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1.
Phytomedicine ; 101: 154100, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that gastrointestinal manifestations co-exist with respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD) was recommended by the National Health Commission to treat mild and moderate COVID-19 patients and proved to effectively alleviate intestinal symptoms. However, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. PURPOSE: This study aimed at exploring potential mechanisms of XFBD by utilizing a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis, mimicking the disease conditions of intestinal microecological disorders. METHODS: The network pharmacology approach was employed to identify the potential targets and pathways of XFBD on the intestinal disorders. Mice with DSS-induced intestinal disorders were utilized to evaluate the protective effect of XFBD in vivo, including body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length, spleen weight, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Colon tissues were used to perform hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, western blot analysis, and transcriptome sequencing. Macrophages, neutrophils and the proportions of T helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Intestinal contents were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that XFBD inhibited the progression of COVID-19-related intestinal diseases by repressing inflammation. In mice with DSS-induced intestinal inflammation, XFBD treatment significantly reduced weight loss, the spleen index, the disease activity index, TNF-α levels, and colonic tissue damage, and prevented colon shortening. Transcriptomics and flow cytometry results suggested that XFBD remodeled intestinal immunity by downregulating the Th1/Th2 ratio. Western blot analysis showed that XFBD exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Indicator analysis of microbiota showed that 75 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affected after XFBD administration. Among them, Akkermansia, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterorhabdus were simultaneously negatively correlated with intestinal disorders' parameters, and Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Eubacterium nodatum,Turicibacter, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, showed positive correlations with intestinal disorders' parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that XFBD treatment attenuated intestinal disorders associated with inhibiting inflammation, remodeling of intestinal immunity, and improving intestinal flora. These findings provide a scientific basis for the clinical use of XFBD and offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with intestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(3): 685-691, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which remains highly debated. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2015-2017. Patients with ICD9/10CM codes for Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and CMV colitis were included in the study. The primary outcome was the odds of CMV colitis in patients with IBD compared to patients without IBD. Secondary outcomes were differences in inpatient morbidity, mortality, resource utilization, colectomy rates, hospital length of stay (LOS), and inflation-adjusted total hospitalization costs. RESULTS: A total of 992,445 patients with IBD were identified, out of which 520 (0.05%) had associated CMV colitis. Patients with IBD had significantly higher odds of CMV colitis compared to patients without IBD (aOR: 19.76, p < 0.01), having an even greater association with UC (aOR: 31.13, p < 0.01). CMV colitis in patients with CD was associated with a significant increase in odds of mortality, shock, and ICU stay, while patients with UC had higher odds of colectomy. The patients with IBD and CMV colitis had higher odds of acute kidney injury, multiorgan failure, markedly increased additional hospital costs, and LOS compared to patients with IBD and no CMV colitis. CONCLUSION: IBD has a significant association with CMV colitis, and the presence of CMV colitis in patients with IBD was associated with higher mortality, morbidity, and hospital costs. Prospectively designed studies may better elucidate the risk factors and impact of CMV colitis on patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847377

ABSTRACT

This article is an overview of guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This overview describes the systematically and comprehensively multidisciplinary recommendations based on the updated principles of evidence-based literature to promote the adoption of best surgical practices and research as well as patient and specialized healthcare provider education. Colonic IBD represents idiopathic, chronic, inflammatory disorders encompassing Crohn's colitis (CC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two unsolved medical subtypes of this condition, which present similarity in their clinical and histopathological characteristics. The standard state-of-the-art classification diagnostic steps are disease evaluation and assessment according to the Montreal classification to enable explicit communication with professionals. The signs and symptoms on first presentation are mainly connected with the anatomical localization and severity of the disease and less with the resulting diagnosis "CC" or "UC". This can clinically and histologically be non-definitive to interpret to establish criteria and is classified as indeterminate colitis (IC). Conservative surgical intervention varies depending on the disease phenotype and accessible avenues. The World Gastroenterology Organizations has, for this reason, recommended guidelines for clinical diagnosis and management. Surgical intervention is indicated when conservative treatment is ineffective (refractory), during intractable gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in obstructive gastrointestinal luminal stenosis (due to fibrotic scar tissue), or in the case of abscesses, peritonitis, or complicated fistula formation. The risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer is realizable in IBD patients before and after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Therefore, endoscopic surveillance strategies, aimed at the early detection of dysplasia, are recommended. During the COVID-19 pandemic, IBD patients continued to be admitted for IBD-related surgical interventions. Virtual and phone call follow-ups reinforcing the continuity of care are recommended. There is a need for special guidelines that explore solutions to the groundwork gap in terms of access limitations to IBD care in developing countries, and the irregular representation of socioeconomic stratification needs a strategic plan for how to address this serious emerging challenge in the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Chronic Disease , Colitis/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Crohn Disease/complications , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/surgery , Pandemics
4.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: ACE2, a carboxypeptidase that generates Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, is highly expressed in the lung, small intestine and colon. GPBAR1, is a G protein bile acid receptor that promotes the release of the insulinotropic factor glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and attenuates intestinal inflammation. METHODS: We investigated the expression of ACE2, GLP-1 and GPBAR1 in two cohorts of Crohn's disease (CD) patients and three mouse models of colitis and Gpbar1-/- mice. Activation of GPBAR1 in these models and in vitro was achieved by BAR501, a selective GPBAR1 agonist. RESULTS: In IBD patients, ACE2 mRNA expression was regulated in a site-specific manner in response to inflammation. While expression of ileal ACE2 mRNA was reduced, the colon expression was induced. Colon expression of ACE2 mRNA in IBD correlated with expression of TNF-α and GPBAR1. A positive correlation occurred between GCG and GPBAR1 in human samples and animal models of colitis. In these models, ACE2 mRNA expression was further upregulated by GPABR1 agonism and reversed by exendin-3, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. In in vitro studies, liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, increased the expression of ACE2 in colon epithelial cells/macrophages co-cultures. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 mRNA expression in the colon of IBD patients and rodent models of colitis is regulated in a TNF-α- and GLP-1-dependent manner. We have identified a GPBAR1/GLP-1 mechanism as a positive modulator of ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Colitis , Crohn Disease , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Orv Hetil ; 163(6): 214-221, 2022 02 06.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674090

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2-infekció változatos kórlefolyású, a gyermekpopulációban növekvo incidenciát mutató fertozés. Ebben a korcsoportban a felnottekkel szemben sokkal gyakrabban tapasztalhatók gasztroenterológiai tünetek a betegség során, 18-32%-ban jelentkezik legalább egy szimptóma. Ezek nem specifikusak, gyakran megegyezhetnek a virális enteritisek, a gyulladásos bélbetegségek vagy a vakbélgyulladás tüneteivel. A gyermekkori SARS-CoV-2-infekciónak egy viszonylag ritkán megjeleno, de súlyos, akár életveszélyes szövodménye a gyermekkori sokszervi gyulladásos szindróma (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, MIS-C). Ilyenkor a gastrointestinalis tünetek gyakorisága 60-100%-ra no, sok esetben akut has benyomását keltve. A jelenlegi kutatások eredményei alapján a gyulladásos bélbeteg gyerekek az alapbetegségük miatt nincsenek nagyobb veszélynek kitéve az átlagpopulációhoz képest a COVID-19-fertozés szempontjából. A terápiájukban alkalmazott gyógyszereik közül a nagy dózisú szteroidkezelés okoz nagyobb kockázatot a megfertozodésre, illetve ebben az esetben a súlyosabb kórlefolyásra. Az éppen remisszióban lévo gyulladásos bélbetegek fenntartó terápiájának módosítások nélküli folytatása javasolt, kiemelt figyelmet fordítva a biológiai terápiák idoben történo, megszakítás nélküli alkalmazására. Törekedni kell a személyes vizitek számának csökkentésére a pandémia idején, ezek telemedicinával történo helyettesítése javasolt. A halasztható endoszkópos vizsgálatok noninvazív vizsgálómódszerekkel történo átmeneti kiváltása részesítendo elonyben a betegség aktivitásának, a terápia hatékonyságának megítélésére. A gyulladásos bélbetegségben szenvedo gyermekek COVID-19 elleni védooltása javasolt, jelenleg minden elérheto oltóanyag alkalmazható náluk (az élo ágenst tartalmazó vakcinák ellenjavalltak). Immunmoduláns, szteroid- vagy anti-tumornekrózisfaktor (TNF)-alfa-terápia esetén az oltás lehetséges csökkent hatékonyságával kell számolni. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(6): 214-221. Summary. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is showing high variety in the disease course, with a constantly increasing incidence among the pediatric population. In this age group, at least one gastrointestinal symptom appears in 18-32% of the cases, showing a significant difference compared to the adult population. The gastrointestinal signs of COVID-19 are not specific, can mimic the symptoms of viral enteritis, inflammatory bowel diseases or acute appendicitis. The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rather rare, but serious complication of the pediatric COVID-19 disease: in these cases, the incidence of the gastrointestinal symptoms is increased up to 60-100%, often observed as acute abdomen. Based on recent researches, patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are shown to have the same risk in developing COVID-19 infection compared to the normal population: in their medications, the high dose steroid treatment is proved to increase the risk of infection or to make the disease course more serious. The treatment of patients with IBD should be continued without any changes (when the disease is in remission). The use of biologics should be done with special care, with more attention keeping the schedule and the continuity. It is advised to minimise the number of personal visits during the pandemic, they should be substituted with telemedicine. The postponable endoscopic examinations should be temporarily redeemed by non-invasive methods for screening the disease activity and the efficacy of the treatment. The vaccination against COVID-19 is advised in the population with IBD. All vaccines currently available are usable in this patient group (the use of vaccines containing live agents are contraindicated). In the case of patients treated with immunmodulators, steroids or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, a possible lower efficacy can be expected after the vaccination. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(6): 214-221.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
Z Gastroenterol ; 60(1): 77-80, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a promising strategy to protect immunocompromised IBD patients from a severe course of COVID-19. As these patients were excluded from initial clinical vaccination trials, patients frequently express concerns regarding the safety of these vaccines, especially whether vaccination might trigger IBD flares ("hit-and-run-hypothesis"). METHODS: In order to assess the risk of an IBD flare after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, an anonymous survey was performed at five German IBD centers and one patient organization (Deutsche Morbus Crohn/Colitis ulcerosa Vereinigung (DCCV) e.V.) in August and October 2021. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 914 patients, 781 of whom reported a previous vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (85.4%). Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with an increased risk of IBD flares (p=0.319) or unscheduled visits to the IBD physician (p=0.848). Furthermore, typical symptoms of an IBD flare including abdominal pain, increases in stool frequency, or rectal bleeding were not influenced by the vaccination. CONCLUSION: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is safe in IBD patients. These results may help to reduce fears regarding the vaccination in IBD patients. Our results can help to reduce fears in IBD patients regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A close communication between patients and physicians before and after the vaccination may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045059, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Non-government organisations (NGOs) often represent people who are underserved or experiencing vulnerability. Crohn's & Colitis Australia (CCA) is aware that many Australians with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not reached by current communication and engagement activities. The aim of the CCA IBD project is to implement the Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) process over 3 years to collaboratively codesign ways to improve delivery of information, services and resources for people with IBD and their carers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Health literacy and other data for phase 1 will be collected using the Health Literacy Questionnaire, eHealth Literacy Questionnaire, IBD-related questions and qualitative interviews with people with IBD and their carers to ascertain their lived experience. Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Identified clusters will be combined with qualitative data to develop vignettes (narratives of people's experiences of living with IBD) for stakeholder workshops to generate ideas for useful, accessible and sustainable solutions for identified health literacy needs. Selection and testing of health literacy actions happens in phase 2 and implementation and evaluation in phase 3 (2021-2023). Outcomes of this project include giving voice to people living with IBD, their carers and frontline healthcare practitioners. Genuine codesign informs the development and implementation of what is needed and wanted to improve access to and availability and quality of information and resources that support people to manage their health. There is potential for other NGOs to use the CCA Ophelia model in other health contexts to improve engagement with and understanding of the needs of the people they serve and to reduce health inequalities and improve health outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for Ophelia phase 1 has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee of Swinburne University of Technology (Ref: 20202968-4652) and by the South West Sydney Local Health District Research and Ethics Office for the purposes of questionnaire recruitment at Liverpool Hospital (Ref: 20202968-4652). Dissemination of the study findings will be the national codesign process and ownership development across the CCA community and through the genuine engagement of clinicians and relevant managers across Australia. The model and process will be directly distributed to international IBD associations and to other NGOs. It will also be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal, conference presentations and public reports on the CCA and Swinburne University of Technology website.


Subject(s)
Colitis , Health Literacy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Australia , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4276-4297, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344407

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has become more targeted, anticipating the use of immune-modifying therapies at an earlier stage. This top-down approach has been correlated with favorable short and long-term outcomes, but it has also brought with it concerns regarding potential infectious complications. This large IBD population treated with immune-modifying therapies, especially if combined, has an increased risk of severe infections, including opportunistic infections that are sustained by viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal agents. Viral infections have emerged as a focal safety concern in patients with IBD, representing a challenge for the clinician: they are often difficult to diagnose and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The first step is to improve effective preventive strategies, such as applying vaccination protocols, adopt adequate prophylaxis and educate patients about potential risk factors. Since viral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present atypical signs and symptoms, the challenges for the gastroenterologist are to suspect, recognize and diagnose such complications. Appropriate treatment of common viral infections allows us to minimize their impact on disease outcomes and patients' lives. This practical review supports this standard of care to improve knowledge in this subject area.


Subject(s)
Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(4): 1271-1277, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and mortality. As many comorbidities are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we sought to investigate the effects of comorbidities in these patients on infection severity. AIM: To evaluate association between individual comorbidities and COVID-19 infection severity among patients with IBD. METHODS: Data were obtained from SECURE-IBD, an international registry created to evaluate COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD. We used multivariable regression to analyze associations between eleven non-IBD comorbidities and a composite primary outcome of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death. Comorbidities were first modeled individually, adjusting for potential confounders. Next, to determine the independent effect of comorbidities, we fit a model including all comorbidities as covariates. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,035 patients from 58 countries (mean age 42.7 years, 50.6% male). A total of 538 patients (26.4%) experienced severe COVID-19. All comorbidities but a history of stroke and obesity were associated with severe infection in our initial analysis, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.9 to 3.7. In a model including all comorbidities significantly associated with the composite outcome in the initial analysis, as well as other confounders, most comorbidities remained significant, with the highest risk in chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CONCLUSION: Many non-IBD comorbidities are associated with a two to threefold increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization or death among patients with IBD. These data can be used to risk-stratify and guide treatment and lifestyle decisions during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Colitis/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics
18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3050-3055, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, concerns have been raised as to whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients under biologic therapy may be more susceptible to the disease. This study aimed to determine the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in a large cohort of IBD patients on biologic therapy. METHODS: This observational retrospective multicenter study collected data about COVID-19 in IBD patients on biologic therapy in Italy, between February and May 2020. The main end-points were (i) to assess both the cumulative incidence and clinical outcome of COVID-19, according to different biologic agents and (ii) to compare them with the general population and a cohort IBD patients undergoing non-biologic therapies. RESULTS: Among 1816 IBD patients, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 3.9 per 1000 (7/1816) with a 57% hospitalization rate and a 29% case-fatality rate. The class of biologic agents was the only risk factor of developing COVID-19 (P = 0.01). Non-gut selective agents were associated with a lower incidence of COVID-19 cases, related symptoms, and hospitalization (P < 0.05). Compared with the general population of Lombardy, an overall lower incidence of COVID-19 was observed (3.9 vs 8.5 per 1000, P = 0.03). Compared with 565 IBD patients on non-biologic therapies, a lower rate of COVID-19 symptoms was observed in our cohort (7.5% vs 18%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the general population, IBD patients on biologic therapy are not exposed to a higher risk of COVID-19. Non-gut selective agents are associated with a lower incidence of symptomatic disease, supporting the decision of maintaining the ongoing treatment.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/administration & dosage , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Colitis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(15): 1374-1381, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of literature surrounding the use of early fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients presenting with an initial episode of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Information on optimal antibiotic dosing and therapy duration surrounding FMT during an acute, initial episode of CDI is also limited. Described here is a case of successful treatment of CDI after 4 FMTs during an acute, initial episode of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile colitis. SUMMARY: A 69-year-old community-dwelling, Caucasian male presented after 48 hours of vomiting and diarrhea. A stool sample was collected and resulted positive for Clostridioides difficile by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patient was treated with several days of oral and rectal vancomycin therapy in addition to intravenous metronidazole, but those treatments failed. His clinical and nutrition status deteriorated over the course of several days until salvage therapy was ordered, with administration of 1 inpatient nasogastric FMT and 1 inpatient colonoscopic FMT followed by outpatient colonoscopic FMTs on 2 consecutive days within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: This case suggests a role for early, repeat FMT during an initial presentation of a severe Clostridioides difficile colitis episode refractory to pharmacologic antimicrobial therapy. It also adds to emerging literature regarding the timing of antibiotic cessation surrounding FMT.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Colitis , Aged , Clostridioides , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Colitis/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
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