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3.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4411-4419, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263106

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus which caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initiated. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was associated with higher severity and mortality of COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the effects of comorbidities and medications in addition to determining the association between AKI, antibiotics against coinfections (AAC) and outcomes of patients. We conducted a retrospective study on adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary center. Our primary outcomes were the incidence rate of AKI based on comorbidities and medications. The secondary outcome was to determine mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and prolonged hospitalization by AKI and AAC. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression method was used to explore predictive effects of AKI and AAC on outcomes. Out of 854 included participants, 118 patients developed AKI in whom, 57 used AAC and 61 did not. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities in patients developed AKI. AAC, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, and corticosteroids had significant higher rate of administration in patients developed AKI. AAC were associated with higher deaths (odds ratio [OR] = 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-8.78) and ICU admission (OR = 5.87; 95%CI: 2.81-12.27), while AKI had higher OR for prolonged hospitalization (3.37; 95%CI: 1.76-6.45). Both AKI and AAC are associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19. Defining strict criteria regarding indications and types of antibiotics would help overcoming concomitant infections and minimizing related adverse events.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158859

ABSTRACT

Inspired by the competition exclusion principle, this work aims at providing a computational framework to explore the theoretical feasibility of viral co-infection as a possible strategy to reduce the spread of a fatal strain in a population. We propose a stochastic-based model-called Co-Wish-to understand how competition between two viruses over a shared niche can affect the spread of each virus in infected tissue. To demonstrate the co-infection of two viruses, we first simulate the characteristics of two virus growth processes separately. Then, we examine their interactions until one can dominate the other. We use Co-Wish to explore how the model varies as the parameters of each virus growth process change when two viruses infect the host simultaneously. We will also investigate the effect of the delayed initiation of each infection. Moreover, Co-Wish not only examines the co-infection at the cell level but also includes the innate immune response during viral infection. The results highlight that the waiting times in the five stages of the viral infection of a cell in the model-namely attachment, penetration, eclipse, replication, and release-play an essential role in the competition between the two viruses. While it could prove challenging to fully understand the therapeutic potentials of viral co-infection, we discuss that our theoretical framework hints at an intriguing research direction in applying co-infection dynamics in controlling any viral outbreak's speed.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Models, Theoretical , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Coinfection/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Stochastic Processes , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/pathogenicity
6.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066816

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a new coronavirus (CoV) emerged as a human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on human coronavirus infections among individuals living with HIV. In this study we probed the role of pneumococcal coinfections with seasonal CoVs among children living with and without HIV hospitalized for pneumonia. We also described the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these infections. A total of 39,836 children who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) were followed for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations until 2 years of age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected at the time of hospitalization and were screened by PCR for four seasonal CoVs. The frequency of CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in children living with HIV (19.9%) than in those without HIV (7.6%, P < 0.001). Serial CoV infections were detected in children living with HIV. The case fatality risk among children with CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in those living with HIV (30.4%) than without HIV (2.9%, P = 0.001). C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were elevated in 36.8% (≥40 mg/liter) and 64.7% (≥0.5 ng/ml), respectively, of the fatal cases living with HIV. Among children without HIV, there was a 64.0% (95% CI: 22.9% to 83.2%) lower incidence of CoV-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among PCV9 recipients compared to placebo recipients. These data suggest that Streptococcus pneumoniae infections might have a role in the development of pneumonia associated with endemic CoVs, that PCV may prevent pediatric CoV-associated hospitalization, and that children living with HIV with CoV infections develop more severe outcomes.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe hospitalization, but little is known about the role of secondary bacterial infection in these severe cases, beyond the observation of high levels of reported inflammatory markers, associated with bacterial infection, such as procalcitonin. We did a secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized trial of PCV to examine its impact on human CoV infections before the pandemic. We found that both children living with and without HIV randomized to receive PCV had evidence of less hospitalization due to seasonal CoV, suggesting that pneumococcal coinfection may play a role in severe hospitalized CoV infections.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Trop Doct ; 51(1): 106-108, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052367

ABSTRACT

While the world battles to wrestle with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, regions with endemic dengue fever are confronting the possibility of a double pandemic that could completely overpower health care services administrations. Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue and COVID-19, as well as probable cases of overlapping infections, have already started in Latin America and certain Asian countries. There, the healthcare framework is already overburdened and such a deadly duo may completely overwhelm hospital emergency services quite apart from a country's economy. Precise epidemiological and contact history-taking joined with due attention to false-positive dengue serology and the chance of co-infections are key devices for frontline doctors to overcome this seemingly insurmountable challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Dengue/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropical Medicine
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895364

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the association between seasonal influenza vaccination and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or complicated illness or poor outcome (e.g., severe disease, need for hospitalization or ventilatory support, or death) among COVID-19 patients. None of the studies that were reviewed (n = 12) found a significant increase in the risk of infection or in the illness severity or lethality, and some reported significantly inverse associations. Our findings support measures aimed at raising influenza vaccination coverage in the coming months.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral , Vaccination/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
11.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 21-28, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822641

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific-pathogen-free chickens. Most common field vaccine programmes were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco/SF1/2016 (Mor-H9N2) were thus inoculated to commercial chickens. We showed that vaccination with two heterologous IBV vaccines (H120 at day one and 4/91 at day 14 of age) reduced the severity of clinical signs as well as macroscopic lesions after simultaneous experimental challenge. In addition, LPAI H9N2 vaccination was more efficient at day 7 than at day 1 in limiting disease post simultaneous challenge.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Simultaneous challenge with IBV and AIV H9N2 induced higher pathogenicity in SPF birds than inoculation with IBV or AIV H9N2 alone.Recommended vaccination programme in commercial broilers to counter Mor-IT02 IBV and LPAIV H9N2 simultaneous infections: IB live vaccine H120 (d1), AIV H9N2 inactivated vaccine (d7), IB live vaccine 4-91 (d14).


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chick Embryo , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Morocco , Oropharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Trachea/pathology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Virus Shedding
16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 3): 679-687, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the work is to analyze population adaptation to SARS-CoV-2 in Europe in March-May 2020, predict herd immunity formation in the nearest several months on the basis of our SIR modified epidemiological model of the virus spread and elaborate recommendations to governments regarding a second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Outer (1,006,512 RT-PCR tests results for SARS-CoV-2) and proprietary (34,660 respiratory samples) epidemiological data was used. Fifteen European countries were studied. Dates of research: March 2 - May 22, 2020. RESULTS: As of April 21, 2020, the mean population infection rate (PIR) for the European countries considered, was 9.66%. It decreased to 6.85% by May 22, 2020. The model predicted 5.68% PIR, giving accuracy of 79.40%. SARS-CoV-2 basic reproduction number is limited by an extremum that may be observed for closed communities. A concept of effective reproduction number is introduced as a function of r0 with maximum at r0 = 4.671 and value reff. = 0.315 for the full-lockdown mode and r0 = 5.539 and reff. = 0.552 for the no-lockdown mode of SARS-CoV-2 containment. Full-lockdown and no-lockdown modes resulted in the outcomes not strikingly different from each other in terms of herd immunity values. CONCLUSION: In case of a second wave of COVID-19 disease in Europe, it will coincide with seasonal common cold surge, spanning from mid-September 2020 to mid-February 2021, with a median in November-December 2020. Strict epidemiological surveillance must be observed in Europe at that time.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Common Cold , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Immunity, Herd , Adaptation, Physiological/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/prevention & control , Common Cold/epidemiology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons
17.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 707-722, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626150

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Body Fluids/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 66-72, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and its social responses threaten the health of people living with HIV. We conducted a rapid-response interview to assess COVID-19 protective behaviors of people living with HIV and the impact of their responses on HIV-related health care. METHOD: Men and women living with HIV (N = 162) aged 20-37 years participating in a longitudinal study of HIV treatment and care completed routine study measures and an assessment of COVID-19-related experiences. RESULTS: At baseline, most participants demonstrated HIV viremia, markers indicative of renal disorders, and biologically confirmed substance use. At follow-up, in the first month of responding to COVID-19, engaging in more social distancing behaviors was related to difficulty accessing food and medications and increased cancelation of health care appointments, both by self and providers. We observed antiretroviral therapy adherence had improved during the initial month of COVID-19 response. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that may pose added risk for COVID-19 severity were prevalent among people living with HIV, and those with greater risk factors did not practice more COVID-19 protective behaviors. Social distancing and other practices intended to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 interfered with HIV care, and impeded access to food and medications, although an immediate adverse impact on medication adherence was not evident. These results suggest social responses to COVID-19 adversely impacted the health care of people living with HIV, supporting continued monitoring to determine the long-term effects of co-occurring HIV and COVID-19 pandemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Food Supply , Georgia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1 , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia , Young Adult
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