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1.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(5): 595-600, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the first wave of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and after 12 months. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, observational study conducted between April 2020 and April 2021. Children from 10 to 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD were enrolled during the first COVID-19-related national quarantine. The following information was collected at the baseline and after 12 months: IBD subtype, location and phenotype, disease activity, current and previous therapies. Patients were asked to complete the PROMIS Anxiety and IMPACT III questionnaires. RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of whom 54 (46%) were affected by Crohn disease (CD) and 64 (54%) with ulcerative colitis (UC; median age: 15.5 years, range 10.3-18; M/F: 68/50). Median HRQoL was significantly decreased after 12 months compared with the beginning of COVID-19-related quarantine (T1: 76.7 vs T2: 72.8; P < 0.001). At 12 months, a higher number of children were reported to be in active disease when compared with the enrollment [T2: 22/108 (20.4%) vs T1: 12/118 (10%); P = 0.02]. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence on HRQoL of quarantine period ( P < 0.001), female sex ( P = 0.016), biologic therapy ( P = 0.011), and active disease ( P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A deterioration of HRQoL after 12 months from COVID-19-related quarantine was observed. Additionally, the higher number of children with active disease at 12 months compared with enrollment may suggest detrimental consequences of the reduced disease control, contributing to decreased HRQoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Female , Humans , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chronic Disease
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7313-7316, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The spread of COVID-19 pandemic forced the national healthcare system to reorganize almost all surgical services, in order to maintain an adequate therapeutic offer. At General Surgery department of Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli in Rome, surgical procedures were progressively reduced to provide beds and personnel for COVID-19. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of one year of COVID-19 pandemic on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) surgery in a cohort of patients and evaluate post-operative short-term complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our team retrospectively analyzed the records of IBD patients who were referred to an IBD-related resective surgery from January 2020 to December 2020. These patients were compared to a comparable group of IBD patients who were operated from January 2019 to December 2019. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were included in the study. Median age was 44 (range 15-77). Patients were referred for Ulcerative colitis (23.1%) and Crohn's disease (76.9%). Eighty-three patients underwent surgery from January 2020 to December 2020, which constitutes a 4.6% increase in the number of patients compared to the same period in 2019. Median post-operative hospital stay increased (7 days in 2019 vs. 6 days in 2020). Laparoscopic was the most frequently performed procedure during both periods (49% in 2019 and 59% in 2020). Complication rates, reported as Clavien-Dindo score 3 or 4, slightly decreased in 2020 (6.5 in 2019 vs. 4.8 in 2020). PCR test for detection of COVID-19 infection was conducted in all the patients before the hospitalization. Two patients out of 70 were tested positive for COVID-19 and their surgeries were rescheduled. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant reduction in IBD resective surgeries at our center in 2020, nor a deterioration of the outcomes. A reduction of other elective surgical procedures had to be carried out and adequate protective measures for both patients and healthcare workers were established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/surgery , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(37): e279, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on how the coronavirus pandemic has affected pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) are lacking. We aimed to investigate the trends in epidemiology, characteristics, initial management, and short-term outcomes of PIBD in South Korea over the recent three years including the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This multicenter study retrospectively investigated temporal trends in the epidemiology of PIBD in Korea. Annual occurrences, disease phenotypes, and initial management at diagnosis were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2021. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients from 17 institutions were included in this epidemiological evaluation. Analysis of the occurrence trend confirmed a significant increase in PIBD, regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Crohn's disease, patients with post-coronavirus outbreaks had significantly higher fecal calprotectin levels than those with previous onset (1,339.4 ± 717.04 vs. 1,595.5 ± 703.94, P = 0.001). Patients with post-coronavirus-onset ulcerative colitis had significantly higher Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index scores than those with previous outbreaks (48 ± 17 vs. 36 ± 15, P = 0.004). In the initial treatment of Crohn's disease, the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and steroids significantly decreased (P = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively), and enteral nutrition and the use of infliximab increased significantly (P = 0.045 and 0.009, respectively). There was a significant increase in azathioprine use during the initial treatment of ulcerative colitis (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients with PIBD is increasing significantly annually in Korea. The initial management trends for PIBD have also changed. More research is needed to establish appropriate treatment guidelines considering the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Korean PIBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Azathioprine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Infliximab , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 56(10): 1460-1474, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic offered a unique opportunity to understand inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management during unexpected disruption. This could help to guide practice overall. AIMS: To compare prescribing behaviour for IBD flares and outcomes during the early pandemic with pre-pandemic findings METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study comprising patients who contacted IBD teams for symptomatic flares between March and June 2020 in 60 National Health Service trusts in the United Kingdom. Data were compared with a pre-pandemic cohort after propensity-matching for age and physician global assessment of disease activity. RESULTS: We included 1864 patients in each of the pandemic and pre-pandemic cohorts. The principal findings were reduced systemic corticosteroid prescription during the pandemic in Crohn's disease (prednisolone: pandemic 26.5% vs. 37.1%; p < 0.001) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (prednisolone: pandemic 33.5% vs. 40.7%, p < 0.001), with increases in poorly bioavailable oral corticosteroids in Crohn's (pandemic 15.6% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001) and UC (pandemic 11.8% vs. 5.2%; p < 0.001). Ustekinumab (Crohn's and UC) and vedolizumab (UC) treatment also significantly increased. Three-month steroid-free remission in each period was similar in Crohn's (pandemic 28.4% vs. 32.1%; p = 0.17) and UC (pandemic 36.4% vs. 40.2%; p = 0.095). Patients experiencing a flare and suspected COVID-19 were more likely to have moderately-to-severely active disease at 3 months than those with a flare alone. CONCLUSIONS: Despite treatment adaptations during the pandemic, steroid-free outcomes were comparable with pre-pandemic levels, although concurrent flare and suspected COVID-19 caused worse outcomes. These findings have implications for IBD management during future pandemics and for standard practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Ustekinumab , State Medicine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Prednisolone
6.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(2): e20-e24, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been increasing over 25 years; however, contemporary trends are not established and the impact of COVID-19 on case rates is unclear. METHODS: Data from Southampton Children's hospital prospective IBD database were retrieved for 2002-2021. Incidence rates were calculated based on referral area populations and temporal trends analysed. Disease prevalence for those aged <18 years was calculated for 2017-2021. Monoclonal prescriptions were reported. RESULTS: In total, 1150 patients were included (mean age at diagnosis 12.63 years, 40.5% female). An estimated 704 patients had Crohn's disease (61.2%), 385 had ulcerative colitis (33.5%), and 61 had IBD unclassified (5.3%). Overall IBD incidence increased, ß = 0.843, P = 3 × 10 -6 , driven by Crohn's disease, ß = 0.732, P = 0.00024 and ulcerative colitis, ß = 0.816, P = 0.000011. There was no change in IBDU incidence, ß = 0.230, P = 0.33. From 2002-2021, 51 patients were diagnosed <6 years of age, 160 patients aged 6 to <10 years and 939 patients aged 10 to <18 years of age. Increased incidence was observed in patients aged 10 to <18 years of age (ß = 0.888, P = 1.8 × 10 -7 ). There was no significant change in incidence of IBD in <6 years (ß = 0.124, P = 0.57), or 6 to <10 years (ß = 0.146, P = 0.54). IBD prevalence increased by an average of 1.71%/year from 2017 to 2021, ß = 0.979, P = 0.004. The number of new monoclonal prescriptions increased from 6 in 2007 to 111 in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: IBD incidence continues to increase in Southern England. Compounding prevalence and increased monoclonal usage has implications for service provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adolescent , Child , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 851295, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776071

ABSTRACT

Background: Active and severe ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-response to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are related to poor outcomes and should be accurately identified. Several integrated inflammatory indexes are potentially useful to assess the disease severity in patients with acute or critical diseases but are underexplored in patients with UC. Methods: Patients with UC consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2015 and December 2020 were retrospectively grouped according to the activity and severity of UC and response to 5-ASA. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR), platelet-to-albumin ratio (PAR), C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and C-reactive protein-to-lymphocyte ratio (CLR) were calculated. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results: Overall, 187 patients with UC were included, of whom 151 were active, 55 were severe, and 14 were unresponsive to 5-ASA. The active UC group had significantly higher NLR, PLR, SII, and PAR levels. SII had the greatest predictive accuracy for active UC, followed by PLR, PAR, and NLR (AUC = 0.647, 0.641, 0.634, and 0.626). The severe UC group had significantly higher NLR, PLR, SII, PAR, CAR, and CLR levels. CLR had the greatest predictive accuracy for severe UC, followed by CAR, PLR, SII, NLR, and PAR (AUC = 0.732, 0.714, 0.693, 0.669, 0.646, and 0.63). The non-response to the 5-ASA group had significantly higher CAR and CLR levels. CAR had a greater predictive accuracy for non-response to 5-ASA than CLR (AUC = 0.781 and 0.759). Conclusion: SII, CLR, and CAR may be useful for assessing the severity and progression of UC, but remain not optimal.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Humans , Lymphocytes , Retrospective Studies
8.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662311

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) traditionally requires inpatient hospital management for intravenous therapies and/or colectomy. Ambulatory ASUC care has not yet been evaluated in large cohorts. AIMS: We used data from PROTECT, a UK multicentre observational COVID-19 inflammatory bowel disease study, to report the extent, safety and effectiveness of ASUC ambulatory pathways. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years old) meeting Truelove and Witts criteria between 1 January 2019-1 June 2019 and 1 March 2020-30 June 2020 were recruited to PROTECT. We used demographic, disease phenotype, treatment outcomes and 3-month follow-up data. Primary outcome was rate of colectomy during the index ASUC episode. Secondary outcomes included corticosteroid response, time to and rate of rescue or primary induction therapy, response to rescue or primary induction therapy, time to colectomy, mortality, duration of inpatient treatment and hospital readmission and colectomy within 3 months of index flare. We compared outcomes in three cohorts: (1) patients treated entirely in inpatient setting; ambulatory patients subdivided into; (2) patients managed as ambulatory from diagnosis and (3) patients hospitalised and subsequently discharged to ambulatory care for continued intravenous steroids. RESULTS: 37% (22/60) participating hospitals used ambulatory pathways. Of 764 eligible patients, 695 (91%) patients received entirely inpatient care, 15 (2%) patients were managed as ambulatory from diagnosis and 54 (7%) patients were discharged to ambulatory pathways. Aside from younger age in patients treated as ambulatory from diagnosis, no significant differences in disease or patient phenotype were observed. The rate of colectomy (15.0% (104/695) vs 13.3% (2/15) vs 13.0% (7/54), respectively, p=0.96) and secondary outcomes were similar among all three cohorts. Stool culture and flexible sigmoidoscopy were less frequently performed in ambulatory cohorts. Forty per cent of patients treated as ambulatory from diagnosis required subsequent hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: In a post hoc analysis of one of the largest ASUC cohorts collected to date, we report an emerging UK ambulatory practice which challenges treatment paradigms. However, our analysis remains underpowered to detect key outcome measures and further studies exploring clinical and cost-effectiveness as well as patient and physician acceptability are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04411784.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(2): 151-152, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574624

ABSTRACT

We analyzed how the healthcare restrictions that occurred in hospitals in Spain due to the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly in March, April and May 2020, influenced the diagnosis, management and treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in our center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(5): 757-767, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The health consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] among patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD] remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the outcomes and long-term effects of COVID-19 in patients with UC or CD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population-based study covering all Danish patients with CD or UC and confirmed COVID-19 between January 28, 2020 and April 1, 2021, through medical records and questionnaires. RESULTS: All 319 patients with UC and 197 patients with CD who developed COVID-19 in Denmark were included in this study and compared with the Danish background population with COVID-19 [N = 230 087]. A significantly higher risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization was observed among patients with UC (N = 46 [14.4%], relative risk [RR] = 2.49 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.91-3.26]) and CD (N = 24 [12.2%], RR = 2.11 [95% CI 1.45-3.07]) as compared with the background population (N = 13 306 [5.8%]). A similar pattern was observed for admission to intensive care (UC: N = 8 [2.51%], RR = 27.88 [95% CI 13.88-56.00]; CD: N = 3 [1.52%], RR = 16.92 [95% CI 5.46-52.46]). After a median of 5.1 months (interquartile range [IQR] 4.5-7.9), 58 [42.3%] and 39 [45.9%] patients with UC and CD, respectively, reported persisting symptoms which were independently associated with discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapies during COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50 [95% CI 1.07-10.22], p = 0.01) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 2.76 [95% CI 1.05-3.90], p = 0.04), but not with age or presence of comorbidities. CONCLUSION: In this population-based study of 516 patients with IBD and COVID-19, 13.6% needed hospitalization and 2.1% required intensive care. Furthermore, sequelae were frequent, affecting 43.7% of COVID-19-infected patients. These findings might have implications for planning the healthcare of patients in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Prospective Studies
13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(7): 2876-2881, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is the first global pandemic in more than 100 years, and at its onset, the effects were largely unknown. Immunocompromised patients, including IBD, were presumed to have higher risk. AIMS: We hypothesized patients with IBD would have higher-than-baseline anxiety, high perceived vulnerability and significant lifestyle impacts as a result of the pandemic. We sought to assess the impact of these changes on disease and management. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and IBD-unspecified was conducted. Patients were invited to participate by email in an IRB-approved brief, voluntary survey. Survey questions focused on disease characteristics, healthcare access and self-reported psychological well-being. RESULTS: Responses from 492 (CD = 337, UC = 141,IC = 14) patients were included in the analysis. The majority of patients with IBD had increased anxiety since the pandemic, which correlated with an increase in GI symptoms. This risk of symptoms was mitigated by communication with their provider. Many patients had lifestyle changes including requesting time off work due to perceived vulnerability and changes in eating habits. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an increase in illness-associated anxiety and perceived vulnerability among patients with IBD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Open communication with providers is important to maintain adequate control of disease and reduce symptoms of flares triggered by ongoing stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 271-281, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence to support safe and effective management of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to identify alterations to established conventional evidence-based management of acute severe ulcerative colitis during the early COVID-19 pandemic, the effect on outcomes, and any associations with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: The PROTECT-ASUC study was a multicentre, observational, case-control study in 60 acute secondary care hospitals throughout the UK. We included adults (≥18 years) with either ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified, who presented with acute severe ulcerative colitis and fulfilled the Truelove and Witts criteria. Cases and controls were identified as either admitted or managed in emergency ambulatory care settings between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period cohort), or between Jan 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019 (historical control cohort), respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or colectomy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04411784. FINDINGS: We included 782 patients (398 in the pandemic period cohort and 384 in the historical control cohort) who met the Truelove and Witts criteria for acute severe ulcerative colitis. The proportion of patients receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or surgery was higher during the pandemic period than in the historical period (217 [55%] of 393 patients vs 159 [42%] of 380 patients; p=0·00024) and the time to rescue therapy was shorter in the pandemic cohort than in the historical cohort (p=0·0026). This difference was driven by a greater use of rescue and primary induction therapies with biologicals, ciclosporin, or tofacitinib in the COVID-19 pandemic period cohort than in the historical control period cohort (177 [46%] of 387 patients in the COVID-19 cohort vs 134 [36%] of 373 patients in the historical cohort; p=0·0064). During the pandemic, more patients received ambulatory (outpatient) intravenous steroids (51 [13%] of 385 patients vs 19 [5%] of 360 patients; p=0·00023). Fewer patients received thiopurines (29 [7%] of 398 patients vs 46 [12%] of 384; p=0·029) and 5-aminosalicylic acids (67 [17%] of 398 patients vs 98 [26%] of 384; p=0·0037) during the pandemic than in the historical control period. Colectomy rates were similar between the pandemic and historical control groups (64 [16%] of 389 vs 50 [13%] of 375; p=0·26); however, laparoscopic surgery was less frequently performed during the pandemic period (34 [53%] of 64] vs 38 [76%] of 50; p=0·018). Five (2%) of 253 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospital treatment. Two (2%) of 103 patients re-tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the 3-month follow-up were positive 5 days and 12 days, respectively, after discharge from index admission. Both recovered without serious outcomes. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic altered practice patterns of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the management of acute severe ulcerative colitis but was associated with similar outcomes to a historical cohort. Despite continued use of high-dose corticosteroids and biologicals, the incidence of COVID-19 within 3 months was low and not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colonoscopy , Acute Disease , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 443-447, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057900

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) might be determined by certain comorbidities (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases) and advanced age. Because the impact of immunosuppression on disease severity is not entirely clear, management of patients under immunosuppressive treatment remains controversial. Six cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with COVID-19 on immunosuppressive medication are presented. The aim of this study was to describe patients' clinical manifestation and chronologic development of virus-specific antibodies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection before and after restart with immunosuppressive/biological therapy as an indicator for a specific immune response. All patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RNA with PCR, were in clinical remission prior to COVID-19 and only one patient continued his immunosuppressive treatment during the COVID-19 infection. Initial symptoms of COVID-19 were pyrexia, diarrhea, cephalea, and dysgeusia and anosmia. No patient needed admission to hospital or ICU. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody development was described to be late in three of the six patients. Late antibody development seems to be more frequent in older patients and in patients with combined immunosuppressive treatment. In this scenario, SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing could be useful prior to restarting immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4191-4196, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID19 evolved rapidly into a global pandemic, forcing hospitals, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral units, to change their practices to ensure quality of care. AIMS: To describe the clinical outcomes and the fulfilment of the treatment schedule of patients with IBD treated with biological agents in a single-center of a red-zone of the pandemic, and to report the patients' perceptions about COVID-19 and the measures adopted at our center. METHODS: Therapeutic adherence and clinical outcomes were collected for all patients undergoing treatment with intravenous biologicals and subcutaneous biologicals at our center. A telephone survey was also performed to assess these patients' perceptions of the COVID pandemic and the related measures adopted at their IBD unit. RESULTS: A total of 234 patients were included (117 on intravenous and 117 on subcutaneous biologicals). Only 10% of patients postponed intravenous infusions intentionally and 5% postponed the collection of subcutaneous biologicals at the hospital pharmacy. Only five confirmed COVID-19 cases were registered (2.1%), all of them of mild severity. One hundred and fifty-five patients participated in the survey (77 on intravenous and 78 on subcutaneous drugs). Fear of going to the hospital was the most common reason for postponing biological administrations. Among those on combination therapy, only 7% admitted to have withdrawn immunosuppressants. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to intravenous and subcutaneous biological therapies during the pandemic was high in a single-center cohort of IBD patients even though the cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 was low.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Medication Adherence , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fear , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(7): 1211-1221, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003555

ABSTRACT

Acute severe ulcerative colitis [ASUC] remains a common medical emergency, with 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis experiencing at least one event in their disease course. Despite advances in medical therapy, ASUC continues to be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, with up to 30% of patients requiring colectomy during initial admission. Our aim was to review the current controversies and recent progress in risk stratification, prediction of outcome, and personalisation of care in ASUC. We re-assess the use of Truelove and Witts' criteria, serum biomarkers, and the use of composite clinical indices in current clinical practice. We explore the potential for endoscopic prediction using defined validated indices for accurate and early prognostication, and the need to define outcome. We also consider the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss the current research agenda, including the application of new and emerging biomarkers coupled with multi-omics and the implications in management and optimisation of outcome. Research priorities for the prediction of outcome in acute severe colitis include the following. 1. Development of an accurate admission score to guide early medical rescue therapy or colectomy. 2. Utility of point-of-care faecal calprotectin, with determination of optimal cut-off values. 3. Role of serum and faecal infliximab levels to both predict outcome and guide accelerated infliximab dosing. 4. Role of novel biomarkers, including serum calprotectin, in predicting response to corticosteroids or rescue therapy. 5. Specific predictors of response to ciclosporin and infliximab to allow rationalisation of drug use. 6. Utility of validated endoscopic scores. 7. Utility of radiological assessment beyond use of plain abdominal X-ray. 8. The use of multiomics and machine learning to predict risk of Acute Severe Colitis in patients with Ulcerative Colitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
18.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(3): 283-288, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IBD management has been significantly affected during the COVID-19 lockdown with potential clinical issues. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Italian paediatric IBD cohort. METHODS: This was a multicentre, retrospective, cohort investigation including 21 different Italian IBD referral centres. An electronic data collection was performed among the participating centres including: clinical characteristics of IBD patients, number of COVID-19 cases and clinical outcomes, disease management during the lockdown and the previous 9 weeks. RESULTS: 2291 children affected by IBD were enrolled. We experienced a significant reduction of the hospital admissions [604/2291 (26.3%) vs 1281/2291 (55.9%); p < 0.001]. More specifically, we observed a reduction of hospitalizations for new diagnosis (from n = 44 to n = 27) and endoscopic re-evaluations (from n = 46 to n = 8). Hospitalization for relapses and surgical procedures remained substantially unchanged. Biologic infusions did not significantly vary [393/2291 (17.1%) vs 368/2291 (16%); p = 0.3]. Telemedicine services for children with IBD were activated in 52.3% of the centres. In 42/2291(1.8%) children immunosuppressive therapies were adapted due to the concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Due to the several limitations of the lockdown, cares for children with IBD have been kept to minimal standards, giving priorities to the urgencies and to biologics' infusions and implementing telemedicine services.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/trends , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(10): 982-1002, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886826

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global outbreak of new onset infections with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. To date, more than 3.4 million people have been infected throughout the world. In Germany, approximately 450,000 patients suffer from inflammatory bowel disease; these patients generally require continuous expert care and support. Against the background of a rapidly accumulating knowledge base on SARS-CoV-2, 68 expert authors of the current DGVS guidelines for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis took part in a virtual meeting to compile up-to-date, practice-orientated recommendations aimed at improving the care of patients with IBD. These recommendations address the risk of infection, including the risk for specific patient groups, the possible course of the disease, and consequences for pharmacological and surgical therapies of the underlying disease, as well as general measures for infection prevention and adjuvant prophylactic and therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Coronavirus Infections , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/therapy , Germany , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724113

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6, has been used to treat cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Acute ulcerative bowel disease has been only rarely documented in patients treated for rheumatological conditions. The gastrointestinal side effects seen when used in the context of COVID-19 are unknown. We present a case of COVID-19 CRS in which acute terminal ileum and perforated caecal ulceration evolved after tocilizumab exposure. We raise awareness of a possible causal relationship between even a single dose of tocilizumab and gut ulceration in patients with COVID-19. Any such drug enteropathy relationship requires watchful monitoring during upcoming trials of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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