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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 53-60, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze treatment outcomes in patients with severe pseudomembranous colitis and previous coronavirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes, clinical, laboratory and histological data in convalescents of COVID-19 who admitted to the department of coloproctology for moderate-to-severe pseudomembranous colitis confirmed by endoscopic examination between 2020 and 2021. RESULTS: There were 13 patients with moderate pseudomembranous colitis and 6 ones with severe pseudomembranous colitis. Mean period after recovery from coronavirus infection was 19 days. Endoscopy revealed whitish-yellow or gray raised plaques on colonic mucosa in all cases. Four patients with signs of peritonitis underwent emergency surgery. Three patients had perforation of caecum; one patient had perforation of sigmoid colon and widespread peritonitis. Two patients underwent urgent surgery for progressive toxic megacolon and ineffective therapy. Subtotal colectomy and ileostomy were performed in all cases. Histological examination revealed necrosis of not only superficial layer of colon mucosa typical for clostridial colitis, but also the entire thickness of mucosa, as well as submucosal and partially muscular layers in some cases. Mucosal crypt atrophy, fibrinoid effusion in muscular layer, diffuse polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and necrosis of muscular and submucosal nerve plexuses, as well as necrosis of vascular walls with deposition of hyaline-like structures characterize microcirculatory ischemic processes in the colon wall. CONCLUSION: Severe pseudomembranous colitis associated with COVID-19 may not be associated with clostridial infection. Further analysis of possible ischemic etiology and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal lesions in COVID-19 is needed for preventive and therapeutic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Peritonitis , COVID-19/complications , Colectomy/adverse effects , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/drug therapy , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/surgery , Humans , Microcirculation , Necrosis/surgery , Peritonitis/surgery , Retrospective Studies
2.
Am J Surg ; 224(2): 757-760, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its inception colectomy has routinely been performed in the inpatient setting. The advent of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols has led improved outcomes, including decreased length of stay (LOS). These improvements have introduced the possibility of ambulatory colectomy. However, indications, protocols, and limitations of ambulatory colectomy have not been extensively explored. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review on ambulatory colectomies performed between February 2019 and August 2021. Patients were candidates for same day discharge (SDD) if they met rigorous preoperative criteria. Following an uncomplicated operation, strict postoperative parameters were required for safe discharge. If the patient underwent SDD following their operation, they were monitored closely via telehealth visits and/or patient communication messages until their one-week postoperative visit. RESULTS: From our review, we identified sixty-nine (n = 69) patients who underwent SDD after colectomy. Of the 69, only one patient was readmitted after discharge (1.4%). All procedures were performed via a robotic-assisted approach (Da Vinci Xi). None of the patients underwent conversion to an open procedure. The most frequently performed procedures included: low anterior resection (LAR) (n = 32, 46.4%) and right hemicolectomy (n = 11, 15.9%). CONCLUSION: Through proper patient education and strictly defined communication between the patient care teams, safe and effective care in the setting of SDD after colectomy can be provided. With recent technological advancements, enhanced mechanisms for patient education throughout all phases, and emerging means of patient-physician communication, via the data included herein the opportunity for same day discharge (SDD) after colectomy is a feasible and safe management plan in the proper patient.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Surgery , Laparoscopy , Colectomy/methods , Humans , Length of Stay , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Patient Discharge , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Review Literature as Topic
3.
Surg Endosc ; 36(6): 4290-4298, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ileal Crohn's disease (CD) complicated by intraabdominal abscess, phlegmon, fistula, and/or microperforation is commonly treated with antibiotics, bowel rest, and percutaneous drainage followed by interval ileocolic resection (ICR). This "cool off" strategy is intended to facilitate the safe completion of a one-stage resection using a minimally invasive approach and minimize perioperative complications. There is limited data evaluating the benefits of delayed versus early resection. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) database at a tertiary center was queried from 2013-2020 to identify patients who underwent ICR for complicated ileal CD confirmed on preoperative imaging. ICR cohorts were classified as early (≤ 7 days) vs delayed (> 7 days) based on the interval from diagnostic imaging to surgery. Operative approach and 30-day postoperative morbidity were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 474 patients who underwent ICR over the 7-year period, 112 patients had complicated ileal CD including 99 patients (88%) with intraabdominal abscess. Early ICR was performed in 52 patients (46%) at a median of 3 days (IQR 2, 5) from diagnostic imaging. Delayed ICR was performed in 60 patients (54%) following a median "cool off" period of 23 days of non-operative treatment (IQR 14, 44), including preoperative percutaneous abscess drainage in 17 patients (28%). A higher proportion of patients with intraabdominal abscess underwent delayed vs early ICR (57% vs 43%, p = 0.19). Overall, there were no significant differences in the rate of laparoscopy (96% vs 90%), conversion to open surgery (12% vs 17%), rates of extended bowel resection (8% vs 13%), additional concurrent procedures (44% vs 52%), or fecal diversion (10% vs 2%) in the early vs delayed ICR groups. The median postoperative length of stay was 5 days in both groups with an overall 25% vs 17% (p = 0.39) 30-day postoperative complication rate and a 6% vs 5% 30-day readmission rate in early vs delayed ICR groups, respectively. Overall median follow-up time was 14.3 months (IQR 1.2, 24.1) with no difference in the rate of subsequent CD-related intestinal resection (4% vs 5%) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary series, at a high-volume tertiary referral center, a "cool off" delayed resectional approach was not found to reduce perioperative complications in patients undergoing ICR for complicated ileal Crohn's disease. Laparoscopic ICR can be performed within one week of diagnosis with low rates of conversion and postoperative complications.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Abscess , Crohn Disease , Laparoscopy , Abdominal Abscess/etiology , Abdominal Abscess/surgery , Abscess/etiology , Abscess/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Colectomy/adverse effects , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 135, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808379

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In addition to attacking the respiratory system, the coronavirus disease may attack the gastrointestinal tract in various ways, one of which is by creating a coagulopathy that may lead to acute ischemia of the bowel, increasing morbidity and mortality rates in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a white 72-year-old European male, who was admitted to the intensive care unit after developing COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. On the third week, despite a favorable evolution of his respiratory symptoms, the patient became clinically septic; laboratory findings showed an augmentation of his D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Imaging showed signs of ischemia of the right colon. The patient was taken to the operating room; only the right side of his colon was ischemic, with a well demarcated cut-off. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with a terminal ileostomy was performed. The patient was able to go home 2 weeks after surgery. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ischemic colitis is an uncommon pathology in the general population, and is rare in COVID-19 patients. Most cases of ischemic colitis in COVID-19 patients in the literature were limited to the left colon, with < 10 cases involving the right colon. Accurate and quick diagnosis with appropriate management is the key to avoid any mortality in those patients who are already weakened by the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ischemic , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colectomy , Colitis, Ischemic/diagnosis , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Male
5.
BJS Open ; 5(6)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global impact on cancer care but the extent to which this has affected the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) in different countries is unknown. CRC management in Denmark was thought to have been relatively less impacted than in other nations during the first wave of the pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the pandemic's impact on CRC in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish national cancer registry identified patients with newly diagnosed with CRC from 1 March 2020 to 1 August 2020 (pandemic interval) and corresponding dates in 2019 (prepandemic interval). Data regarding clinicopathological demographics and perioperative outcomes were retrieved and compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: Total CRC diagnoses (201 versus 359 per month, P = 0.008) and screening diagnoses (38 versus 80 per month, P = 0.016) were both lower in the pandemic interval. The proportions of patients presenting acutely and the stage at presentation were, however, unaffected. For those patients having surgery, both colonic and rectal cancer operations fell to about half the prepandemic levels: colon (187 (i.q.r. 183-188) to 96 (i.q.r. 94-112) per month, P = 0.032) and rectal cancers (63 (i.q.r. 59-75) to 32 (i.q.r. 28-42) per month, P = 0.008). No difference was seen in surgical practice or postoperative 30-day mortality rate (colon 2.2 versus 2.2 per cent, P = 0.983; rectal 1.0 versus 2.9 per cent, P = 0.118) between the cohorts. Treatment during the pandemic interval was not independently associated with death at 30 or 90 days. CONCLUSION: The initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the number of new diagnoses made and number of operations but had limited impact on technique or outcomes of CRC care in Denmark.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Registries
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(11): 5821-5825, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503030

ABSTRACT

AIM: Anastomotic leakage (AL) in left-sided colorectal cancer is a serious complication, with an incidence rate of 6-18%. We developed a novel predictive model for AL in colorectal surgery with double-stapling technique (DST) anastomosis using auto-artificial intelligence (AI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 256 patients who underwent curative surgery for left-sided colorectal cancer between 2017 and 2021 were included. In addition to conventional clinicopathological factors, we included the type of circular stapler using DST, conventional double-row circular stapler (DCS) or EEA™ circular stapler with Tri-Staple™ technology, 28 mm Medium/Thick (Covidien, New Haven, CT, USA) which had triple-row circular stapler (TCS) as a covariate. Auto-AI software Prediction One (Sony Network Communications Inc.) was used to predict AL with 5-fold cross validation. Predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Prediction One also evaluated the 'importance of variables' (IOV) using a method based on permutation feature importance. RESULTS: The area under the curve of the AI model was 0.766. The type of circular stapler used was the most influential factor contributing to AL (IOV=0.551). CONCLUSION: This auto-AI predictive model demonstrated an improvement in accuracy compared to the conventional model. It was suggested that use of a TCS may contribute to a reduction in the AL rate.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Colectomy/adverse effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Decision Support Techniques , Machine Learning , Surgical Stapling/adverse effects , Aged , Anastomotic Leak/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Surgical Staplers , Surgical Stapling/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(10): 2501-2514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455531

ABSTRACT

AIM: The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the outcomes of ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) in Crohn's disease and to clarify whether there are any time-related trends in outcome measures. The primary outcomes are risk of anastomotic leakage, death, clinical recurrence and subsequent diverting or permanent stoma and/or proctectomy. Secondary end-points are quality of life and functional outcome. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted using the Cochrane Library, Embase and MEDLINE. The complete search strategy is uploaded online at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Human studies in English with over five subjects were included and no limit was set regarding the date of publication. All relevant studies were screened by two reviewers. The web-based software platform www.covidence.org was used for primary screening of the title, abstract, full-text review and data extraction. RESULTS: The search identified 2231 unique articles. After the screening process, 37 remained. Key results were an overall anastomotic leak rate of 6.4%; cumulative rates of clinical recurrence of 43% and 67% at 5 and 10 years, respectively; an overall rate of proctectomy of 18.9%; and subsequent ileostomy required in 18.8%. Only one study presented useful data on quality of life. Recurrence rates remained stable over time. A small decline in the anastomotic leak rate was found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor improvements in the outcomes of IRA in patients with Crohn´s disease have occurred during the past 50 years regarding anastomotic leakage and recurrence, except for a slight increase in the rate of a functioning IRA. These results call for implementation guidelines in patient selection for IRA and postoperative medical treatment and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Crohn Disease , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Colectomy , Crohn Disease/surgery , Humans , Ileum/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Quality of Life , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(8): 583-588, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379814

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To analyse the outcomes of major colorectal resections performed during the COVID-19 pandemic, to assess safety and explore all precautionary measures. METHOD: All patients who underwent major elective colorectal resections at St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospital NHS Trust between 24th March 2020 (the date that the Royal Colleges of Surgery produced their guidelines re operating during the pandemic) and 17th April 2020 were analysed from a prospectively maintained database. The primary outcome was 7-day mortality and secondary outcomes were the development of a positive COVID-19 test consequent to hospital stay and the overall complication rate. RESULTS: In this 24 day time frame 27 patients (17 males) underwent elective colorectal resections at St Helens and Knowsley NHS Trust. The median age was 69 (41-84) years and median ASA was 2 (1-3). The median Body Mass Index was 30 (21-40.7). Twenty-five patients underwent surgery for cancer and two patients had urgent resections for low-grade sepsis secondary to diverticular colovesical fistulae. 24 patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections and 3 patients underwent planned open surgery. 7-day mortality was 0%, and no patients/staff contracted COVID-19 during the post-operative period. The overall complication rate was 14.8%. At a median follow-up of 29 (17-44) days via telephone, there have been no reported COVID-19 related symptoms in any of these patients. CONCLUSION: Our experience demonstrated that it was possible to undertake laparoscopic colorectal resections despite the COVID-19 pandemic posing a major threat to humanity, providing that adequate and stringent precautions are undertaken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(12): 2769-2773, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thromboembolic complications due to COVID-19 are common in patients requiring critical care and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and postoperative outcomes after colectomy for COVID-19-associated colonic ischemia in the first versus the second wave of the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 at our institution between 1 March 2020 and 31 January 2021 was performed. All patients with severe COVID-19, requiring critical care and surgical treatment of colonic ischemia, were included. The main outcomes were surgical complications and mortality rate. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were included of whom 20 (10.5%) patients underwent surgery for colon ischemia. Preoperatively, D-dimer was elevated, especially in the first wave (median 15.24 (interquartile range 6.00-32.00) vs. 2.09 (1.42-4.28) mg/L, p = 0.025). Twelve (60%) patients underwent a (sub)total colectomy, 7 (35%) a right hemicolectomy, and one patient (5%) an ileocecal resection. Grade 3b complications occurred in one of 5 patients (20%) in the first and in 9 of 15 patients (60%) in the second wave. The overall in-hospital mortality was similar in both waves (40% vs. 47%), with death occurring after a median stay of 21 days. CONCLUSION: In this cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 and colonic ischemia, clinical presentation and laboratory findings varied. However, the majority of patients required (sub)total colectomy. Despite a lower threshold to surgery in the second wave, mortality remained high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Colectomy , Colon/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(5): 1437-1442, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293460

ABSTRACT

We report a 60-year-old male who was transferred to our hospital for the operation because of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). He was diagnosed to be infected with COVID-19 for SARS-CoV-2 PCR test positive at the time of transfer. We determined emergency operation because his general condition was poor such as malnutrition and ADL decline due to exacerbation of UC and air embolization by central venous catheter removal. He underwent subtotal colectomy with a sigmoid mucous fistula and ileostomy. He was well postoperatively. This is a first case report in Japan who underwent an operation for UC with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282060

ABSTRACT

An 81-year-old man was referred to the colorectal surgeons for an elective laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for a caecal adenocarcinoma (T2N0M0). The operation was uneventful; however, 12 days postoperatively the patient developed symptoms of sepsis of unknown origin. After extensive investigations and work up, Candida albicans was grown as the causative organism with the site of infection being a new saccular mycotic aneurysm arising from the distal, posterior aspect of the aortic arch. The mycotic aneurysm was not initially considered as a differential diagnosis, and this case highlights the importance of consideration of mycotic aneurysm as a differential diagnosis in postsurgical septic patients.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Infected , Colonic Neoplasms , Laparoscopy , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm, Infected/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Infected/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic , Candida albicans , Colectomy , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Male
13.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 275, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to previous reports, surgery is not recommended until at least 4 weeks after the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 resolve. However, strong evidence has not been established regarding the optimal timing and preoperative examination for elective laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer in individuals with a previous coronavirus disease 2019 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old Asian man underwent elective laparoscopic colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer 3 weeks after asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019. The postoperative course was good, and none of the surgical staff was infected with coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSION: In this patient infected with coronavirus disease 2019 within 4 weeks of surgery, preoperative venous ultrasound of the lower extremities and a chest computed tomography scan were useful examinations for ensuring a safe surgical procedure for the patient and the staff. Surgery within 4 weeks may be possible with careful selection of cases based on thorough preoperative examination. This report may contribute to the development of a consensus on performing safe elective colectomy for colon cancer in persons previously infected with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Colectomy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Surg Endosc ; 36(3): 1943-1949, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the Surgeon General recommended limiting elective procedures to prepare for the COVID-19 surge. We hypothesize a consequence of COVID-19 is reduced operative volume across the country. We aim to examine changes in volume of common gastrointestinal operations during COVID-19, including elective, urgent/emergent, and cancer operations. We also evaluate if hospitals with more COVID-19 admissions were most impacted. METHODS: The Vizient database was used to determine monthly operative volume from November 2019 to June 2020 for elective operations (hiatal hernia repairs, bariatric surgery), urgent operations (cholecystectomies, appendectomies, inguinal hernia repairs), and cancer operations (colectomies, gastrectomies, esophagectomies). COVID-19 admissions per hospital were also determined. November 2019-January 2020 was defined as "pre-COVID." The monthly reduction in volume from pre-COVID was calculated for each operation. The top quartile (25%) of hospitals with the most COVID admissions were also evaluated separately from hospitals with fewer COVID cases. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Data from 559 hospitals were analyzed. The volumes of all operations evaluated were significantly reduced during the pandemic except gastrectomies and esophagectomies for cancer. The greatest reduction in all operations was in April. In April, the volume of bariatric surgery reduced by 98% (P < 0.001), hiatal hernia repairs by 96% (P < 0.001), urgent cholecystectomies by 42% (P < 0.001), urgent inguinal hernia repairs by 40% (P < 0.001), urgent appendectomies by 24% (P < 0.001), and colectomies for cancer by 39% (P < 0.001). Hospitals with the most COVID-19 admissions had greater reductions in all operations than hospitals with fewer COVID cases. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus pandemic led to a significant reduction in volume of all gastrointestinal operations evaluated except gastrectomies and esophagectomies. While elective, non-cancer operations were most affected, urgent and some cancer operations also declined significantly. As COVID-19 continues to surge, Americans may suffer continued limited access to surgical care and a significant operative backlog may be forthcoming.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Colectomy , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186238

ABSTRACT

Cholecystocolonic fistula with associated idiopathic megabowel (megacolon and megarectum) is a rare presentation as acute large bowel obstruction. Frequently presenting with chronic constipation, acute bowel obstruction is rarely encountered in the presence of concomitant cholecystocolonic fistula. This presents diagnostic and management difficulties with no consensus on appropriate surgical approach. This case highlights the outcomes following emergency total colectomy and subtotal cholecystectomy as a single-stage procedure for a 68-year-old man presenting with cholecystocolonic fistula secondary to idiopathic megabowel as acute large bowel obstruction.


Subject(s)
Biliary Fistula/etiology , Gallbladder Diseases/etiology , Intestinal Fistula/etiology , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Megacolon/complications , Rectal Diseases/complications , Aged , Biliary Fistula/diagnosis , Biliary Fistula/surgery , Cholecystectomy , Colectomy , Colon/diagnostic imaging , Colon/surgery , Gallbladder/diagnostic imaging , Gallbladder/surgery , Gallbladder Diseases/diagnosis , Gallbladder Diseases/surgery , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/diagnosis , Intestinal Fistula/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Male , Megacolon/diagnosis , Megacolon/surgery , Rectal Diseases/diagnosis , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Rectum/diagnostic imaging , Rectum/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(6): 1562-1568, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096721

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced surgeons to adapt their standard procedures. The modifications introduced are designed to favour minimally invasive surgery. The positive results obtained with intracorporeal resection and anastomosis in the right colon and rectum prompt us to adapt these procedures to the left colon. We describe a 'don't touch the bowel' technique and outline the benefits to patients of the use of less surgically aggressive techniques and also to surgeons in terms of the lower emission of aerosols that might transmit the COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This was an observational study of intracorporeal resection and anastomosis in left colectomy. We describe the technical details of intracorporeal resection, end-to-end stapled anastomosis and extraction of the specimen through mini-laparotomy in the ideal location. RESULTS: We present preliminary results of 17 patients with left-sided colonic pathologies, 15 neoplasia and two diverticular disease, who underwent four left hemicolectomies, six sigmoidectomies and seven high anterior resections. Median operating time was 186 min (range 120-280). No patient required conversion to extracorporeal laparoscopy or open surgery. Median hospital stay was 4.7 days (range 3-12 days). There was one case of anastomotic leak managed with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Intracorporeal resection and end-to-end anastomosis with the possibility of extraction of the specimen by a mini-laparotomy in the ideal location may present benefits and also adapts well to the conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Future comparative studies are needed to demonstrate these benefits with respect to extracorporeal anastomosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colectomy/methods , Colonic Diseases/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Operative Time
18.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 271-281, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence to support safe and effective management of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to identify alterations to established conventional evidence-based management of acute severe ulcerative colitis during the early COVID-19 pandemic, the effect on outcomes, and any associations with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: The PROTECT-ASUC study was a multicentre, observational, case-control study in 60 acute secondary care hospitals throughout the UK. We included adults (≥18 years) with either ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified, who presented with acute severe ulcerative colitis and fulfilled the Truelove and Witts criteria. Cases and controls were identified as either admitted or managed in emergency ambulatory care settings between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period cohort), or between Jan 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019 (historical control cohort), respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or colectomy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04411784. FINDINGS: We included 782 patients (398 in the pandemic period cohort and 384 in the historical control cohort) who met the Truelove and Witts criteria for acute severe ulcerative colitis. The proportion of patients receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or surgery was higher during the pandemic period than in the historical period (217 [55%] of 393 patients vs 159 [42%] of 380 patients; p=0·00024) and the time to rescue therapy was shorter in the pandemic cohort than in the historical cohort (p=0·0026). This difference was driven by a greater use of rescue and primary induction therapies with biologicals, ciclosporin, or tofacitinib in the COVID-19 pandemic period cohort than in the historical control period cohort (177 [46%] of 387 patients in the COVID-19 cohort vs 134 [36%] of 373 patients in the historical cohort; p=0·0064). During the pandemic, more patients received ambulatory (outpatient) intravenous steroids (51 [13%] of 385 patients vs 19 [5%] of 360 patients; p=0·00023). Fewer patients received thiopurines (29 [7%] of 398 patients vs 46 [12%] of 384; p=0·029) and 5-aminosalicylic acids (67 [17%] of 398 patients vs 98 [26%] of 384; p=0·0037) during the pandemic than in the historical control period. Colectomy rates were similar between the pandemic and historical control groups (64 [16%] of 389 vs 50 [13%] of 375; p=0·26); however, laparoscopic surgery was less frequently performed during the pandemic period (34 [53%] of 64] vs 38 [76%] of 50; p=0·018). Five (2%) of 253 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospital treatment. Two (2%) of 103 patients re-tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the 3-month follow-up were positive 5 days and 12 days, respectively, after discharge from index admission. Both recovered without serious outcomes. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic altered practice patterns of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the management of acute severe ulcerative colitis but was associated with similar outcomes to a historical cohort. Despite continued use of high-dose corticosteroids and biologicals, the incidence of COVID-19 within 3 months was low and not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colonoscopy , Acute Disease , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
19.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(7): 1211-1221, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003555

ABSTRACT

Acute severe ulcerative colitis [ASUC] remains a common medical emergency, with 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis experiencing at least one event in their disease course. Despite advances in medical therapy, ASUC continues to be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, with up to 30% of patients requiring colectomy during initial admission. Our aim was to review the current controversies and recent progress in risk stratification, prediction of outcome, and personalisation of care in ASUC. We re-assess the use of Truelove and Witts' criteria, serum biomarkers, and the use of composite clinical indices in current clinical practice. We explore the potential for endoscopic prediction using defined validated indices for accurate and early prognostication, and the need to define outcome. We also consider the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss the current research agenda, including the application of new and emerging biomarkers coupled with multi-omics and the implications in management and optimisation of outcome. Research priorities for the prediction of outcome in acute severe colitis include the following. 1. Development of an accurate admission score to guide early medical rescue therapy or colectomy. 2. Utility of point-of-care faecal calprotectin, with determination of optimal cut-off values. 3. Role of serum and faecal infliximab levels to both predict outcome and guide accelerated infliximab dosing. 4. Role of novel biomarkers, including serum calprotectin, in predicting response to corticosteroids or rescue therapy. 5. Specific predictors of response to ciclosporin and infliximab to allow rationalisation of drug use. 6. Utility of validated endoscopic scores. 7. Utility of radiological assessment beyond use of plain abdominal X-ray. 8. The use of multiomics and machine learning to predict risk of Acute Severe Colitis in patients with Ulcerative Colitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
20.
Updates Surg ; 73(1): 173-177, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002182

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has led some leading surgical societies to postpone colorectal cancer resections, support the employment of low-risk strategies in patients requiring colorectal surgery, such as construction of a stoma rather than primary anastomosis, in order to minimize the risk of potentially life-threatening complications. They have also recommended against the use of the laparoscopic approach. However, the evidence supporting these recommendations is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of colorectal resections during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a retrospective review of a prospective institutional database. All consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergent colorectal resections between March 9 and April 15, 2020, were compared to those treated in the same period of time in 2019. Despite an overall reduction in the surgical activity of 56.3% in 2020, the two groups were similar in terms of absolute numbers of colorectal resections, type of surgery and use of laparoscopy. The overall postoperative complications rate was similar: 20% in 2019 versus 14.9% in 2020 (p = 0.518), without any difference in terms of severity. No patient during the postoperative course got infected by COVID-19, as well as none from the surgical team. Median length of hospital stay was 5 days in both groups (p = 0.555). Postponing surgery in colorectal cancer patients and performing more stomas rather than direct anastomosis is not justified. The routine use of laparoscopy should not be abandoned, thus not depriving patients of its clinically relevant early short-term benefits over open surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Colectomy/adverse effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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