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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833715, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731782

ABSTRACT

2020 will be marked in history for the dreadful implications of the COVID-19 pandemic that shook the world globally. The pandemic has reshaped the normality of life and affected mankind in the aspects of mental and physical health, financial, economy, growth, and development. The focus shift to COVID-19 has indirectly impacted an existing air-borne disease, Tuberculosis. In addition to the decrease in TB diagnosis, the emergence of the TB/COVID-19 syndemic and its serious implications (possible reactivation of latent TB post-COVID-19, aggravation of an existing active TB condition, or escalation of the severity of a COVID-19 during TB-COVID-19 coinfection), serve as primary reasons to equally prioritize TB. On a different note, the valuable lessons learnt for the COVID-19 pandemic provide useful knowledge for enhancing TB diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, the crucial need to focus on TB amid the COVID-19 pandemic has been discussed. Besides, a general comparison between COVID-19 and TB in the aspects of pathogenesis, diagnostics, symptoms, and treatment options with importance given to antibody therapy were presented. Lastly, the lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic and how it is applicable to enhance the antibody-based immunotherapy for TB have been presented.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3): e95-e101, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of common human coronavirus (cHCoV) remains unclear. We studied the clinical manifestations of pediatric cHCoV infections and the possible modifying effects of codetected human rhinovirus (RV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: We used data from an 11-year-long prospective study of hospitalized children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for cHCoV OC43, NL63, HKU1 and 229E, and 15 other respiratory viruses. We assessed disease severity based on the clinical factors hospitalization length, oxygen requirement, other respiratory support and supplementary fluids. RESULTS: cHCoV was detected in 341 (8%) of 4312 children. Among 104 children with single cHCoV detections, 58 (56%) had lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 20 (19%) developed severe disease. The proportion with severe disease was lower among single cHCoV detections compared with single RSV detections (338 of 870; 39%), but similar to single RV detections (136 of 987; 14%). Compared with single cHCoV, codetected cHCoV-RSV was more often associated with LRTI (86 of 89; 97%) and severe disease (adjusted odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-6.7). LRTI was more frequent in codetected cHCoV-RV (52 of 68; 76%) than single cHCoV, but the risk of severe disease was lower (adjusted odds ratios, 0.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-1.0). CONCLUSIONS: cHCoV was associated with severe LRTI in hospitalized children. Viral codetections were present in two-thirds. Codetections of cHCoV-RV were associated with lower proportions of severe disease, suggesting a modifying effect of RV on HCoV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy
3.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 130-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296656

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a life-threatening mosquito borne viral disease. We are still in the era of supportive treatment where morbidity and mortality are a major concern. Dengue infection in presence of other co-infections makes this scenario rather worse. Timely recognition and raising alarm to be intensive is the need of the hour for primary care physicians practicing in the community and indoors. This review provides a comprehensive knowledge about the recent trends of coinfection in dengue as well as their management consideration which will be particularly helpful for physicians practicing in rural and remote areas of India.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Dengue Virus , Malaria/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Reinfection , Serogroup , Virulence , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251170, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218426

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recovery of other pathogens in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported, either at the time of a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis (co-infection) or subsequently (superinfection). However, data on the prevalence, microbiology, and outcomes of co-infection and superinfection are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of co-infections and superinfections and their outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched literature databases for studies published from October 1, 2019, through February 8, 2021. We included studies that reported clinical features and outcomes of co-infection or superinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. We followed PRISMA guidelines, and we registered the protocol with PROSPERO as: CRD42020189763. RESULTS: Of 6639 articles screened, 118 were included in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%-25%, I2 = 98%) and that of superinfection was 24% (95% CI: 19%-30%). Pooled prevalence of pathogen type stratified by co- or superinfection were: viral co-infections, 10% (95% CI: 6%-14%); viral superinfections, 4% (95% CI: 0%-10%); bacterial co-infections, 8% (95% CI: 5%-11%); bacterial superinfections, 20% (95% CI: 13%-28%); fungal co-infections, 4% (95% CI: 2%-7%); and fungal superinfections, 8% (95% CI: 4%-13%). Patients with a co-infection or superinfection had higher odds of dying than those who only had SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.82-5.99). Compared to those with co-infections, patients with superinfections had a higher prevalence of mechanical ventilation (45% [95% CI: 33%-58%] vs. 10% [95% CI: 5%-16%]), but patients with co-infections had a greater average length of hospital stay than those with superinfections (mean = 29.0 days, standard deviation [SD] = 6.7 vs. mean = 16 days, SD = 6.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that as many as 19% of patients with COVID-19 have co-infections and 24% have superinfections. The presence of either co-infection or superinfection was associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. Our findings support the need for diagnostic testing to identify and treat co-occurring respiratory infections among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Superinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/mortality , Mycoses/therapy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Superinfection/mortality , Superinfection/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/mortality , Virus Diseases/therapy
6.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(2): 100-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215549

ABSTRACT

Therapies used to tide over acute crisis of COVID-19 infection may lower the immunity, which can lead to secondary infection or a reactivation of latent infection. We report a 75-years-old male patient who had suffered from severe COVID-19 infection three weeks earlier and who had been treated with corticosteroids and convalescent plasma along with other supportive therapies. At time of discharge he had developed leukopenia which worsened at 1-week follow up visit. On 18th day post-discharge, he became very sick and was brought to our hospital with complaints of severe persistent dysphagia. During evaluation he was diagnosed to have an acute cytomegalovirus infection and severe oropharyngeal thrush. Both COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus are known to cause synergistic decrease in T cells and NK cells leading to immunosuppression. The patient made complete recovery with a course of intravenous ganciclovir and fluconazole. Persistent leukopenia in high risk and severely ill cases should give rise to a suspicion of COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Cytomegalovirus , Leukopenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Leukopenia/therapy , Male
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153655

ABSTRACT

Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) is an apheretic technique that selectively removes high molecular weight substances using a plasma component filter. DFPP has been used to treat positive-sense RNA virus infections, mainly chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, because of its ability to directly eliminate viral particles from blood plasma from 2008 to about 2015, before direct-acting antiviral agents was marketed. This effect has been termed virus removal and eradication by DFPP. HCV is a positive-sense RNA virus similar to West Nile virus, dengue virus and the SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 is classified same viral species. These viruses are all classified in Family Flaviviridae which are family of single-stranded plus-stranded RNA viruses. Viral particles are 40-60 nm in diameter, enveloped and spherical in shape. We present a rare case of HCV removal where an RNA virus infection that copresented with virus-associated autoimmune hepatitis was eliminated using DFPP. Our results indicate that DFPP may facilitate prompt viraemia reduction and may have novel treatment applications for SARS-CoV-2, that is, use of therapeutic plasma exchange for fulminant COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/therapy , Coinfection/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Plasmapheresis/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 612-618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127286

ABSTRACT

Phage therapy is recognized as a promising alternative to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, its use has not been reported for treating secondary bacterial infections during virus pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We enrolled 4 patients hospitalized with critical COVID-19 and pulmonary carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections to compassionate phage therapy (at 2 successive doses of 109 plaque-forming unit phages). All patients in our COVID-19-specific intensive care unit (ICU) with CRAB positive in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum samples were eligible for study inclusion if antibiotic treatment failed to eradicate their CRAB infections. While phage susceptibility testing revealed an identical profile of CRAB strains from these patients, treatment with a pre-optimized 2-phage cocktail was associated with reduced CRAB burdens. Our results suggest the potential of phages on rapid responses to secondary CRAB outbreak in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii/virology , Bacteriophages/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/therapy , Phage Therapy , Podoviridae/physiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Future Microbiol ; 16(3): 135-142, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110198

ABSTRACT

The ability of influenza A virus to evolve, coupled with increasing antimicrobial resistance, could trigger an influenza pandemic with great morbidity and mortality. Much of the 1918 influenza pandemic mortality was likely due to bacterial coinfection, including Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. S. aureus resists many antibiotics. The lack of new antibiotics suggests alternative antimicrobials, such as bacteriophages, are needed. Potential delivery routes for bacteriophage therapy (BT) include inhalation and intravenous injection. BT has recently been used successfully in compassionate access pulmonary infection cases. Phage lysins, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls and which are bactericidal, are efficacious in animal pneumonia models. Clinical trials will be needed to determine whether BT can ameliorate disease in influenza and S. aureus coinfection.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/physiology , Coinfection/therapy , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Phage Therapy , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/virology , Animals , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2883-2889, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082475

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rate of bacterial coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly defined. The decision to administer antibiotics early in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the likelihood of bacterial coinfection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients admitted through the emergency department with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection over a 6-week period in a large healthcare system in the United States. Blood and respiratory culture results were abstracted and adjudicated by multiple authors. The primary outcome was the rate of bacteremia. We secondarily looked to define clinical or laboratory features associated with bacteremia. RESULTS: There were 542 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an average age of 62.8 years. Of these, 395 had blood cultures performed upon admission, with six true positive results (1.1% of the total population). An additional 14 patients had positive respiratory cultures treated as true pathogens in the first 72 h. Low blood pressure and elevated white blood cell count, neutrophil count, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate were statistically significantly associated with bacteremia. Clinical outcomes were not statistically significantly different between patients with and without bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low rate of bacteremia in patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In hemodynamically stable patients, routine antibiotics may not be warranted in this population.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/therapy , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chest ; 159(2): 524-536, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed unprecedented burden on the delivery of intensive care services worldwide. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the global point estimate of deaths and risk factors for patients who are admitted to ICUs with severe COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched up to August 1, 2020. Pooled prevalence of participant characteristics, clinical features, and outcome data was calculated with the use of random effects models. Subgroup analyses were based on geographic distribution, study type, quality assessment, sample size, end date, and patient disposition. Studies that reported in-hospital mortality rate of adult patients (age >18 years) with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to an ICU met study eligibility criteria. Critical evaluation was performed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies. RESULTS: Forty-five studies with 16,561 patients from 17 countries across four continents were included. Patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs had a mean age of 62.6 years (95% CI, 60.4-64.7). Common comorbidities included hypertension (49.5%; 95% CI, 44.9-54.0) and diabetes mellitus (26.6%; 95% CI, 22.7-30.8). More than three-quarters of cases experienced the development of ARDS (76.1%; 95% CI, 65.7-85.2). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 67.7% (95% CI, 59.1-75.7) of case, vasopressor support in 65.9% (95% CI, 52.4-78.4) of cases, renal replacement therapy in 16.9% (95% CI, 12.1-22.2) of cases, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 6.4% (95% CI, 4.1-9.1) of cases. The duration of ICU and hospital admission was 10.8 days (95% CI, 9.3-18.4) and 19.1 days (95% CI, 16.3-21.9), respectively, with in-hospital mortality rate of 28.1% (95% CI, 23.4-33.0; I2 = 96%). No significant subgroup effect was observed. INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to the ICU require substantial organ support and prolonged ICU and hospital level care. The pooled estimate of global death from severe COVID-19 is <1 in 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/physiopathology , Coinfection/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/therapy
13.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 80-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979832

ABSTRACT

The interaction between existing chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and COVID-19 has not been studied. We analysed 70 COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection (CHI) to determine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome. We investigated clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 patients of seven hospitals from Jan 20 to March 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse risk factors for progression of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. Compared with COVID-19 without HBV infection (WHI) group, patients with dual infection had a higher proportion of severe/critically ill disease (32.86% vs. 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031]. The utilization rates of Arbidol and immunoglobulin were significantly higher than those in the co-infected group [48.57% vs. 35.64%, P < .05; 21.43% vs. 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group. Age and c-reactive protein (CRP) level were independent risk factors for recovery of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. The original characteristics of COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection were higher rate of liver injury, coagulation disorders, severe/critical tendency and increased susceptibility. The elderly and patients with higher level of CRP were more likely to experience a severe outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 38(1): 16-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe viral pneumonia are likely to receive high-dose immunomodulatory drugs to prevent clinical worsening. Aspergillus species have been described as frequent secondary pneumonia agents in severely ill influenza patients receiving steroids. COVID-19 patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are receiving steroids as part of their treatment and they share clinical characteristics with other patients with severe viral pneumonias. COVID-19 patients receiving steroids should be considered a putative risk group of invasive aspergillosis. CASE REPORT: We are reporting a SARS-CoV-2/Aspergillus section Fumigati coinfection in an elderly intubated patient with a history of pulmonary embolism treated with corticosteroids. The diagnosis was made following the ad hoc definitions described for patients admitted to ICU with severe influenza, including clinical criteria (fever for 3 days refractory to the appropriate antibiotic therapy, dyspnea, pleural friction rub, worsening of respiratory status despite antibiotic therapy and need of ventilator support), a radiological criterion (pulmonary infiltrate) and a mycological criterion (several positive galactomannan tests on serum with ratio ≥0.5). In addition, Aspergillus section Fumigati DNA was found in serum and blood samples. These tests were positive 4 weeks after the patient was admitted to the ICU. The patient received voriconazole and after two month in ICU his respiratory status improved; he was discharged after 6 weeks of antifungal treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Severely ill COVID-19 patients would be considered a new aspergillosis risk group. Galactomannan and Aspergillus DNA detection would be useful methods for Aspergillus infection diagnosis as they allow avoiding the biosafety issues related to these patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/therapy , Coinfection/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Male , Mannans/blood , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Trachea/microbiology
16.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(11): 659-663, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908366

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19, respiratory infection with SARS-CoV-2 plus another virus (viral co-infection) or with SARS-CoV-2 plus a bacterial pathogen (combined viral and bacterial pneumonia) has been described. Secondary bacterial pneumonia can follow the initial phase of viral respiratory infection or occur during the recovery phase. No obvious pattern or guidelines exist for viral co-infection, combined viral and bacterial pneumonia, or secondary bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. Based on existing clinical data and experience with similar viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV, the management approach in COVID-19 should, ideally, take into consideration the overall presentation and the trajectory of illness.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Care Management/methods , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Diseases , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/etiology , Coinfection/therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/therapy
18.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 568-569, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749390

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, we have seen a significant number of cases of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), first identified in Wuhan China. Coronavirus might coexist with other infections such as Staphylococcus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Iran , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy
19.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731256

ABSTRACT

Seven human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are known to infect humans. The most recent one, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated and identified in January 2020 from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness in Wuhan, China. Even though viral coinfections have the potential to influence the resultant disease pattern in the host, very few studies have looked at the disease outcomes in patients infected with both HIV and hCoVs. Groups are now reporting that even though HIV-positive patients can be infected with hCoVs, the likelihood of developing severe CoV-related diseases in these patients is often similar to what is seen in the general population. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge of coinfections reported for HIV and hCoVs. Moreover, based on the available data, this review aimed to theorize why HIV-positive patients do not frequently develop severe CoV-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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