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1.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 48-58, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155751

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. RESULTADOS: De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. CONCLUSIONES: Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión  zoonótica o entre especie.


Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. Objetivo. Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. Resultados. De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. Conclusiones. Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión zoonótica o entre especie.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Colombia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 14-18, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145056

ABSTRACT

Durante dos años y medio, tanto en Colombia como en el resto del mundo, hemos enfrentado la pandemia generada por el SARS-CoV-2, agudizando los múltiples problemas de salud pública que venían cursando a manera de sindemias. Tal es el caso de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles asociadas, entre otros factores, a los malos hábitos alimenticios, especialmente por el gran consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y bebidas azucaradas. En julio del 2021, se aprobó la Ley 2120, por medio de la cual se adoptaron medidas para fomentar entornos alimentarios saludables. Entre estas medidas, también se promueve que los alimentos empacados, procesados y que afectan negativamente la salud humana, tengan un sello que identifique sus componentes y valor nutricional para informar a los consumidores sobre el producto que están comprando o consumiendo. Entre las enfermedades más prevalentes en Colombia que afectan la salud bucal, se encuentran las caries y las periodontitis, ambas con factores de riesgo comunes con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Dados sus costos y prevalencia, dichas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles resultan primordiales desde un enfoque de gestión del riesgo en salud pública, siendo, quizá, su gravedad mayor durante la pandemia generada por el SARS CoV-2. Asimismo, se especula que la población confinada pudo llegar a consumir más comida chatarra durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en comparación con otros períodos, además, porque en aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, el confinamiento obligado se asocia con mayor sedentarismo y con un menor número de controles médicos regulares, asuntos que se han reportado previamente. La promulgación de la ley de comida chatarra no va a cambiar los hábitos de alimentación de los colombianos "de la noche a la mañana" y, por esto, se necesita con urgencia implementar procesos de educación y sensibilización frente a los efectos adversos de los alimentos procesados y ultraprocesados en la salud.


Durante dos años y medio, tanto en Colombia como en el resto del mundo, hemos enfrentado la pandemia generada por el SARS-CoV-2, agudizando los múltiples problemas de salud pública que venían cursando a manera de sindemias. Tal es el caso de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles asociadas, entre otros factores, a los malos hábitos alimenticios, especialmente por el gran consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y bebidas azucaradas. En julio del 2021, se aprobó la Ley 2120, por medio de la cual se adoptaron medidas para fomentar entornos alimentarios saludables. Entre estas medidas, también se promueve que los alimentos empacados, procesados y que afectan negativamente la salud humana, tengan un sello que identifique sus componentes y valor nutricional para informar a los consumidores sobre el producto que están comprando o consumiendo. Entre las enfermedades más prevalentes en Colombia que afectan la salud bucal, se encuentran las caries y las periodontitis, ambas con factores de riesgo comunes con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Dados sus costos y prevalencia, dichas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles resultan primordiales desde un enfoque de gestión del riesgo en salud pública, siendo, quizá, su gravedad mayor durante la pandemia generada por el SARS CoV-2. Asimismo, se especula que la población confinada pudo llegar a consumir más comida chatarra durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en comparación con otros períodos, además, porque en aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, el confinamiento obligado se asocia con mayor sedentarismo y con un menor número de controles médicos regulares, asuntos que se han reportado previamente. La promulgación de la ley de comida chatarra no va a cambiar los hábitos de alimentación de los colombianos "de la noche a la mañana" y, por esto, se necesita con urgencia implementar procesos de educación y sensibilización frente a los efectos adversos de los alimentos procesados y ultraprocesados en la salud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Colombia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 41: e2021267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and the different phenotypes of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to COVID-19 and to evaluate the risk conditions that favored a greater severity of the disease during a 12-month period at a pediatric reference hospital in Colombia. METHODS: A 12-month retrospective observational study of children under the age of 18 years who met criteria for MIS-C. RESULTS: A total of 28 children presented MIS-C criteria. The median age was 7 years. Other than fever (100%) (onset 4 days prior to admission), the most frequent clinical features were gastrointestinal (86%) and mucocutaneous (61%). Notably, 14 (50%) children had Kawasaki-like symptoms. The most frequent echocardiographic abnormalities were pericardial effusion (64%), valvular involvement (68%), ventricular dysfunction (39%), and coronary artery abnormalities (29%). In addition, 75% had lymphopenia. All had at least one abnormal coagulation test. Most received intravenous immunoglobulin (89%), glucocorticoids (82%), vasopressors (54%), and antibiotics (64%). Notably, 61% had a more severe form of the disease and were admitted to an intensive care unit (median 4 days, mean 6 days); the severity predictors were patients with the inflammatory/MIS-C phenotype (OR 26.5; 95%CI 1.40-503.7; p=0.029) and rash (OR 14.7; 95%CI 1.2-178.7; p=0.034). Two patients had macrophage activation syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery abnormalities, ventricular dysfunction, and intensive care unit admission were frequent, which needs to highlight the importance of early clinical suspicion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Colombia/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116191

ABSTRACT

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is a respiratory disease caused by a highly variable Gammacoronavirus, which generates a negative impact on poultry health worldwide. GI-11 and GI-16 lineages have been identified in South America based on Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) partial S1 sequences. However, full genome sequence information is limited. In this study we report, for the first time, the whole-genome sequence of IBV from Colombia. Seven IBV isolates obtained during 2012 and 2013 from farms with respiratory disease compatible with IB were selected and the complete genome sequence was obtained by NGS. According to S1 sequence phylogenetic analysis, six isolates belong to lineage GI-1 and one to lineage GVI-1. When whole genome was analyzed, five isolates were related to the vaccine strain Ma5 2016 and two showed mosaic genomes. Results from complete S1 sequence analysis provides further support for the hypothesis that GVI-1, considered a geographically confined lineage in Asia, could have originated in Colombia. Complete genome information reported in this research allow a deeper understanding of the phylogenetic evolution of variants and the recombination events between strains that are circulating worldwide, contributing to the knowledge of coronavirus in Latin America and the world.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Phylogeny , Colombia/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Chickens , Genome, Viral
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114802

ABSTRACT

During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several environmental factors have influenced activities and protection policy measures in cities. This has had a major effect on climate change and global environmental catastrophe. In many countries, the strategy of closing various activities such as tourism and industrial production stopped normal life, transportation, etc. This closure has a positive impact on the environment. However, the massive use of masks and personal protection could significantly increase pollution worldwide. The impact on the environment needs to be calculated to have information for public health actions. In this study, we present a first overview of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on some environmental matrices in Bogotá, Colombia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113164

ABSTRACT

Spatial expansions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) are increasing the risk of lethal infections in livestock and humans in Latin America. Identifying the drivers of these expansions could improve current approaches to surveillance and prevention. We aimed to identify if VBR spatial expansions are occurring in Colombia and test factors associated with these expansions. We analyzed 2336 VBR outbreaks in livestock reported to the National Animal Health Agency (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA) affecting 297 municipalities from 2000-2019. The area affected by VBR changed through time and was correlated to the reported number of outbreaks each year. Consistent with spatial expansions, some municipalities reported VBR outbreaks for the first time each year and nearly half of the estimated infected area in 2010-2019 did not report outbreaks in the previous decade. However, the number of newly infected municipalities decreased between 2000-2019, suggesting decelerating spatial expansions. Municipalities infected later had lower cattle populations and were located further from the local reporting offices of the ICA. Reducing the VBR burden in Colombia requires improving vaccination coverage in both endemic and newly infected areas while improving surveillance capacity in increasingly remote areas with lower cattle populations where rabies is emerging.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Rabies virus , Rabies , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Colombia/epidemiology , Livestock
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 682, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented physical and mental burden on healthcare workers who are frequently at high risk of infection, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anxiety, depression, and stress, as well as changes in daily and occupational activities among healthcare professionals due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Colombia. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2021. The survey incorporated validated mental health tools such as the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Perceived Stress Scale-10. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with severe mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1345 healthcare workers the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress were 75.61, 59.18, and 53.09%, respectively. Anxiety (OR:1.44; 95%CI:1.16-1.8), depression (OR:1.74; 95%CI:1.27-2.37), and stress (OR:1.51; 95%CI:1.18-1.94) were more frequent in women, and individuals who expressed fear of a negative outcome (death, sequelae) (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.60-3.25), (OR:1.49; 95%CI:1.03-2.16) and (OR:2.36; 95%CI:1.69-3.29) respectively. Age was negatively associated with anxiety (OR:0.98; 95%CI:0.98-0.99), stress (OR:0.98; 95%CI:0.97-0.99), and depression (OR:0.97; 95% CI:0.96-0.98). Reduction in consultations and surgeries (OR:1.01; 95%CI:1.0-1.01) was positively associated with anxiety. Due to the pandemic, most specialists expected to incorporate drastic long-term (> 1 year) changes in their clinical setting and daily activities. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress is higher among Colombian healthcare workers compared to previous reports. Further research regarding these psychological outcomes is needed to achieve early mental health intervention strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe, Ethical Committee Registration ID: CCEI-12992-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Colombia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology
8.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7073-7086, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106123

ABSTRACT

This paper considers the problem of patient scheduling and capacity planning for the vaccination process during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed solution is based on a non-linear mathematical modeling approach representing the dynamics of an open Jackson Network and a Generalized Network. To test these models, we proposed three objective functions and analyzed different configurations of the process corresponding to various levels of the models' parameters as well as the conditions present in the case study. To assess the computational performance of the models, we also experimented with larger instances in terms of number of steps or stations used and number of patients scheduled. The computational results show how parameters such as the minimum percentage of patients served, the maximum occupation allowed per station and the objective functions used have an impact on the configuration of the process. The proposed approach can support the decision-making process in vaccination centers to efficiently assign human and material resources to maximize the number of patients vaccinated while ensuring reasonable waiting times, number of patients in queue and servers' utilization rates, which in turn are key to avoid overcrowding and other negative conditions in the system that could increase the risk of infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colombia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
9.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 73-77, 2021 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 90% of children infected with COVID-19 worldwide developed mild to moderate disease. In Colombia, during 2020, COVID-19 infections in children stayed below 9.2% of the total cases, with no trends for age group or sex. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute respiratory symptoms and COVID-19 in children from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia during the second semester of 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in over 5,000 scholar children. Antecedents and use of health services were informed. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: A total of 151.470 persons per day accounting for an IR of 157,8 per 100,000 people; almost three times the rate reported by the official surveillance system in the city. CONCLUSION: A lack of diagnosis and consultation in children was found compared to the general population. Further research is needed to elucidate the true burden of the disease in children.


Introducción. Más del 90% de los niños infectados con COVID-19 en el mundo, desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada. En Colombia, durante el 2020, la infección del COVID-19 en niños se mantuvo por debajo de 9,2 % del total de los casos sin tendencias por grupo de edad o sexo. Objetivo. Estimar la incidencia de síntomas respiratorios agudos y COVID19 en niños de escuelas públicas en Bogotá (Colombia) durante el segundo semestre de 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una encuesta telefónica en más de 5.000 escolares. Se recolectó información de antecedentes médicos y uso de servicios de salud. La información obtenida se describió mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Se contabilizó un total de 151.470 personas al día para una tasa de incidencia de 157,8 en 100.000 personas, casi tres veces la tasa reportada por el sistema de vigilancia oficial de la ciudad. Conclusión. Se encontraron deficiencias en el diagnóstico y consulta de los niños, al compararlos con la población general. Se necesita más investigación para dilucidar la verdadera carga de la enfermedad en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Colombia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Schools
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 101-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. AS and COPD patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify a major depressive disorder risk. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients diagnosed with AS or COPD aged 18 to 69 (M=60.4, SD=17.6) participated. The risk of major depression was assessed using the PHQ-9 sent online after telephone contact with the participants. 30.7% of the patients during the last month reported a risk of major depression, and it was associated with a history of major depressive disorder (OR=4.39, 95% CI 1.53-12.67) and medical comorbidity (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: The depression risk is associated with a history of depressive disorder and medical comorbidity in patients with AS and COPD. Medical history is the leading risk factor for depression during confinement. It is recommended to carry out studies with many participants and study other variables that may mediate said associations during confinement by SAR-CoV-2 in the Colombian Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Young Adult
11.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 73(2): 194-202, 2022 06 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091184

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of symptoms of depression and worry affecting pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Descriptive crosssectional study that included pregnant women with access to a technological device (mobile phone, computer or tablet) and Internet connection, living in Antioquia, Colombia. Women with literary and technological illiteracy were excluded. An online survey was conducted to gather information about sociodemographic and baseline clinical conditions and the main concerns caused by the pandemic. Additionally, the Edinburg Depression Scale (EPDS) was applied in order to measure the risk of depression. The Jamovi software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: Overall, 345 pregnant women between 15 and 44 years of age were surveyed, with the finding of a 30.4 % prevalence of the risk of depression. Domestic violence and absence of a support network were identified in 4.9 % and 8.4 % of cases. The major sources of worry were the fear of being separated from their babies on the day of birth, the possibility of having to be alone during childbirth, and the fear of contagion due to potential effects on the fetus or the newborn. Conclusions: Depression symptoms have been frequent among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to inquire about stress factors and depression symptoms during prenatal visits, childbirth and the postpartum period. Additional local studies are needed to assess other mental health disorders that may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de los síntomas de depresión y las preocupaciones que afectaron a las gestantes durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, se incluyeron mujeres gestantes, con acceso a un medio tecnológico (celular, computador o tableta) y conectividad a internet, residentes en Antioquia, Colombia. Se excluyeron mujeres con analfabetismo literario y tecnológico. Se encuestaron, en línea, las condiciones sociodemográficas y clínicas basales y las principales preocupaciones generadas por la pandemia, además se aplicó la Escala de Depresión de Edimburgo (EPDS) para medir el riesgo de depresión. Se usó el software Jamovi para el procesamiento y análisis estadístico. Resultados: se encuestaron 345 mujeres gestantes de 15 a 44 años, se identificó una prevalencia de riesgo de depresión en 30,4 % de las mujeres encuestadas. Se identificó violencia intrafamiliar en el 4,9 % y ausencia de red de apoyo en el 8,4 %. Se encontraron como mayores preocupaciones temor a ser separadas del bebé el día del parto, la posibilidad de no tener acompañante durante el parto, y temor al contagio por los efectos en el bebé in útero o en el recién nacido. Conclusiones: los síntomas de depresión han sido frecuentes en las mujeres gestantes durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Es importante averiguar por factores de estrés y síntomas de depresión en el control prenatal, el parto y el postparto. Se requieren nuevos estudios locales que evalúen otros trastornos de salud mental que se hayan podido incrementar durante la pandemia por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence
12.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066557

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the vector of several arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. In 2015-16, Zika virus (ZIKV) had an outbreak in South America associated with prenatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This mosquito's viral transmission is influenced by microbiota abundance and diversity and its interactions with the vector. The conditions of cocirculation of these three arboviruses, failure in vector control due to insecticide resistance, limitations in dengue management during the COVID-19 pandemic, and lack of effective treatment or vaccines make it necessary to identify changes in mosquito midgut bacterial composition and predict its functions through the infection. Its study is fundamental because it generates knowledge for surveillance of transmission and the risk of outbreaks of these diseases at the local level. METHODS: Midgut bacterial compositions of females of Colombian Ae. aegypti populations were analyzed using DADA2 Pipeline, and their functions were predicted with PICRUSt2 analysis. These analyses were done under the condition of natural ZIKV infection and resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, alone and in combination. One-step RT-PCR determined the percentage of ZIKV-infected females. We also measured the susceptibility to the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin and evaluated the presence of the V1016I mutation in the sodium channel gene. RESULTS: We found high ZIKV infection rates in Ae. aegypti females from Colombian rural municipalities with deficient water supply, such as Honda with 63.6%. In the face of natural infection with an arbovirus such as Zika, the diversity between an infective and non-infective form was significantly different. Bacteria associated with a state of infection with ZIKV and lambda-cyhalothrin resistance were detected, such as the genus Bacteroides, which was related to functions of pathogenicity, antimicrobial resistance, and bioremediation of insecticides. We hypothesize that it is a vehicle for virus entry, as it is in human intestinal infections. On the other hand, Bello, the only mosquito population classified as susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, was associated with bacteria related to mucin degradation functions in the intestine, belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, with the genus Dorea being increased in ZIKV-infected females. The Serratia genus presented significantly decreased functions related to phenazine production, potentially associated with infection control, and control mechanism functions for host defense and quorum sensing. Additionally, Pseudomonas was the genus principally associated with functions of the degradation of insecticides related to tryptophan metabolism, ABC transporters with a two-component system, efflux pumps, and alginate synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota composition may be modulated by ZIKV infection and insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti Colombian populations. The condition of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin could be inducing a phenome of dysbiosis in field Ae. aegypti affecting the transmission of arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anti-Infective Agents , Arboviruses , COVID-19 , Dengue , Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Female , Humans , Zika Virus/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tryptophan , Mosquito Vectors , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Bacteria , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Phenazines , Mucins , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Alginates
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e054820, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053204

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with adherence to COVID-19 mitigation measures, related symptoms and testing, as well as pandemic-related income loss among Venezuelan refugee and migrant adults in urban and border areas of Colombia. DESIGN: Phone-based respondent-driven sampling SETTING: Bogotá and Norte de Santander, Colombia. PARTICIPANTS: 605 adult Venezuelan refugees and migrants residing in Bogotá (n=305) and Norte de Santander (n=300), who arrived in Colombia after 2014 and completed the survey in August and September 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Full COVID-19 compliance (vs incomplete or no compliance), any COVID-19-related symptoms (vs none) and income loss due to isolation measures in Colombia (vs no income change or increase in income). RESULTS: Older age was associated with lower odds of compliance with physical distancing measures (0.94, 0.90-0.99; p=0.01) for those in Bogotá. Nearly 15% of refugees and migrants in both locations (81 of 605) experienced at least one symptom consistent with COVID-19. Having a health condition was associated with higher odds of experiencing COVID-19-related symptoms in Bogotá (4.00, 1.22-13.06; p=0.02) and Norte de Santander (6.99, 1.95-24.99; p=0.003). Around 8% in both locations (48 of 605) were tested for COVID-19. Around 90% in both locations (537 of 605) had trouble earning an income after the introduction of isolation measures, and the median reported monthly income decreased by half in Bogotá and by 30% in Norte de Santander. A higher level of education (3.46, 1.02-11.75; p=0.05) was associated with higher odds of income loss among participants in Norte de Santander. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate high compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures, low testing rates and high pandemic-related income loss among Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Colombia. This study provides insights into a hard-to-reach refugee and migrant population in Colombia; additional study on the effects of the pandemic on hidden populations is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Biomedica ; 42(3): 492-507, 2022 09 02.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040363

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sexual violence is a public health problem included in political and social agendas worldwide. It is a medical emergency seen in health services, which are the main source of record-keeping by means of public health surveillance systems. Objective: To analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of victims of sex offenses and their offenders in the municipality of Envigado, Antioquia, between 2011 and 2020. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed all the sexual violence records reported in the Envigado Public Health Surveillance System for gender and intrafamilial violence (file code INS-875) during the 2011-2020 period. Results: A total of 807 cases of sexual violence were recorded between 2011 and 2020; 62.0% were cases of sexual abuse against persons under 18 years of age, and 82.3% of the victims were adolescent women suffering sexual violence exerted by relatives. The main aggressors were men (99.1%) with a median age of 26 years. Conclusion: Sexual violence has increased over time and in 2020, the year of population confinement due to COVID-19, the rates in women and in the life courses of early childhood, adolescence, and youth were the highest during the study period.


Introducción. La violencia sexual es un problema de salud pública inscrito en las agendas sociales y políticas a nivel global. Representa una urgencia médica que se atiende en los servicios de salud, lo que los convierte en la principal fuente de su registro en los sistemas de vigilancia en salud pública. Objetivo. Analizar las características sociodemográficas de las víctimas de violencia sexual y de sus victimarios en el municipio de Envigado, Antioquia, entre el 2011 y el 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal descriptivo a partir de todos los registros de violencia sexual notificados en el Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública de la violencia de género e intrafamiliar de Envigado (código de ficha INS-875), durante el periodo 2011-2020. Resultados. Se registraron 807 casos de violencia sexual entre 2011 y 2020; el 62,0 % correspondió a casos de abuso sexual a personas menores de 18 años; el 82,3 % de las víctimas estaba constituido por mujeres adolescentes agredidas por familiares; los principales agresores fueron hombres (99,1 %), con una mediana de edad 26 años. Conclusión. La violencia sexual es un problema en aumento; en el 2020, año del confinamiento poblacional por la Covid-19, las tasas en mujeres y durante la primera infancia, la adolescencia y la juventud, fueron las más altas del periodo de estudio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Criminals , Sex Offenses , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039417

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the cumulative incidence, prevalence, and seroconversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated factors among healthcare workers (HCWs) of a University Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. An ambispective cohort was established from March 2020 to February 2021. From November 2020 to February 2021, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured on two occasions 14-90 days apart to determine seroprevalence and seroconversion. We used multivariate log-binomial regression to evaluate factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 2,597 HCWs, the cumulative incidence of infection was 35.7%, and seroprevalence was 21.5%. A reduced risk of infection was observed among those aged 35-44 and ≥45 years (adjusted relative risks [aRRs], 0.84 and 0.83, respectively), physicians (aRR, 0.77), those wearing N95 respirators (aRR, 0.82) and working remotely (aRR, 0.74). Being overweight (aRR, 1.18) or obese (aRR, 1.24); being a nurse or nurse assistant (aRR, 1.20); working in the emergency room (aRR, 1.45), general wards (aRR, 1.45), intensive care unit (aRR, 1.34), or COVID-19 areas (aRR, 1.17); and close contact with COVID-19 cases (aRR, 1.47) increased the risk of infection. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study reflects the dynamics of the first year of the pandemic in Bogotá. A high burden of infection calls for strengthening prevention and screening measures for HCWs, focusing especially on those at high risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 253, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults in Colombia have seen a number of stressful life events - including the Colombian armed conflict, forced misplacement and recently COVID-19. These events likely have had and are having a substantial impact on people's mental health and well-being, whilst mental health care provision in Colombia is not sufficient and often access is limited and unaffordable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand the impact of stressful life events on the mental health of older adults living in Colombia, and co-produce, pilot, and evaluate a community-based mental health intervention in Turbo. METHODS: This 3-year international mixed-methods study comprises of three phases: Phase I will explore the impact of stressful life events on the mental health of older adults living in Colombia, and their mental health needs, via quantitative needs assessments and qualitative interviews and focus groups; Phase II will involve synthesising the findings from Phase I as well as conducting a systematic review and qualitative interviews with experts into implementing mental health interventions in LMICs to co-produce a community-based mental health intervention with older adults and local community group leaders and care providers; Phase III will involve the piloting and evaluation of the mental health intervention via quantitative and qualitative assessments. Co-production and public involvement underpin each element of this project. DISCUSSION: Appropriate mental health care is as important as physical health care, but this study also looks at how we might integrate these findings into community-level public health initiatives for application both within Colombia and more widely in both LMICs and more developed countries. This study protocol will act as a guide for the development and adaptation of psychosocial mental health interventions in different cultures and contexts.


Subject(s)
Health Services Needs and Demand , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological , Aged , Armed Conflicts/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Colombia/epidemiology , Focus Groups , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273324, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with sleep apnea, both central and obstructive, in Colombia between 2017 and 2021. METHODS: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems as search terms for sleep apnea, based on SISPRO, the Colombian national health registry. Stratification by gender and age groups was performed. We also generated data of the amount of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed. A map of prevalence by place of residency was performed. RESULTS: National records report 15200 cases of SA between 2017 and 2021, for an estimated prevalence of 21.1 cases by 100000 inhabitants in 2019 the year with the most cases (4769), being more frequent and in the 6 to 11 age group and in males, with a male to female ratio of 1.54:1. The number of cases declined in 2020 and 2021. The map showed a concentration of cases in the more developed departments of the country. DISCUSSION: This is the first approximation to a nation-wide prevalence of sleep apnea in Colombia which is lower to what is found in the literature worldwide, including studies performed in Latin America and in Colombia, this could reflect sub diagnosis and sub report. The fact that the highest prevalence was found in males and in the 6-11 age group is consistent with reports in literature. The decrease in cases in 2020 and 2021 could be related to the COVID-19 pandemic impact in sleep medicine services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Registries , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology
18.
Vaccine ; 40(35): 5095-5102, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000755

ABSTRACT

In 2015, one-dose universal varicella vaccination (UVV) was introduced in the Colombian National Immunization Program targeting children aged 12 months, expanding to a two-dose program in 2019. This study aimed to examine the effect of one-dose UVV on the burden of varicella in Colombia. A retrospective study was conducted using national databases to estimate incidence and mortality for the target (1-4 years old), non-target (less than 1 and 5 years and older) and overall (all age groups) populations from the pre-UVV period (January 2008-June 2015) to the post-UVV period (July 2015-December 2019). A time-series analyses with ARIMA modeling was used to project expected varicella incidence and mortality in the absence of UVV in the post-UVV period. UVV impact was estimated by comparing predicted and observed values, providing point estimates and prediction intervals (PI). Overall vaccination coverage rate was over 90 % from 2016-2019. Following UVV introduction, mean annual incidence rates reduced from 743.6 to 676.8 per 100,000 in the target population and from 203.2 to 198.1 per 100,000 in the overall population. Our study estimated a reduction in varicella incidence from 2017, with the highest reduction of 70.5 % (95 % PI: 78.2-54.2) and 54.8 % (95 % PI: 65.0-36.4) observed in 2019 for the target and the overall populations, respectively. The ARIMA model estimated UVV in Colombia to have prevented 198,236 varicella cases from 2015 to 2019. Mortality reduced in the overall population from 0.8 per 1,000,000 to 0.5 per 1,000,000 and from 1.3 per 1,000,000 to 0.5 per 1,000,000 in the target population, in the pre-UVV and post-UVV periods, respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Our study showed a significant reduction in varicella incidence after implementation of a one-dose UVV program in Colombia, increasing over time. Further assessment is needed to evaluate the impact of a two-dose UVV program in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
19.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S6): S585, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993616
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S6): S586-S590, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993610

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To quantify socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 mortality in Colombia and to assess the extent to which type of health insurance, comorbidity burden, area of residence, and ethnicity account for such inequalities. Methods. We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort of COVID-19 cases. We estimated the relative and slope indices of inequality (RII and SII) using survival models for all participants and stratified them by age and gender. We calculated the percentage reduction in RII and SII after adjustment for potentially relevant factors. Results. We identified significant inequalities for the whole cohort and by subgroups (age and gender). Inequalities were higher among younger adults and gradually decreased with age, going from RII of 5.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.25, 9.82) in participants younger than 25 years to RII of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.41, 1.58) in those aged 65 years and older. Type of health insurance was the most important factor, accounting for 20% and 59% of the relative and absolute inequalities, respectively. Conclusions. Significant socioeconomic inequalities exist in COVID-19 mortality in Colombia. Health insurance appears to be the main contributor to those inequalities, posing challenges for the design of public health strategies. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S6):S586-S590. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306637).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Colombia/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Insurance, Health , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
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