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1.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(41): 1-118, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are a mainstay of the treatment of moderately severe relapses of ulcerative colitis, yet almost 50% of patients do not respond fully to these and risk prolonged steroid use and side effects. There is a lack of clarity about the definitions of steroid resistance, the optimum choice of treatment, and patient and health-care professional treatment preferences. OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of this research was to understand how steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis is managed in adult secondary care and how current practice compares with patient and health-care professional preferences. DESIGN: A mixed-methods study, including an online survey, qualitative interviews and discrete choice experiments. SETTING: NHS inflammatory bowel disease services in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with ulcerative colitis and health-care professionals treating inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: We carried out a survey of health-care professionals (n = 168), qualitative interviews with health-care professionals (n = 20) and patients (n = 33), discrete choice experiments with health-care professionals (n = 116) and patients (n = 115), and a multistakeholder workshop (n = 9). The interviews with and survey of health-care professionals showed that most health-care professionals define steroid resistance as an incomplete response to 40 mg per day of prednisolone after 2 weeks. The survey also found that anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs (particularly infliximab) are the most frequently offered drugs across most steroid-resistant (and steroid-dependent) patient scenarios, but they are less frequently offered to thiopurine-naive patients. Patient interviews identified several factors influencing their treatment choices, including effectiveness of treatment, recommendations from health-care professionals, route of administration and side effects. Over time, depending on the severity and duration of symptoms and, crucially, as medical treatment options become exhausted, patients are willing to try alternative treatments and, eventually, to undergo surgery. The discrete choice experiments found that the probability of remission and of side effects strongly influences the treatment choices of both patients and health-care professionals. Patients are less likely to choose a treatment that takes longer to improve symptoms. Health-care professionals are willing to make difficult compromises by tolerating greater safety risks in exchange for therapeutic benefits. The treatments ranked most positively by patients were infliximab and tofacitinib (each preferred by 38% of patients), and the predicted probability of uptake by health-care professionals was greatest for infliximab (62%). LIMITATIONS: The survey and the discrete choice experiments with patients and health-care professionals are limited by their relatively small sample sizes. The qualitative studies are subject to selection bias. The timing of the different substudies, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, is a potential limitation. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified factors influencing treatment decisions for steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis and the characteristics to consider when choosing treatments to evaluate in future randomised controlled trials. The findings may be used to improve discussions between patients and health-care professionals when they review treatment options for steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. FUTURE WORK: This research highlights the need for consensus work to establish an agreed definition of steroid resistance in ulcerative colitis and a greater understanding of the optimal use of tofacitinib and surgery for this patient group. A randomised controlled trial comparing infliximab with tofacitinib is also recommended. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Steroids are one of the main treatments for ulcerative colitis; however, steroids work well for only about 50% of people who take them. There are many other treatments that can be given when steroids do not work, but evidence is limited about how these treatments are best used. To carry out better research about the best treatment options and to improve clinical practice in the future, this study aimed to find out how adults with steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis are managed in hospital and why patients and health-care professionals prefer different treatments. The study combined various methods of research, including an online survey of health-care professionals (n = 168), interviews with health-care professionals (n = 20) and patients (n = 33), a survey of health-care professionals (n = 116) and patients (n = 115) to ask them about treatment preferences, and a multistakeholder workshop (n = 9). The interviews with and survey of health-care professionals found that most health-care professionals define steroid resistance as an incomplete response to 40 mg per day of prednisolone after 2 weeks. The survey also found that the most frequently offered drugs are anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs (particularly infliximab). Patient interviews found that several factors influenced treatment choices, including effectiveness of treament, guidance from health-care professionals, route of administration and side effects. Patients were willing to try alternative treatments and surgery over time. The survey found that a higher level of remission and a lower chance of side effects strongly influenced treatment choices. Patients are less likely to choose a treatment that takes longer to improve symptoms. Health-care professionals are willing to make difficult compromises by tolerating greater safety risks in exchange for therapeutic benefits. Infliximab and tofacitinib were ranked most positively by patients, and the predicted uptake by health-care professionals was greatest for infliximab. The results of this study help improve understanding of why people choose certain treatments, improve decision-making in partnership and inform the design of future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adult , Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Patient Preference , Pandemics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(6): e76-e77, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853079

ABSTRACT

A 47-year-old woman developed a de novo occurrence of Crohn's disease after coronavirus disease 2019. This is an unusual occurrence and suggests that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could trigger inflammatory bowel disease in predisposed people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/surgery , Humans
3.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(3): 685-691, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which remains highly debated. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2015-2017. Patients with ICD9/10CM codes for Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and CMV colitis were included in the study. The primary outcome was the odds of CMV colitis in patients with IBD compared to patients without IBD. Secondary outcomes were differences in inpatient morbidity, mortality, resource utilization, colectomy rates, hospital length of stay (LOS), and inflation-adjusted total hospitalization costs. RESULTS: A total of 992,445 patients with IBD were identified, out of which 520 (0.05%) had associated CMV colitis. Patients with IBD had significantly higher odds of CMV colitis compared to patients without IBD (aOR: 19.76, p < 0.01), having an even greater association with UC (aOR: 31.13, p < 0.01). CMV colitis in patients with CD was associated with a significant increase in odds of mortality, shock, and ICU stay, while patients with UC had higher odds of colectomy. The patients with IBD and CMV colitis had higher odds of acute kidney injury, multiorgan failure, markedly increased additional hospital costs, and LOS compared to patients with IBD and no CMV colitis. CONCLUSION: IBD has a significant association with CMV colitis, and the presence of CMV colitis in patients with IBD was associated with higher mortality, morbidity, and hospital costs. Prospectively designed studies may better elucidate the risk factors and impact of CMV colitis on patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies
4.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(5): 1437-1442, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293460

ABSTRACT

We report a 60-year-old male who was transferred to our hospital for the operation because of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). He was diagnosed to be infected with COVID-19 for SARS-CoV-2 PCR test positive at the time of transfer. We determined emergency operation because his general condition was poor such as malnutrition and ADL decline due to exacerbation of UC and air embolization by central venous catheter removal. He underwent subtotal colectomy with a sigmoid mucous fistula and ileostomy. He was well postoperatively. This is a first case report in Japan who underwent an operation for UC with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 271-281, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence to support safe and effective management of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to identify alterations to established conventional evidence-based management of acute severe ulcerative colitis during the early COVID-19 pandemic, the effect on outcomes, and any associations with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: The PROTECT-ASUC study was a multicentre, observational, case-control study in 60 acute secondary care hospitals throughout the UK. We included adults (≥18 years) with either ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified, who presented with acute severe ulcerative colitis and fulfilled the Truelove and Witts criteria. Cases and controls were identified as either admitted or managed in emergency ambulatory care settings between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period cohort), or between Jan 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019 (historical control cohort), respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or colectomy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04411784. FINDINGS: We included 782 patients (398 in the pandemic period cohort and 384 in the historical control cohort) who met the Truelove and Witts criteria for acute severe ulcerative colitis. The proportion of patients receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or surgery was higher during the pandemic period than in the historical period (217 [55%] of 393 patients vs 159 [42%] of 380 patients; p=0·00024) and the time to rescue therapy was shorter in the pandemic cohort than in the historical cohort (p=0·0026). This difference was driven by a greater use of rescue and primary induction therapies with biologicals, ciclosporin, or tofacitinib in the COVID-19 pandemic period cohort than in the historical control period cohort (177 [46%] of 387 patients in the COVID-19 cohort vs 134 [36%] of 373 patients in the historical cohort; p=0·0064). During the pandemic, more patients received ambulatory (outpatient) intravenous steroids (51 [13%] of 385 patients vs 19 [5%] of 360 patients; p=0·00023). Fewer patients received thiopurines (29 [7%] of 398 patients vs 46 [12%] of 384; p=0·029) and 5-aminosalicylic acids (67 [17%] of 398 patients vs 98 [26%] of 384; p=0·0037) during the pandemic than in the historical control period. Colectomy rates were similar between the pandemic and historical control groups (64 [16%] of 389 vs 50 [13%] of 375; p=0·26); however, laparoscopic surgery was less frequently performed during the pandemic period (34 [53%] of 64] vs 38 [76%] of 50; p=0·018). Five (2%) of 253 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospital treatment. Two (2%) of 103 patients re-tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the 3-month follow-up were positive 5 days and 12 days, respectively, after discharge from index admission. Both recovered without serious outcomes. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic altered practice patterns of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the management of acute severe ulcerative colitis but was associated with similar outcomes to a historical cohort. Despite continued use of high-dose corticosteroids and biologicals, the incidence of COVID-19 within 3 months was low and not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colonoscopy , Acute Disease , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
6.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724113

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6, has been used to treat cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Acute ulcerative bowel disease has been only rarely documented in patients treated for rheumatological conditions. The gastrointestinal side effects seen when used in the context of COVID-19 are unknown. We present a case of COVID-19 CRS in which acute terminal ileum and perforated caecal ulceration evolved after tocilizumab exposure. We raise awareness of a possible causal relationship between even a single dose of tocilizumab and gut ulceration in patients with COVID-19. Any such drug enteropathy relationship requires watchful monitoring during upcoming trials of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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