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1.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 21(1): 1-8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ustekinumab is a human IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody that targets the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 and blocks the binding of these cytokines to the IL-12Rß1 chain of their receptors. Ustekinumab is approved for treating moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). AREAS COVERED: We reviewed the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of ustekinumab. Future challenges for optimizing UC treatment with ustekinumab are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Ustekinumab has favorable clinical efficacy and safety profiles for moderately-to-severely active UC. Ustekinumab is the first biologic for targeting IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Therefore, ustekinumab can be a therapeutic option following the failure of other biologics, including anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and anti-α4ß7 integrin antagonists. However, the positioning of ustekinumab in the therapeutic strategy for UC remains unclear. The efficacy of combinations of ustekinumab and immunomodulators over ustekinumab monotherapy has not been supported in studies. Ustekinumab is a human immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody with low immunogenicity. Therefore, ustekinumab monotherapy, which should be safe, could be sufficient for treating UC. Further studies are required to understand the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in patients with UC, particularly in special situations, and to optimize UC treatment with ustekinumab.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Ustekinumab/administration & dosage , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/physiopathology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-23/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Ustekinumab/adverse effects
2.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575253
3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(11): 1913-1920, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437673

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a dysregulated immune response to infection and potentially leads to life-threatening organ dysfunction, which is often seen in serious Covid-19 patients. Disulfiram (DSF), an old drug that has been used to treat alcohol addiction for decades, has recently been identified as a potent inhibitor of the gasdermin D (GSDMD)-induced pore formation that causes pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release. Therefore, DSF represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities that acts by neutralizing circulating endotoxins and activating cellular responses. In addition, LF has been well exploited as a drug nanocarrier and targeting ligands. In this study, we developed a DSF-LF nanoparticulate system (DSF-LF NP) for combining the immunosuppressive activities of both DSF and LF. DSF-LF NPs could effectively block pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages. Treatment with DSF-LF NPs showed remarkable therapeutic effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy was also applied to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), and substantial treatment efficacy was achieved in a murine colitis model. The underlying mode of action of these DSF-LF-NPs may contribute to efficiently suppressing macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and ameliorating the complications caused by sepsis and UC. As macrophage pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in inflammation, this safe and effective biomimetic nanomedicine may offer a versatile therapeutic strategy for treating various inflammatory diseases by repurposing DSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Disulfiram/pharmacokinetics , Lactoferrin , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/pharmacology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374308

ABSTRACT

Intercellular communication mediated by cytokines is critical to the development of immune responses, particularly in the context of infectious and inflammatory diseases. By releasing these small molecular weight peptides, the source cells can influence numerous intracellular processes in the target cells, including the secretion of other cytokines downstream. However, there are no readily available bioinformatic resources that can model cytokine-cytokine interactions. In this effort, we built a communication map between major tissues and blood cells that reveals how cytokine-mediated intercellular networks form during homeostatic conditions. We collated the most prevalent cytokines from the literature and assigned the proteins and their corresponding receptors to source tissue and blood cell types based on enriched consensus RNA-Seq data from the Human Protein Atlas database. To assign more confidence to the interactions, we integrated the literature information on cell-cytokine interactions from two systems of immunology databases, immuneXpresso and ImmunoGlobe. From the collated information, we defined two metanetworks: a cell-cell communication network connected by cytokines; and a cytokine-cytokine interaction network depicting the potential ways in which cytokines can affect the activity of each other. Using expression data from disease states, we then applied this resource to reveal perturbations in cytokine-mediated intercellular signalling in inflammatory and infectious diseases (ulcerative colitis and COVID-19, respectively). For ulcerative colitis, with CytokineLink, we demonstrated a significant rewiring of cytokine-mediated intercellular communication between non-inflamed and inflamed colonic tissues. For COVID-19, we were able to identify cell types and cytokine interactions following SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting important cytokine interactions that might contribute to severe illness in a subgroup of patients. Such findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, cytokine-targeted therapeutic strategies. CytokineLink is freely available for the scientific community through the NDEx platform and the project github repository.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Cell Communication , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Signal Transduction
5.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(12): 1539-1545, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260397

ABSTRACT

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines. With the aim of increasing awareness about the key role of immunization in the management of patients with IBD, the present review examines the existing literature relating to the main vaccinations and their application in these patients. We also summarize current evidence in order to provide clinicians with an easy source of reference for the principal recommendations for prevention of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. In addition, the recommendations about traveling for IBD patients are briefly explored. Lastly, since it is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of recommendations on vaccination, we recommend implementing educational programs to ensure compliance with current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gastroenterology/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 64, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive and anti-cytokine treatment may have a protective effect for patients with COVID-19. Understanding the immune cell states shared between COVID-19 and other inflammatory diseases with established therapies may help nominate immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: To identify cellular phenotypes that may be shared across tissues affected by disparate inflammatory diseases, we developed a meta-analysis and integration pipeline that models and removes the effects of technology, tissue of origin, and donor that confound cell-type identification. Using this approach, we integrated > 300,000 single-cell transcriptomic profiles from COVID-19-affected lungs and tissues from healthy subjects and patients with five inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and interstitial lung disease. We tested the association of shared immune states with severe/inflamed status compared to healthy control using mixed-effects modeling. To define environmental factors within these tissues that shape shared macrophage phenotypes, we stimulated human blood-derived macrophages with defined combinations of inflammatory factors, emphasizing in particular antiviral interferons IFN-beta (IFN-ß) and IFN-gamma (IFN-γ), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF. RESULTS: We built an immune cell reference consisting of > 300,000 single-cell profiles from 125 healthy or disease-affected donors from COVID-19 and five inflammatory diseases. We observed a CXCL10+ CCL2+ inflammatory macrophage state that is shared and strikingly abundant in severe COVID-19 bronchoalveolar lavage samples, inflamed RA synovium, inflamed CD ileum, and UC colon. These cells exhibited a distinct arrangement of pro-inflammatory and interferon response genes, including elevated levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, CCL2, CCL3, GBP1, STAT1, and IL1B. Further, we found this macrophage phenotype is induced upon co-stimulation by IFN-γ and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Our integrative analysis identified immune cell states shared across inflamed tissues affected by inflammatory diseases and COVID-19. Our study supports a key role for IFN-γ together with TNF-α in driving an abundant inflammatory macrophage phenotype in severe COVID-19-affected lungs, as well as inflamed RA synovium, CD ileum, and UC colon, which may be targeted by existing immunomodulatory therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colon/immunology , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Phenotype , RNA-Seq
8.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(6): 665-678, 2020 Dec 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067799

ABSTRACT

The "lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related" is one of the classical theories in traditional Chinese medicine, which indicates a close correlation between the lung and large intestine in physiology and pathology, and plays a pivotal role in guiding the treatment of the lung and bowel diseases. Modern medicine has revealed some connections between the lung and large intestine in tissue origin and mucosal immunity, and preliminarily illuminated the material basis and possible regulatory mechanism of the theory. Recently, this theory has been applied to guide the treatment of refractory lung and intestine diseases such as COVID-19 and ulcerative colitis and has obtained reliable efficacy. Existing research results show that the anatomical homogeneity of lung and large intestine promotes the correlation between lung-bowel mucosal immunity, and mucosal immunity and migration and homing of innate lymphocytes are one of the physiological and pathological mechanisms for lung and large intestine to share. Under the guidance of this theory, Chinese medicines with heat-clearing and detoxifying or tonic effects are commonly used in the treatment of the lung and intestinal diseases by regulating lung-bowel mucosal immunity and they can be candidate drugs to treat lung/intestinal diseases simultaneously. However, the existing studies on immune regulation are mainly focused on the expression levels of sIgA and cytokines, as well as the changes in the number of immune cells such as innate lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. While the following aspects need further investigation: the airway/intestinal mucous hypersecretion, the functional changes of pulmonary and intestinal mucosal barrier immune cells, the dynamic process of lung/intestinal mucosal immune interaction, the intervention effect of local pulmonary/intestinal microecology, the correlation and biological basis between the heat-clearing and detoxifying effect and the tonic effect, and its regulation of pulmonary/intestinal mucosal immunity. In this paper, we try to analyze the internal relationship between lung and intestine related diseases from the point of view of the common mucosal immune system of lung and intestine, and summarize the characteristics and rules of traditional Chinese medicine compound and its active ingredients, which have regulatory effect on lung and intestine mucosal immune system, so as to further explain the theoretical connotation of "lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related" and provide reference for the research and development of drugs for related diseases.


Subject(s)
Intestine, Large/immunology , Lung/immunology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Humans
9.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 443-447, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057900

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) might be determined by certain comorbidities (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases) and advanced age. Because the impact of immunosuppression on disease severity is not entirely clear, management of patients under immunosuppressive treatment remains controversial. Six cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with COVID-19 on immunosuppressive medication are presented. The aim of this study was to describe patients' clinical manifestation and chronologic development of virus-specific antibodies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection before and after restart with immunosuppressive/biological therapy as an indicator for a specific immune response. All patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RNA with PCR, were in clinical remission prior to COVID-19 and only one patient continued his immunosuppressive treatment during the COVID-19 infection. Initial symptoms of COVID-19 were pyrexia, diarrhea, cephalea, and dysgeusia and anosmia. No patient needed admission to hospital or ICU. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody development was described to be late in three of the six patients. Late antibody development seems to be more frequent in older patients and in patients with combined immunosuppressive treatment. In this scenario, SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing could be useful prior to restarting immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4191-4196, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID19 evolved rapidly into a global pandemic, forcing hospitals, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral units, to change their practices to ensure quality of care. AIMS: To describe the clinical outcomes and the fulfilment of the treatment schedule of patients with IBD treated with biological agents in a single-center of a red-zone of the pandemic, and to report the patients' perceptions about COVID-19 and the measures adopted at our center. METHODS: Therapeutic adherence and clinical outcomes were collected for all patients undergoing treatment with intravenous biologicals and subcutaneous biologicals at our center. A telephone survey was also performed to assess these patients' perceptions of the COVID pandemic and the related measures adopted at their IBD unit. RESULTS: A total of 234 patients were included (117 on intravenous and 117 on subcutaneous biologicals). Only 10% of patients postponed intravenous infusions intentionally and 5% postponed the collection of subcutaneous biologicals at the hospital pharmacy. Only five confirmed COVID-19 cases were registered (2.1%), all of them of mild severity. One hundred and fifty-five patients participated in the survey (77 on intravenous and 78 on subcutaneous drugs). Fear of going to the hospital was the most common reason for postponing biological administrations. Among those on combination therapy, only 7% admitted to have withdrawn immunosuppressants. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to intravenous and subcutaneous biological therapies during the pandemic was high in a single-center cohort of IBD patients even though the cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 was low.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Medication Adherence , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fear , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 809-822.e7, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in small bowel (SB). Our aim was to identify factors influencing intestinal ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) controls. METHODS: Using bulk RNA sequencing or microarray transcriptomics from tissue samples (4 SB and 2 colonic cohorts; n = 495; n = 387 UC; n = 94 non-IBD), we analyzed the relationship between ACE2 with demographics and disease activity and prognosis. We examined the outcome of anti-tumor necrosis factor and anti-interleukin-12/interleukin-23 treatment on SB and colonic ACE2 expression in 3 clinical trials. Univariate and multivariate regression models were fitted. RESULTS: ACE2 levels were consistently reduced in SB CD and elevated in colonic UC compared with non-IBD controls. Elevated SB ACE2 was also associated with demographic features (age and elevated body mass index) associated with poor coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes. Within CD, SB ACE2 was reduced in patients subsequently developing complicated disease. Within UC, colonic ACE2 was elevated in active disease and in patients subsequently requiring anti-tumor necrosis factor rescue therapy. SB and colonic ACE2 expression in active CD and UC were restored by anti-cytokine therapy, most notably in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced SB but elevated colonic ACE2 levels in IBD are associated with inflammation and severe disease, but normalized after anti-cytokine therapy, suggesting compartmentalization of ACE2-related biology in SB and colonic inflammation. The restoration of ACE2 expression with anti-cytokine therapy might be important in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and potentially explain reports of reduced morbidity from coronavirus disease 2019 in IBD patients treated with anti-cytokines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Intestines/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Colitis, Ulcerative/enzymology , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/enzymology , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Intestines/enzymology , Intestines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , North America , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Young Adult
12.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977281
13.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(3): 485-498, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are considered immunosuppressed, but do not seem more vulnerable for COVID-19. Nevertheless, intestinal inflammation has shown to be an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of intestinal inflammation on the viral intestinal entry mechanisms, including ACE2, in IBD. METHODS: We collected inflamed and uninflamed mucosal biopsies from Crohn's disease [CD] [n = 193] and ulcerative colitis [UC] [n = 158] patients, and from 51 matched non-IBD controls for RNA sequencing, differential gene expression, and co-expression analysis. Organoids from UC patients were subjected to an inflammatory mix and processed for RNA sequencing. Transmural ileal biopsies were processed for single-cell [sc] sequencing. Publicly available colonic sc-RNA sequencing data, and microarrays from tissue pre/post anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] therapy, were analysed. RESULTS: In inflamed CD ileum, ACE2 was significantly decreased compared with control ileum [p = 4.6E-07], whereas colonic ACE2 was higher in inflamed colon of CD/UC compared with control [p = 8.3E-03; p = 1.9E-03]. Sc-RNA sequencing confirmed this ACE2 dysregulation and exclusive epithelial ACE2 expression. Network analyses highlighted HNF4A as key regulator of ileal ACE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon regulating factors regulated colonic ACE2. Inflammatory stimuli upregulated ACE2 in UC organoids [p = 1.7E-02], but not in non-IBD controls [p = 9.1E-01]. Anti-TNF therapy restored colonic ACE2 regulation in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal inflammation alters SARS-CoV-2 coreceptors in the intestine, with opposing dysregulations in ileum and colon. HNF4A, an IBD susceptibility gene, seems an important upstream regulator of ACE2 in ileum, whereas interferon signalling might dominate in colon.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Crohn Disease , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 , Ileum , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/virology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Crohn Disease/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/genetics , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/immunology , Humans , Ileum/immunology , Ileum/pathology , Ileum/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis
15.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(9): 1334-1336, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15707

ABSTRACT

Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], the main inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] in humans, are chronic, immune-inflammatory diseases, the pathogenesis of which suggests a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. These disabling conditions affect millions of individuals and, together with the drugs used to treat them, can put patients at risk of developing complications and other conditions. This is particularly relevant today, as coronavirus disease [Covid-19] has rapidly spread from China to countries where IBD are more prevalent, and there is convincing evidence that Covid-19-mediated morbidity and mortality are higher in subjects with comorbidities. The primary objectives of this Viewpoint are to provide a focused overview of the factors and mechanisms by which the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infects cells and to illustrate the link between such determinants and intestinal inflammation. We also provide clues about the reasons why the overall IBD population might have no increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlight the potential of cytokine blockers, used to treat IBD patients, to prevent Covid-driven pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Coronavirus Infections , Crohn Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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