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1.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 70, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064844

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most important diseases impacting the global cattle industry, resulting in significant economic loss. Commonly referred to as shipping fever, BRD is especially concerning for young calves during transport when they are most susceptible to developing disease. Despite years of extensive study, managing BRD remains challenging as its aetiology involves complex interactions between pathogens, environmental and host factors. While at the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists believed that BRD was only caused by bacterial infections ("bovine pasteurellosis"), we now know that viruses play a key role in BRD induction. Mixtures of pathogenic bacteria and viruses are frequently isolated from respiratory secretions of animals with respiratory illness. The increased diagnostic screening data has changed our understanding of pathogens contributing to BRD development. In this review, we aim to comprehensively examine experimental evidence from all existing studies performed to understand coinfections between respiratory pathogens in cattle. Despite the fact that pneumonia has not always been successfully reproduced by in vivo calf modelling, several studies attempted to investigate the clinical significance of interactions between different pathogens. The most studied model of pneumonia induction has been reproduced by a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection, with strong evidence suggesting this could potentially be one of the most common scenarios during BRD onset. Different in vitro studies indicated that viral priming may increase bacterial adherence and colonization of the respiratory tract, suggesting a possible mechanism underpinning bronchopneumonia onset in cattle. In addition, a few in vivo studies on viral coinfections and bacterial coinfections demonstrated that a primary viral infection could also increase the pathogenicity of a secondary viral infection and, similarly, dual infections with two bacterial pathogens could increase the severity of BRD lesions. Therefore, different scenarios of pathogen dynamics could be hypothesized for BRD onset which are not limited to a primary viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial superinfection.


Subject(s)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex , Cattle Diseases , Coinfection , Pasteurella Infections , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Superinfection , Virus Diseases , Animals , Bacteria , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Superinfection/veterinary , Virus Diseases/veterinary
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3393-e3399, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053038

ABSTRACT

Flaviviruses such as West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV) and Bagaza (BAGV) virus and avian malaria parasites are vector borne pathogens that circulate naturally between avian and mosquito hosts. WNV and USUV and potentially also BAGV constitute zoonoses. Temporal and spatial cocirculation and coinfection with Plasmodium spp., and West Nile virus has been documented in birds and mosquito vectors, and fatally USUV-infected passerines coinfected with Plasmodium spp. had more severe lesions. Also, WNV, USUV and BAGV have been found to cocirculate. Yet little is known about the interaction of BAGV and malaria parasites during consecutive or coinfections of avian hosts. Here we report mortality of free-living red-legged partridges in a hunting estate in Southern Spain that were coinfected with BAGV and Plasmodium spp. The outbreak occurred in the area where BAGV first emerged in Europe in 2010 and where cocirculation of BAGV, USUV and WNV was confirmed in 2011 and 2013. Partridges were found dead in early October 2019. Birds had mottled locally pale pectoral muscles, enlarged, congestive greenish-black tinged livers and enlarged kidneys. Microscopically congestion and predominantly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates were evident and Plasmodium phanerozoites were present in the liver, spleen, kidneys, muscle and skin. Molecular testing and sequencing detected Plasmodium spp. and BAGV in different tissues of the partridges, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence and colocalization of both pathogens in the liver and spleen. Due to the importance of the red-legged partridge in the ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula and as driver of regional economy such mortalities are of concern. Such outbreaks may reflect climate change related shifts in host, vector and pathogen ecology and interactions that could emerge similarly for other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases , Coinfection , Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Galliformes , Plasmodium , West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Ecosystem , Flavivirus/physiology , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Quail , Spain/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/veterinary
3.
Virus Res ; 322: 198954, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050063

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) are the main porcine enteric coronaviruses that cause severe diarrhoea in piglets, posing huge threat to the swine industry. Our previous study verified that the co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV is common in natural swine infections and obviously enhances the disease severity in piglets. However, the effects of co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV on intestinal microbial community are unknown. In current study, the microbial composition and diversity in the colon of piglets were analyzed. Our results showed that both of PDCoV and PEDV were mainly distributed in the small intestines and caused severe damage of ileum but not colon in the co-inoculated piglets. Furthermore, we observed that PDCoV and PEDV co-infection alters the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family and genus levels. The abundance of Mitsuokella and Collinsella at genus level were significantly increased in PDCoV-PEDV co-infection piglets. Spearman's correlation analysis further suggested that there existed strong positive correlation between Mitsuokella and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, these two factors may together aggravating the small intestine pathological lesions. These results proved there existed obvious correlation between the disease severity caused by PDCoV-PEDV co-infection and intestinal microbial community.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Coinfection/veterinary
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 272: 109499, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971083

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections are among the major causes of disease in poultry. While viral dual infections are known to occur, viral interference in chicken airways is mechanistically hardly understood. The effects of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection on tissue morphology, sialic acid (sia) expression and susceptibility of the chicken trachea for superinfection with IBV or avian influenza virus (AIV) were studied. In vivo, tracheal epithelium of chickens infected with IBV QX showed marked inflammatory cell infiltration and loss of cilia and goblet cells five days post inoculation. Plant lectin staining indicated that sialic acids redistributed from the apical membrane of the ciliated epithelium and the goblet cell cytoplasm to the basement membrane region of the epithelium. After administration of recombinant viral attachment proteins to slides of infected tissue, retained binding of AIV hemagglutinin, absence of binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of IBV M41 and partial reduction of IBV QX RBD were observed. Adult chicken trachea rings were used as ex vivo model to study the effects of IBV QX-induced pathological changes and receptor redistribution on secondary viral infection. AIV H9N2 infection after primary IBV infection was delayed; however, final viral loads reached similar levels as in previously uninfected trachea rings. In contrast, IBV M41 superinfection resulted in 1000-fold lower viral titers over the course of 48 h. In conclusion, epithelial changes in the chicken trachea after viral infection coincide with redistribution and likely specific downregulation of viral receptors, with the extend of subsequent viral interference dependent on viral species.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Poultry Diseases , Superinfection , Animals , Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/physiology , Superinfection/veterinary , Trachea
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3297-e3304, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879106

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its overlap with the influenza season lead to concerns over severe disease caused by the influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infections. Using a Syrian hamster co-infection model with SARS-CoV-2 and the pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/2009 (H1N1), we found (a) more severe disease in co-infected animals, compared to those infected with influenza virus alone but not SARS-CoV-2 infection alone; (b) altered haematological changes in only co-infected animals and (c) altered influenza virus tropism in the respiratory tracts of co-infected animals. Overall, our study revealed that co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus is associated with altered disease severity and tissue tropism, as well as haematological changes, compared to infection with either virus alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Rodent Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
6.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822445

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Feline coronavirus infection (FCoV) is common in multi-cat environments. A role of FCoV in causing diarrhea is often assumed, but has not been proven. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association of FCoV infection with diarrhea in multi-cat environments. (2) Methods: The study included 234 cats from 37 catteries. Fecal samples were analyzed for FCoV RNA by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Potential co-infections were determined by applying a qPCR panel on different potential enteropathogens and fecal flotation. A fecal scoring system was used to categorize feces as diarrheic or non-diarrheic. (3) Results: Of the 234 cats included, 23 had diarrhea. The prevalence of FCoV infection was 87.0% in cats with and 58.8% in cats without diarrhea. FCoV infection was significantly associated with diarrhea (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.01; p = 0.008). In addition, presence of Clostridium perfringens α toxin (OR 6.93; p = 0.032) and feline panleukopenia virus (OR 13.74; p = 0.004) were associated with an increased risk of diarrhea. There was no correlation between FCoV load and fecal score. FCoV-positive cats with co-infections were not more likely to have diarrhea than FCoV-positive cats without co-infections (p = 0.455). (4) Conclusions: FCoV infection is common in cats from catteries and can be associated with diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Cats , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/epidemiology
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1606-e1617, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765047

ABSTRACT

Diarrhoea is one of the most important syndromes in neonatal calves. In industrialized nations with intensive animal farming, Cryptosporidium spp. and rotavirus are primary causes of calf diarrhoea, but the role of these and other enteric pathogens is not clear in China. In November and December 2018, a diarrhoea outbreak was identified in over 150 pre-weaned calves on a dairy farm in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China and approximately 60 calves died. To determine the cause of the outbreak, we analyzed 131 faecal samples collected from pre-weaned calves (0-2 months) during (n = 114) and after the outbreak (n = 17). Initially, 10 diarrheic samples during the outbreak and 10 non-diarrheic samples after the outbreak were screened for rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia coli K99 and Cryptosporidium parvum by using an enzymatic immunoassay (EIA). In addition, 81 other samples were tested specifically for rotavirus by EIA, and all 131 samples were analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR. The initial EIA analysis identified C. parvum (8/10) and rotavirus (5/10) as the dominant pathogens in calves during the outbreak, while both pathogens were detected at lower frequency after the outbreak (2/10 and 1/10, respectively). Further PCR analyses indicated that the occurrence of C. parvum infections in calves was significantly higher during the outbreak (75.4%, 86/114) than after the outbreak (11.8%, 2/17; odds ratio [OR] = 23.0), and was significantly associated with the occurrence of watery diarrhoea (OR = 15.7) and high oocyst shedding intensity. All C. parvum isolates were identified as subtype IIdA20G1. Among other pathogens analyzed, the overall prevalence of rotavirus, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi was 19.8% (20/101), 38.9% (51/131) and 42.0% (55/131) in calves, respectively, without significant differences during and after the outbreak. Among the three pathogens, only the rotavirus infection was associated with diarrhoea in calves. More importantly, coinfections of C. parvum and rotavirus were significantly associated with the occurrence of watery diarrhoea in calves and were seen only during the outbreak. Thus, C. parvum subtype IIdA20G1 and rotavirus appeared to be responsible for this diarrhoea outbreak. Control measures should be implemented to effectively prevent the concurrent transmission of these enteric pathogens in pre-weaned dairy calves in China.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coinfection , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Rotavirus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Escherichia coli , Feces , Prevalence
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 662-675, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665836

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a global pandemic that has had significant impacts on human health and economies worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 in humans. A wide range of animal species have also been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 by experimental and/or natural infections. Sheep are a commonly farmed domestic ruminant that have not been thoroughly investigated for their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies which consisted of infection of ruminant-derived cells and experimental challenge of sheep to investigate their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Our results showed that sheep-derived kidney cells support SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, the experimental challenge of sheep demonstrated limited infection with viral RNA shed in nasal and oral swabs at 1 and 3-days post challenge (DPC); viral RNA was also detected in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues at 4 and 8 DPC. Sero-reactivity was observed in some of the principal infected sheep but not the contact sentinels, indicating that transmission to co-mingled naïve sheep was not highly efficient; however, viral RNA was detected in respiratory tract tissues of sentinel animals at 21 DPC. Furthermore, we used a challenge inoculum consisting of a mixture of two SARS-CoV-2 isolates, representatives of the ancestral lineage A and the B.1.1.7-like alpha variant of concern, to study competition of the two virus strains. Our results indicate that sheep show low susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and that the alpha variant outcompeted the lineage A strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Sheep/virology , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(3): 1056-1064, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122155

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan in 2019 and spread rapidly to the rest of the world causing the pandemic disease named coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Little information is known about the impact this virus can cause upon domestic and stray animals. The potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 has become of great interest in cats due to transmission among domestic cats and the severe phenotypes described recently in a domestic cat. In this context, there is a public health warning that needs to be investigated in relation with the epidemiological role of this virus in stray cats. Consequently, in order to know the impact of the possible transmission chain, blood samples were obtained from 114 stray cats in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) and tested for SARS-CoV-2 and other selected pathogens susceptible to immunosuppression including Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from January to October 2020. Four cats (3.51%), based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen, were seroreactive to SARS-CoV-2. T. gondii, L. infantum, FeLV and FIV seroprevalence was 12.28%, 16.67%, 4.39% and 19.30%, respectively. Among seropositive cats to SARS-CoV-2, three cats were also seropositive to other pathogens including antibodies detected against T. gondii and FIV (n = 1); T. gondii (n = 1); and FIV and L. infantum (n = 1). The subjects giving positive for SARS-CoV-2 were captured in urban areas of the city in different months: January 2020 (2/4), February 2020 (1/4) and July 2020 (1/4). This study revealed, for the first time, the exposure of stray cats to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain and the existence of concomitant infections with other pathogens including T. gondii, L. infantum and FIV, suggesting that immunosuppressed animals might be especially susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coinfection , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Humans , Leukemia Virus, Feline , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108491, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823740

ABSTRACT

Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) may be the best naturally-occurring model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC can be broadly divided into human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative cancers and HPV-positive cancers where HPV is the causative agent. Previous studies in FOSCC have used both species-specific and species-nonspecific PCR primers that may be insensitive to the detection of PVs and other viruses that may be divergent from known sequences. ViroCap is a targeted capture and next generation sequencing tool that was designed to identify all known vertebrate DNA and RNA viruses. In this study we used a metagenomic approach using ViroCap for DNA viruses in 20 FOSCC, 9 normal feline oral mucosal, and 8 suspected PV positive control samples. We tested the hypothesis that viruses would be enriched in FOSCC compared to normal oral mucosa. The virome of the FOSCC and normal feline oral mucosa consisted of feline foamy virus in 7/20 and 2/9 (35% and 22%), feline torque teno virus in 2/20 and 0/9 (10% and 0%), alphaherpesvirus in 2/10 and 0/9 (10% and 0%), FIV (0% and 22%), Epstein-Barr virus in 1/20 and 0/9 (5% and 0%) and feline papillomavirus in 1/20 and 0/9 samples (5% and 0% respectively). Felis catus papillomavirus-3 was found in 1 of 20 FOSCC samples. A virus was not associated consistently with FOSCC. If PVs have a role in FOSCC it is at most a supplementary or uncommon role. FOSCC appears most closely related to HPV-negative HNSCC. Future research on FOSCC should focus on identifying genetic and environmental causes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , Mouth Neoplasms/veterinary , Papillomavirus Infections/veterinary , Viruses/classification , Animals , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Cats , Coinfection/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Male , Mouth Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Paraffin Embedding
12.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 21-28, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822641

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific-pathogen-free chickens. Most common field vaccine programmes were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco/SF1/2016 (Mor-H9N2) were thus inoculated to commercial chickens. We showed that vaccination with two heterologous IBV vaccines (H120 at day one and 4/91 at day 14 of age) reduced the severity of clinical signs as well as macroscopic lesions after simultaneous experimental challenge. In addition, LPAI H9N2 vaccination was more efficient at day 7 than at day 1 in limiting disease post simultaneous challenge.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Simultaneous challenge with IBV and AIV H9N2 induced higher pathogenicity in SPF birds than inoculation with IBV or AIV H9N2 alone.Recommended vaccination programme in commercial broilers to counter Mor-IT02 IBV and LPAIV H9N2 simultaneous infections: IB live vaccine H120 (d1), AIV H9N2 inactivated vaccine (d7), IB live vaccine 4-91 (d14).


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chick Embryo , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Morocco , Oropharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Trachea/pathology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Virus Shedding
13.
Virology ; 551: 10-15, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796700

ABSTRACT

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the costliest disease affecting the cattle industry globally. Orthomyxoviruses, influenza C virus (ICV) and influenza D virus (IDV) have recently been implicated to play a role in BRD. However, there are contradicting reports about the association of IDV and ICV to BRD. Using the largest cohort study (cattle, n = 599) to date we investigated the association of influenza viruses in cattle with BRD. Cattle were scored for respiratory symptoms and pooled nasal and pharyngeal swabs were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, ICV and IDV by real-time PCR. Cattle that have higher viral loads of IDV and ICV also have greater numbers of co-infecting viruses than controls. More strikingly, 2 logs higher IDV viral RNA in BRD-symptomatic cattle that are co-infected animals than those infected with IDV alone. Our results strongly suggest that ICV and IDV may be significant contributors to BRD.


Subject(s)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex/virology , Influenzavirus C/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Thogotovirus/pathogenicity , Viral Load/veterinary , Animals , Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex/epidemiology , Cattle , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Female , Influenzavirus C/isolation & purification , Livestock , Male , Odds Ratio , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , Thogotovirus/isolation & purification
14.
Virulence ; 11(1): 707-718, 2020 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-517705

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, coronaviruses have become a global research hotspot in the field of virology. Coronaviruses mainly cause respiratory and digestive tract diseases, several coronaviruses are responsible for porcine diarrhea, such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and emerging swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). Those viruses have caused huge economic losses and are considered as potential public health threats. Porcine torovirus (PToV) and coronaviruses, sharing similar genomic structure and replication strategy, belong to the same order Nidovirales. Here, we developed a multiplex TaqMan-probe-based real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of PEDV, PDCoV, PToV, and SADS-CoV for the first time. Specific primers and TaqMan fluorescent probes were designed targeting the ORF1a region of PDEV, PToV, and SADS-CoV and the ORF1b region of PDCoV. The method showed high sensitivity and specificity, with a detection limit of 1 × 102 copies/µL for each pathogen. A total of 101 clinical swine samples with signs of diarrhea were analyzed using this method, and the result showed good consistency with conventional reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). This method improves the efficiency for surveillance of these emerging and reemerging swine enteric viruses and can help reduce economic losses to the pig industry, which also benefits animal and public health.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Animals , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/veterinary , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
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