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1.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(7): 554-564, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic recurrent disease, and the treatment goals of inflammatory bowel disease are mainly based on doctors' perspective, but there are some differences between the doctor's perspective and the patient's perspective. The aim of this study is to understand the treatment goals and the related factors from the patients' perspective during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 212 participants were recruited to fill out the questionnaires including clinical characteristics and treatment goals. Eleven treatment goals were measured by a Short-Form 34 questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to explore the related factors about these treatment goals. RESULTS: A total of 212 inflammatory bowel disease patients were enrolled in this study. The most concerned treatment goal was the improvement of quality of life (mean score was 8.54), while mean score of ulcerative colitis patients and Crohn's disease patients was 9.10 and 8.45, respectively. We had also found some related factors such as the type of disease, the course of disease, the frequency of hematochezia, and defecation. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed that inflammatory bowel disease patients pay more attention to the improvement of quality of life and few drugs during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. There are some related factors such as the type of disease, the course of dis- ease, the frequency of hematochezia, and defecation. Our results help clinicians understand the patients' treatment goals, which can contribute to better management of inflammatory bowel disease patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Goals , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923168

ABSTRACT

A man in his 60s presented to the emergency room with fever and fatigue after a 2.5-month course of corticosteroids. His medical history was significant for bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement and moderately severe ulcerative colitis treated with balsalazide and daily lactobacillus-containing probiotics. Initial investigations revealed Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteraemia without complication. Four days after hospital discharge, the patient experienced acute-onset right-sided paraesthesia and lower-limb paresis. On return to the emergency room, MRI of the brain demonstrated innumerable ring-enhancing lesions with haemorrhagic transformation. Transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed a small mobile density on the bioprosthetic aortic valve, raising the suspicion for L. rhamnosus infective endocarditis with secondary septic emboli to the brain. The patient was subsequently treated with intravenous gentamycin and ampicillin, with transition to indefinite oral amoxicillin suppressive therapy. The current case highlights the potential risk of lactobacilli translocation in an immunosuppressed patient with ulcerative colitis taking probiotics.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Endocarditis , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probiotics , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Probiotics/adverse effects , Sepsis/complications
3.
Phytomedicine ; 101: 154100, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that gastrointestinal manifestations co-exist with respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD) was recommended by the National Health Commission to treat mild and moderate COVID-19 patients and proved to effectively alleviate intestinal symptoms. However, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. PURPOSE: This study aimed at exploring potential mechanisms of XFBD by utilizing a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis, mimicking the disease conditions of intestinal microecological disorders. METHODS: The network pharmacology approach was employed to identify the potential targets and pathways of XFBD on the intestinal disorders. Mice with DSS-induced intestinal disorders were utilized to evaluate the protective effect of XFBD in vivo, including body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length, spleen weight, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Colon tissues were used to perform hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, western blot analysis, and transcriptome sequencing. Macrophages, neutrophils and the proportions of T helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Intestinal contents were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that XFBD inhibited the progression of COVID-19-related intestinal diseases by repressing inflammation. In mice with DSS-induced intestinal inflammation, XFBD treatment significantly reduced weight loss, the spleen index, the disease activity index, TNF-α levels, and colonic tissue damage, and prevented colon shortening. Transcriptomics and flow cytometry results suggested that XFBD remodeled intestinal immunity by downregulating the Th1/Th2 ratio. Western blot analysis showed that XFBD exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Indicator analysis of microbiota showed that 75 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affected after XFBD administration. Among them, Akkermansia, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterorhabdus were simultaneously negatively correlated with intestinal disorders' parameters, and Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Eubacterium nodatum,Turicibacter, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, showed positive correlations with intestinal disorders' parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that XFBD treatment attenuated intestinal disorders associated with inhibiting inflammation, remodeling of intestinal immunity, and improving intestinal flora. These findings provide a scientific basis for the clinical use of XFBD and offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with intestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(5): 387-396, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was expected to have traumatic effects and increase the anxiety levels of inflamma- tory bowel disease patients. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the psychosocial effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on patients with inflammatory bowel disease by revealing the risk perception for present disease, coping strategies, follow-up characteristics, and treatment adher- ence. This is a cross-sectional, web-based survey study including 798 inflammatory bowel disease patients who were followed at our outpatient clinic and 303 volunteer who did not have any known chronic diseases and were not health professionals were included as the control group. RESULTS: In this study, 281 of the patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease and 215 with ulcerative colitis. The mean age of patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and the control group were 40.9 ± 13.1, 42.3 ± 12.7, and 39.9 ± 11.6, respectively. Here, 119 (42%) of the Crohn's disease cases, 116 (54%) of the ulcerative colitis cases, and 170 (56%) of the control group were male. Among the 3 groups, coronavirus disease 2019-related post-traumatic stress disorder rates (Impact of Event Scale-Revised > 33) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of current status of anxiety-related anxiety rates were not statistically different while State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of anxiety tendency-related constant anxiety was higher in inflammatory bowel disease patients than the control group (P < .017). CONCLUSION: Inflammatory bowel disease patients with anxiety have a lower quality of life, and this may worsen the clinical course of the disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a major source of stress for such a vulnerable population. During the pandemic, psychological support and mental health awareness should be made accessible to all individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/psychology , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life
5.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 42(1): 1-4, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890707

ABSTRACT

ABBREVIATIONS: COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; HIC: high-income countries; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; LMIC: low- and middle-income countries; PUCAL: paediatric ulcerative colitis activity index; SCD: sickle cell disease; UC: ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity
6.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(2): e20-e24, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been increasing over 25 years; however, contemporary trends are not established and the impact of COVID-19 on case rates is unclear. METHODS: Data from Southampton Children's hospital prospective IBD database were retrieved for 2002-2021. Incidence rates were calculated based on referral area populations and temporal trends analysed. Disease prevalence for those aged <18 years was calculated for 2017-2021. Monoclonal prescriptions were reported. RESULTS: In total, 1150 patients were included (mean age at diagnosis 12.63 years, 40.5% female). An estimated 704 patients had Crohn's disease (61.2%), 385 had ulcerative colitis (33.5%), and 61 had IBD unclassified (5.3%). Overall IBD incidence increased, ß = 0.843, P = 3 × 10 -6 , driven by Crohn's disease, ß = 0.732, P = 0.00024 and ulcerative colitis, ß = 0.816, P = 0.000011. There was no change in IBDU incidence, ß = 0.230, P = 0.33. From 2002-2021, 51 patients were diagnosed <6 years of age, 160 patients aged 6 to <10 years and 939 patients aged 10 to <18 years of age. Increased incidence was observed in patients aged 10 to <18 years of age (ß = 0.888, P = 1.8 × 10 -7 ). There was no significant change in incidence of IBD in <6 years (ß = 0.124, P = 0.57), or 6 to <10 years (ß = 0.146, P = 0.54). IBD prevalence increased by an average of 1.71%/year from 2017 to 2021, ß = 0.979, P = 0.004. The number of new monoclonal prescriptions increased from 6 in 2007 to 111 in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: IBD incidence continues to increase in Southern England. Compounding prevalence and increased monoclonal usage has implications for service provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adolescent , Child , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
7.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2113-2128, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great unmet need for advanced therapies that provide rapid, robust, and sustained disease control for patients with ulcerative colitis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 inhibitor, as induction and maintenance therapy in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical programme consisted of two replicate induction studies (U-ACHIEVE induction [UC1] and U-ACCOMPLISH [UC2]) and a single maintenance study (U-ACHIEVE maintenance [UC3]). The studies were conducted across Europe, North and South America, Australasia, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region at 199 clinical centres in 39 countries (UC1), 204 clinical centres in 40 countries (UC2), and 195 clinical centres in 35 countries (UC3). Patients aged 16-75 years with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Adapted Mayo score 5-9; endoscopic subscore 2 or 3) for at least 90 days were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral upadacitinib 45 mg once daily or placebo for 8 weeks (induction studies). Patients who achieved clinical response following 8-week upadacitinib induction were re-randomly assigned (1:1:1) to upadacitinib 15 mg, upadacitinib 30 mg, or placebo for 52 weeks (maintenance study). All patients were randomly assigned using web-based interactive response technology. The primary endpoints were clinical remission per Adapted Mayo score at week 8 (induction) and week 52 (maintenance). The efficacy analyses in the two induction studies were based on the intent-to-treat population, which included all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment. In the maintenance study, the primary efficacy analyses reported in this manuscript were based on the first 450 (planned) clinical responders to 8-week induction therapy with upadacitinib 45 mg once daily. The safety analysis population in the induction studies consisted of all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment; in the maintenance study, this population included all patients who received at least one dose of treatment as part of the primary analysis population. These studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02819635 (U-ACHIEVE) and NCT03653026 (U-ACCOMPLISH). FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2018, and Sept 7, 2020, 474 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=319) or placebo (n=155) in UC1. Between Dec 6, 2018, and Jan 14, 2021, 522 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=345) or placebo (n=177) in UC2. In UC3, a total of 451 patients (21 from the phase 2b study, 278 from UC1, and 152 from UC2) who achieved a clinical response after 8 weeks of upadacitinib induction treatment were randomly assigned again to upadacitinib 15 mg (n=148), upadacitinib 30 mg (n=154), and placebo (n=149) in the primary analysis population. Statistically significantly more patients achieved clinical remission with upadacitinib 45 mg (83 [26%] of 319 patients in UC1 and 114 [34%] of 341 patients in UC2) than in the placebo group (seven [5%] of 154 patients in UC1 and seven [4%] of 174 patients; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 21·6% [95% CI 15·8-27·4] for UC1 and 29·0% [23·2-34·7] for UC2). In the maintenance study, clinical remission was achieved by statistically significantly more patients receiving upadacitinib (15 mg 63 [42%] of 148; 30 mg 80 [52%] of 154) than those receiving placebo (18 [12%] of 149; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 30·7% [21·7-39·8] for upadacitinib 15 mg vs placebo and 39·0% [29·7-48·2] for upadacitinib 30 mg vs placebo). The most commonly reported adverse events in UC1 were nasopharyngitis (15 [5%] of 319 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs six [4%] of 155 in the placebo group), creatine phosphokinase elevation (15 [4%] vs three [2%]), and acne (15 [5%] vs one [1%]). In UC2, the most frequently reported adverse event was acne (24 [7%] of 344 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs three [2%] of 177 in the placebo group). In both induction studies, serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were less frequent in the upadacitinib 45 mg group than in the placebo group (serious adverse events eight [3%] vs nine (6%) in UC1 and 11 [3%] vs eight [5%] in UC2; adverse events leading to discontinuation six [2%] vs 14 [9%] in UC1 and six [2%] vs nine [5%] in UC2). In UC3, the most frequently reported adverse events (≥5%) were worsening of ulcerative colitis (19 [13%] of 148 in the upadacitinib 15 mg group vs 11 [7%] of 154 in the upadacitinib 30 mg group vs 45 [30%] of 149 in the placebo group), nasopharyngitis (18 [12%] vs 22 [14%] vs 15 [10%]), creatine phosphokinase elevation (nine [6%] vs 13 [8%] vs three [2%]), arthralgia (nine [6%] vs five [3%] vs 15 [10%]), and upper respiratory tract infection (seven [5%] vs nine [6%] vs six [4%]). The proportion of serious adverse events (ten [7%] vs nine [6%] vs 19 [13%]) and adverse events leading to discontinuation (six [4%] vs ten [6%] vs 17 [11%]) was lower in both upadacitinib groups than in the placebo group. Events of cancer, adjudicated major adverse cardiac events, or venous thromboembolism were reported infrequently. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Upadacitinib demonstrated a positive efficacy and safety profile and could be an effective treatment option for patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Colitis, Ulcerative , Nasopharyngitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Creatine Kinase , Double-Blind Method , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(6): e76-e77, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853079

ABSTRACT

A 47-year-old woman developed a de novo occurrence of Crohn's disease after coronavirus disease 2019. This is an unusual occurrence and suggests that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could trigger inflammatory bowel disease in predisposed people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/surgery , Humans
9.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(3): 685-691, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which remains highly debated. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2015-2017. Patients with ICD9/10CM codes for Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and CMV colitis were included in the study. The primary outcome was the odds of CMV colitis in patients with IBD compared to patients without IBD. Secondary outcomes were differences in inpatient morbidity, mortality, resource utilization, colectomy rates, hospital length of stay (LOS), and inflation-adjusted total hospitalization costs. RESULTS: A total of 992,445 patients with IBD were identified, out of which 520 (0.05%) had associated CMV colitis. Patients with IBD had significantly higher odds of CMV colitis compared to patients without IBD (aOR: 19.76, p < 0.01), having an even greater association with UC (aOR: 31.13, p < 0.01). CMV colitis in patients with CD was associated with a significant increase in odds of mortality, shock, and ICU stay, while patients with UC had higher odds of colectomy. The patients with IBD and CMV colitis had higher odds of acute kidney injury, multiorgan failure, markedly increased additional hospital costs, and LOS compared to patients with IBD and no CMV colitis. CONCLUSION: IBD has a significant association with CMV colitis, and the presence of CMV colitis in patients with IBD was associated with higher mortality, morbidity, and hospital costs. Prospectively designed studies may better elucidate the risk factors and impact of CMV colitis on patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847377

ABSTRACT

This article is an overview of guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This overview describes the systematically and comprehensively multidisciplinary recommendations based on the updated principles of evidence-based literature to promote the adoption of best surgical practices and research as well as patient and specialized healthcare provider education. Colonic IBD represents idiopathic, chronic, inflammatory disorders encompassing Crohn's colitis (CC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two unsolved medical subtypes of this condition, which present similarity in their clinical and histopathological characteristics. The standard state-of-the-art classification diagnostic steps are disease evaluation and assessment according to the Montreal classification to enable explicit communication with professionals. The signs and symptoms on first presentation are mainly connected with the anatomical localization and severity of the disease and less with the resulting diagnosis "CC" or "UC". This can clinically and histologically be non-definitive to interpret to establish criteria and is classified as indeterminate colitis (IC). Conservative surgical intervention varies depending on the disease phenotype and accessible avenues. The World Gastroenterology Organizations has, for this reason, recommended guidelines for clinical diagnosis and management. Surgical intervention is indicated when conservative treatment is ineffective (refractory), during intractable gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in obstructive gastrointestinal luminal stenosis (due to fibrotic scar tissue), or in the case of abscesses, peritonitis, or complicated fistula formation. The risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer is realizable in IBD patients before and after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Therefore, endoscopic surveillance strategies, aimed at the early detection of dysplasia, are recommended. During the COVID-19 pandemic, IBD patients continued to be admitted for IBD-related surgical interventions. Virtual and phone call follow-ups reinforcing the continuity of care are recommended. There is a need for special guidelines that explore solutions to the groundwork gap in terms of access limitations to IBD care in developing countries, and the irregular representation of socioeconomic stratification needs a strategic plan for how to address this serious emerging challenge in the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Chronic Disease , Colitis/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Crohn Disease/complications , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/surgery , Pandemics
13.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(2): 134-137, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814025

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a new type of acute infectious respiratory syndrome that usually presents with mild flu-like symptoms. However, the disease caused widespread illness and death worldwide, and new sequelae are still being discovered. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was isolated from the fecal samples of some infected patients. Many pathogens, including many viral infections, were linked either to the onset or the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With this, we report a series of 2 IBD cases that were diagnosed shortly after recovery from COVID-19. This is the first report that discusses the possibility of developing IBD following COVID-19 infection to the best of our knowledge. This could highlight the importance of thoroughly investigating COVID-19 patients who presented with diarrhea, particularly those with bloody diarrhea, and not consider it a simple manifestation of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 51(2): 425-440, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804127

ABSTRACT

The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in the elderly population. Compared with patients with onset during younger years, patients with elderly-onset IBD have a distinct clinical presentation, disease phenotype, and natural history. Genetics contribute less to pathogenesis of disease, whereas aging-related biological changes, such as immunosenescence and dysbiosis, are associated with elderly-onset IBD. Frailty is an increasingly recognized predictor of adverse outcomes. As an increasingly wider array of biologic and small molecule therapeutic options becomes available, data regarding efficacy and safety of these agents in patients are paramount given the unique characteristics of this population.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Biology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy
15.
J Med Food ; 25(4): 341-354, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795398

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article was to review experimental and clinical studies regarding the use of omega-3 fatty acids on the prevention and control of chronic inflammatory diseases with autoimmune background through the gut microbiota modulation. For this, natural omega-3 sources are presented emphasizing the importance of a healthy diet for the body's homeostasis and the enzymatic processes that these fatty acids go through once inside the body. The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis are revisited under the light of the gut microbiota dysbiosis approach and how those fatty acids are able to prevent and control these two pathological conditions that are responsible for the global chronic burden and functional disability and life-threatening comorbidities if not treated properly. As a matter of reflection, as we are living a pandemic crisis owing to COVID-19 infection, we present the potential of omega-3 in preventing a poor prognosis once they contribute to balancing the immune system modulation the inflammatory process.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Humans
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 851295, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776071

ABSTRACT

Background: Active and severe ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-response to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are related to poor outcomes and should be accurately identified. Several integrated inflammatory indexes are potentially useful to assess the disease severity in patients with acute or critical diseases but are underexplored in patients with UC. Methods: Patients with UC consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2015 and December 2020 were retrospectively grouped according to the activity and severity of UC and response to 5-ASA. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR), platelet-to-albumin ratio (PAR), C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and C-reactive protein-to-lymphocyte ratio (CLR) were calculated. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results: Overall, 187 patients with UC were included, of whom 151 were active, 55 were severe, and 14 were unresponsive to 5-ASA. The active UC group had significantly higher NLR, PLR, SII, and PAR levels. SII had the greatest predictive accuracy for active UC, followed by PLR, PAR, and NLR (AUC = 0.647, 0.641, 0.634, and 0.626). The severe UC group had significantly higher NLR, PLR, SII, PAR, CAR, and CLR levels. CLR had the greatest predictive accuracy for severe UC, followed by CAR, PLR, SII, NLR, and PAR (AUC = 0.732, 0.714, 0.693, 0.669, 0.646, and 0.63). The non-response to the 5-ASA group had significantly higher CAR and CLR levels. CAR had a greater predictive accuracy for non-response to 5-ASA than CLR (AUC = 0.781 and 0.759). Conclusion: SII, CLR, and CAR may be useful for assessing the severity and progression of UC, but remain not optimal.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Humans , Lymphocytes , Retrospective Studies
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753714

ABSTRACT

Aberrant TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling has been reported to be an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a number of potential anti­colitis agents on intestinal epithelial permeability and the TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling pathway in an experimental model of colitis. A mouse model of colitis was first established before anti­TNF­α and 5­aminosalicyclic acid (5­ASA) were administered intraperitoneally and orally, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histological index (HI) of the colon and the disease activity index (DAI) scores were then detected in each mouse. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemical and functional tests, including Evans blue (EB) and FITC­dextran (FD­4) staining, were used to evaluate intestinal mucosal permeability. The expression of epithelial phenotype markers E­cadherin, occludin, zona occludens (ZO­1), TGF­ß and Smad7 were measured. In addition, epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity were measured. Anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments was both found to effectively reduce the DAI score and HI, whilst decreasing colonic MPO activity, plasma levels of FD­4 and EB permeation of the intestine. Furthermore, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments decreased MLCK expression and activity, reduced the expression of Smad7 in the small intestine epithelium, but increased the expression of TGF­ß. In mice with colitis, TEM revealed partial epithelial injury in the ileum, where the number of intercellular tight junctions and the expression levels of E­cadherin, ZO­1 and occludin were decreased, all of which were alleviated by anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatment. In conclusion, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA both exerted protective effects on intestinal epithelial permeability in an experimental mouse model of colitis. The underlying mechanism may be mediated at least in part by the increase in TGF­ß expression and/or the reduction in Smad7 expression, which can inhibit epithelial MLCK activity and in turn reduce mucosal permeability during the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Smad7 Protein/genetics , Smad7 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Animals , Cadherins/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/ultrastructure , Male , Mesalamine/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Peroxidase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
20.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e1042-e1045, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to vaccinations is unsatisfactory in the inflammatory diseases (IBD) population because of concerns regarding adverse events or low perception of infectious risk. The aim of this study was to maximise adherence to anti-Covid-19 vaccination in IBD patients. METHODS: In the third trimester of 2020, all IBD patients were informed concerning the need for anti-Covid-19 vaccination and family physicians were advised to proceed with anti-Influenza and anti-pneumococcus vaccinations. Demographic data, disease-related data together with acceptance of vaccinations were recorded. From May 2021, vaccinations of IBD patients were directly arranged at our hospital. We registered performance, procrastination or denial of anti-Covid-19 vaccination, type of vaccine and adverse events. RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-three patients were included (Crohn's: 266, ulcerative colitis: 257; M/F 289/234; mean age 48 ± 17 years); 53 patients were excluded from analysis as they became infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the study period; overall adherence to vaccination was 400/470 (85%), procrastinators 44 (9%) and 27 patients (6%) refused. Compared with influenza (58%) and pneumococcus (65%) vaccinations, acceptance was higher for anti-Covid-19 vaccination (P < 0.0001, both). Mild adverse events occurred in 31% and two (0.5%) needed precautionary but uneventful hospitalization. On multiple stepwise regression analysis, factors positively associated with adherence to vaccination were age (P < 0.039; OR, 1.016, 95% CI: 1.001-1.031) and previous anti-influenza vaccination (P < 0.008; OR, 2.071, 95% CI: 1.210-3.545). CONCLUSIONS: Direct counselling and on-site administration were associated with a satisfactory acceptance of anti-Covid-19 vaccination, whereas vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcus remained below expected levels. Increased risk perception may account for the observed differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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