV-2 infection following H1N1. We found that co-infection with H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 extended the duration of clinical manifestation of COVID-19, and enhanced pulmonary damage, but reduced viral shedding of throat swabs and viral loads in the lungs of ferrets. Moreover, mortality was increased in sequentially infected mice compared with single-infection mice. Compared with single-vaccine inoculation, co-inoculation of PiCoVacc (a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine) and the flu vaccine showed no significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers or virus-specific immune responses. Combined immunization effectively protected K18-hACE2 mice against both H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings indicated the development of systematic models of co-infection of H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2, which together notably enhanced pneumonia in ferrets and mice, as well as demonstrated that simultaneous vaccination against H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 may be an effective prevention strategy for the coming winter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology
8.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 28, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. People with underlying medical conditions may be at greater risk of infection and experience complications from COVID-19. COVID-19 has the potential to affect People living with HIV (PLWH) in various ways, including be increased risk of COVID-19 acquisition and interruptions of HIV treatment and care. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 among PLWH. The contents focus on 4 topics: (1) the pathophysiology and host immune response of people infected with both SARS-CoV-2 and HIV, (2) present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of persons with co-infection, (3) assess the impact of antiretroviral HIV drugs among PLWH infected with COVID-19 and (4) evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , HIV Infections/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Cytokines/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(5): 535-541.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma are comparatively susceptible to respiratory viral infections and more likely to develop severe symptoms than people without asthma. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of the population with asthma in the population tested for and diagnosed as having COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To perform a study to assess the impact of asthma on COVID-19 diagnosis, presenting symptoms, disease severity, and cytokine profiles. METHODS: This was an analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of patients suspected of having COVID-19 who presented for COVID-19 testing at a tertiary medical center in Missouri between March 2020 and September 2020. We classified and analyzed patients according to their pre-existing asthma diagnosis and subsequent COVID-19 testing results. RESULTS: Patients suspected of having COVID-19 (N = 435) were enrolled in this study. The proportions of patients testing positive for COVID-19 were 69.2% and 81.9% in the groups with asthma and without asthma, respectively. The frequencies of relevant symptoms were similar between the groups with asthma with positive and negative COVID-19 test results. In the population diagnosed as having COVID-19 (n = 343), asthma was not associated with several indicators of COVID-19 severity, including hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, death due to COVID-19, and in-hospital mortality after multivariate adjustment. Patients with COVID-19 with asthma exhibited significantly lower levels of plasma interleukin-8 than patients without asthma (adjusted P = .02). CONCLUSION: The population with asthma is facing a challenge in preliminary COVID-19 evaluation owing to an overlap in the symptoms of COVID-19 and asthma. However, asthma does not increase the risk of COVID-19 severity if infected.


Subject(s)
Asthma/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154448

ABSTRACT

Background: Establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 and Pneumocystisjirovecii pulmonary coinfection is difficult due to clinical and radiological similarities that exist between the two disorders. For the moment, fungal coinfections are underestimated in COVID-19 patients. Case presentation: We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient, who presented to the emergency department for severe dyspnea and died 17 h later. The RT-PCR test performed at his admission was negative for SARS-CoV-2. Retesting of lung fragments collected during autopsy revealed a positive result for SARS-CoV-2. Histopathological examination showed preexisting lesions, due to comorbidities, as well as recent lesions: massive lung thromboses, alveolar exudate rich in foam cells, suprapleural and intra-alveolar Pneumocystisjirovecii cystic forms, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. Conclusion: COVID-19 and P.jirovecii coinfection should be considered, particularly in critically ill patients, and we recommend the systematic search for P. jirovecii in respiratory samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/pathology , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/pathology , Exudates and Transudates , Fatal Outcome , Fibrosis , Foam Cells/pathology , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/pathology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Veins/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology
12.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(5): 569-575, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a pandemic toward the end of 2019, causing large numbers of people to become infected and die. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether allergic diseases are a risk factor for hospitalization in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a study including 107 pediatric patients after COVID-19 recovery. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 3 questionnaires were distributed together with a detailed history of environmental factors and an allergic evaluation including skin prick tests, specific immunoglobulin E tests, and spirometry. We investigated the prevalence of allergic diseases and evaluated the factors associated with hospitalization in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 61 (57%) patients were hospitalized and 46 (43%) patients were followed closely in the outpatient clinic. The prevalences of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and episodic wheezing were 10.3%, 6,5%, 4.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, within the whole study population. Although having asthma with or without allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and passive tobacco exposure were not found to be related to hospitalization because of COVID-19, having a pet at home was found to decrease the risk of hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.191; 95% confidence interval, 0.047-0.779; P = .02). Spirometry tests revealed a higher forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio and a peak expiratory flow reversibility in hospitalized patients than in nonhospitalized ones (P = .02 and P = .003, respectively). CONCLUSION: Asthma and allergic diseases do not seem to be risk factors for hospitalization in children because of COVID-19, and having a pet at home can be a protective effect. Pulmonary function testing seems to be important for monitoring lung damage after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/pathology , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Vital Capacity/physiology
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 544993, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106059

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic originating from Wuhan, China is causing major fatalities across the world. Viral pneumonia is commonly observed in COVID-19 pandemic. The number of deaths caused by viral pneumonia is mainly due to secondary bacterial or fungal infection. The immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 viral pneumonia is poorly understood with reference to human clinical data collected from patients infected by virus and secondary bacterial or fungal infection occurring simultaneously. The co-infection inside the lungs caused by pneumonia has direct impact on the changing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. Understanding the attribution of these two immunological cells triggered by cytokines level change is of great importance to identify the progression of pneumonia from non-severe to severe state in hospitalized patients. This review elaborates the cytokines imbalance observed in SARS-CoV-1 (2003 epidemic), SARS-CoV-2 (2019 pandemic) viral pneumonia and community acquired pneumonia (CAP), respectively, in patients to determine the potential reason of co-infection. In this review the epidemiology, virology, clinical symptoms, and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are narrated. The immune activation during SARS-CoV-1 pneumonia, bacterial, and fungal pneumonia is discussed. Here it is further analyzed with the available literatures to predict the potential internal medicines, prognosis and monitoring suggesting better treatment strategy for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
14.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 395-403, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091494

ABSTRACT

The upcoming flu season in the Northern Hemisphere merging with the current COVID-19 pandemic raises a potentially severe threat to public health. Through experimental coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and either pseudotyped or live SARS-CoV-2 virus, we found that IAV preinfection significantly promoted the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in a broad range of cell types. Remarkably, in vivo, increased SARS-CoV-2 viral load and more severe lung damage were observed in mice coinfected with IAV. Moreover, such enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was not observed with several other respiratory viruses, likely due to a unique feature of IAV to elevate ACE2 expression. This study illustrates that IAV has a unique ability to aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection, and thus, prevention of IAV infection is of great significance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/deficiency , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Cell Line , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Guide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Virus Internalization
15.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(5): 524-534, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether asthma has an influence on contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or having worse outcomes from COVID-19 disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 and the relationship between asthma and patients with COVID-19 with poor outcomes. METHODS: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The pooled effect size (ES) was used to evaluate the association between asthma and patients with COVID-19 with poor outcomes. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 worldwide was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.6-9.0) based on 116 articles (119 studies) with 403,392 cases. The pooled ES based on unadjusted effect estimates revealed that asthma was not associated with reduced risk of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 (ES, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.06). Similarly, the pooled ES based on unadjusted effect estimates revealed that asthma was not associated with the reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19 (ES, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73-1.05). However, the pooled ES based on adjusted effect estimates indicated that asthma was significantly associated with reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19 (ES 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86). CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 was similar to that in the general population, and asthma might be an independent protective factor for the death of patients with COVID-19, which suggests that we should pay high attention to patients co-infected asthma and COVID-19 and take locally tailored interventions and treatment. Further well-designed studies with large sample sizes are required to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067419

ABSTRACT

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are members of the family Coronaviridae. Comparing the findings of the infections caused by these viruses would help reveal the novel characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into the unique pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs infection in adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was performed at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, between January 1, 2015, and July 31, 2020. A total of 109 consecutive patients who were over 18 years of age with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs were enrolled. Finally, 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 40 patients with endemic HCoV CAP. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and prolonged fever were more common in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas clinical findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia such as dyspnea, leukocytosis with left shift, and increased C-reactive protein were more common in endemic HCoV CAP. Bilateral peripherally distributed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were typical radiologic findings in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas mixed patterns of GGOs, consolidations, micronodules, and pleural effusion were observed in endemic HCoV CAP. Coinfection was not observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, but was observed in more than half of the patients with endemic HCoV CAP. There were distinctive differences in the clinical and radiologic findings between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV CAP. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism underlying this difference. Follow-up observations are needed to determine if the presentation of SARS-CoV-2 CAP changes with repeated infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Endemic Diseases , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thorax/diagnostic imaging
17.
Pulmonology ; 27(2): 151-165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049866

ABSTRACT

Evidence is accumulating on the interaction between tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19. The aim of the present review is to report the available evidence on the interaction between these two infections. Differences and similarities of TB and COVID-19, their immunological features, diagnostics, epidemiological and clinical characteristics and public health implications are discussed. The key published documents and guidelines on the topic have been reviewed. Based on the immunological mechanism involved, a shared dysregulation of immune responses in COVID-19 and TB has been found, suggesting a dual risk posed by co-infection worsening COVID-19 severity and favouring TB disease progression. The available evidence on clinical aspects suggests that COVID-19 happens regardless of TB occurrence either before, during or after an active TB diagnosis. More evidence is required to determine if COVID-19 may reactivate or worsen active TB disease. The role of sequeale and the need for further rehabilitation must be further studied Similarly, the potential role of drugs prescribed during the initial phase to treat COVID-19 and their interaction with anti-TB drugs require caution. Regarding risk of morbidity and mortality, several risk scores for COVID-19 and independent risk factors for TB have been identified: including, among others, age, poverty, malnutrition and co-morbidities (HIV co-infection, diabetes, etc.). Additional evidence is expected to be provided by the ongoing global TB/COVID-19 study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Public Health/methods , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/pathology
19.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(5): 377-380, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034439

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and has a high mortality rate. The disease emerged from Wuhan, China, in late 2019, and spread to Japan, including Hokkaido, in January 2020. In February 2020, 3 children were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Furano, Hokkaido, Japan. During this period, influenza and human metapneumovirus infections were prevalent among children in the Furano region. Two of the 3 patients experienced co-infection with other respiratory viruses, including influenza virus A or human metapneumovirus. To the authors' knowledge, the cases described in the present report were the first pediatric patients with COVID-19 in Japan. In children with COVID-19, the possibility of co-infection with other respiratory pathogens should be considered.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 80-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979832

ABSTRACT

The interaction between existing chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and COVID-19 has not been studied. We analysed 70 COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection (CHI) to determine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome. We investigated clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 patients of seven hospitals from Jan 20 to March 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse risk factors for progression of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. Compared with COVID-19 without HBV infection (WHI) group, patients with dual infection had a higher proportion of severe/critically ill disease (32.86% vs. 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031]. The utilization rates of Arbidol and immunoglobulin were significantly higher than those in the co-infected group [48.57% vs. 35.64%, P < .05; 21.43% vs. 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group. Age and c-reactive protein (CRP) level were independent risk factors for recovery of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. The original characteristics of COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection were higher rate of liver injury, coagulation disorders, severe/critical tendency and increased susceptibility. The elderly and patients with higher level of CRP were more likely to experience a severe outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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