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1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542428

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing data showed that the lung epithelial cells from AEA-treated mice showed increased levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and tight junction proteins. MiSeq sequencing data on 16S RNA and LEfSe analysis demonstrated that SEB caused significant alterations in the microbiota, with increases in pathogenic bacteria in both the lungs and the gut, while treatment with AEA reversed this effect and induced beneficial bacteria. AEA treatment suppressed inflammation both in the lungs as well as gut-associated mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). AEA triggered several bacterial species that produced increased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Furthermore, administration of butyrate alone could attenuate SEB-mediated ARDS. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA treatment attenuates SEB-mediated ARDS by suppressing inflammation and preventing dysbiosis, both in the lungs and the gut, through the induction of AMPs, tight junction proteins, and SCFAs that stabilize the gut-lung microbial axis driving immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acids/therapeutic use , Endocannabinoids/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Animals , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , Cecum/pathology , Cell Separation , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Discriminant Analysis , Dysbiosis/complications , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Endocannabinoids/pharmacology , Enterotoxins , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects
2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(Supplement_2): S25-S32, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) undergo frequent endoscopic procedures, with visualization of the gastrointestinal mucosa central to treatment decision-making. Subsequently, a noninvasive alternative to optical colonoscopy (OC) would be welcomed. One such technology is capsule endoscopy, including the PillCam COLON 2 (PCC2), though research validating its use in ileocolonic CD is limited. This study aims to compare PCC2 with ileocolonoscopy (OC) in assessing mucosal CD through use of a standardized scoring system. METHODS: At an Australian tertiary hospital, same-day PCC2 and ileocolonoscopy results of 47 CD patients, with known nonstricturing disease, were prospectively collected and analyzed for correlation and agreement. Deidentified recordings were reported by a single expert gastroenterologist. Mucosal disease was quantified using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). The SES-CD results of paired endoscopic modalities were compared in total per bowel segment and per SES-CD variable. RESULTS: Of 47 PCC2 recordings, 68% were complete, fully assessing terminal ileum to rectum, and OC was complete in 89%. Correlation (r) between total SES-CD scores was strongest in the terminal ileum (r = 0.77, P < .001), with the SES-CD variable of "ulcer detection" showing the strongest agreement. The PCC2 (vs OC) identified additional ulcers in the terminal ileum; ascending, transverse, and descending colon; and rectum; scores were 5 (1), 5 (3), 1 (1), 2 (1), and 2 (2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PCC2 shows promise in assessing ileocolonic mucosa, especially in proximal bowel segments, with greater reach of visualization in the small bowel. Given the resource and safety considerations raised by the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, capsule endoscopy has particular significance.This article aims to contribute to the limited body of research surrounding the validity of capsule endoscopy technology in assessing ileocolonic mucosa in Crohn's Disease patients. In doing so, an alternative option for patients enduring frequent endoscopies is given potential.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopy/methods , Colon/diagnostic imaging , Colonoscopy/methods , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Ulcer/diagnostic imaging , Wound Healing , Australia , COVID-19 , Capsule Endoscopes , Colon/drug effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ulcer/drug therapy , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/physiology
3.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369745

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis and gut pathology in animal models and people. Butyrate-producing gut bacteria are decreased in hypertension. RNA-seq analysis of gut colonic organoids prepared from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was used to test the hypothesis that impaired interactions between the gut microbiome and gut epithelium are involved and that these would be remediated with butyrate supplementation. Gene expressions in immune responses including antigen presentation and antiviral pathways were decreased in the gut epithelium of the SHR in organoids and confirmed in vivo; these deficits were corrected by butyrate supplementation. Deficits in gene expression driving epithelial proliferation and differentiation were also observed in SHR. These findings highlight the importance of aligned interactions of the gut microbiome and gut immune responses to blood pressure homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Colon/microbiology , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Hypertension/microbiology , Animals , Butyrates/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Male , Organoids , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Transcriptome
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346513

ABSTRACT

Prunus mahaleb L. fruit has long been used in the production of traditional liqueurs. The fruit also displayed scavenging and reducing activity, in vitro. The present study focused on unravelling peripheral and central protective effects, antimicrobial but also anti-COVID-19 properties exerted by the water extract of P. mahaleb. Anti-inflammatory effects were studied in isolated mouse colons exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neuroprotection, measured as a blunting effect on hydrogen-peroxide-induced dopamine turnover, was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Antimicrobial effects were tested against different Gram+ and Gram- bacterial strains. Whereas anti-COVID-19 activity was studied in lung adenocarcinoma H1299 cells, where the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was measured after extract treatment. The bacteriostatic effects induced on Gram+ and Gram- strains, together with the inhibition of COX-2, TNFα, HIF1α, and VEGFA in the colon, suggest the potential of P. mahaleb water extract in contrasting the clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis. The inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced DOPAC/DA ratio indicates promising neuroprotective effects. Finally, the downregulation of the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in H1299 cells, suggests the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus entry in the human host. Overall, the results support the valorization of the local cultivation of P. mahaleb.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Colon/drug effects , Neuroprotection , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HCT116 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Prunus/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
5.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2227, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148855

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Covid-19 which was classified as a global pandemic in March 2020. The increasing global health and economic burden of SARS-CoV-2 has necessitated urgent investigations into the pathogenesis of disease and development of therapeutic and vaccination regimens. Human trials of vaccine and antiviral candidates have been undertaken, but basic pathogenetic studies are still required to inform these trials. Gaps in understanding of cellular infection by, and immunity to, SARS-CoV-2 mean additional models are required to assist in improved design of these therapeutics. Human organoids are three-dimensional models that contain multiple cell types and mimic human organs in ex vivo culture conditions. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been implicated in causing not only respiratory injury but also injury to other organs such as the brain, liver and kidneys. Consequently, a variety of different organoid models have been employed to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of disease due to SARS-CoV-2. Data on these models have not been systematically assembled. In this review, we highlight key findings from studies that have utilised different human organoid types to investigate the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, permissiveness, immune response, dysregulation of cellular functions, and potential antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Models, Biological , Organoids/immunology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques , Colon/drug effects , Colon/immunology , Colon/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/immunology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105548, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135540

ABSTRACT

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is triggered by a variety of agents, including Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB). Interestingly, a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19, also develop ARDS. In the absence of effective treatments, ARDS results in almost 40% mortality. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that resveratrol (RES), a stilbenoid, with potent anti-inflammatory properties can attenuate SEB-induced ARDS. In the current study, we investigated the role of RES-induced alterations in the gut and lung microbiota in the regulation of ARDS. Our studies revealed that SEB administration induced inflammatory cytokines, ARDS, and 100% mortality in C3H/HeJ mice. Additionally, SEB caused a significant increase in pathogenic Proteobacteria phylum and Propionibacterium acnes species in the lungs. In contrast, RES treatment attenuated SEB-mediated ARDS and mortality in mice, and significantly increased probiotic Actinobacteria phylum, Tenericutes phylum, and Lactobacillus reuteri species in both the colon and lungs. Colonic Microbiota Transplantation (CMT) from SEB-injected mice that were treated with RES as well as the transfer of L. reuteri into recipient mice inhibited the production of SEB-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-17 but increased that of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Additionally, such CMT and L. reuteri recipient mice exposed to SEB, showed a decrease in lung-infiltrating mononuclear cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, NKT cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cells, but an increase in the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th3 cells, and increase in the survival of mice from SEB-mediated ARDS. Together, the current study demonstrates that ARDS induced by SEB triggers dysbiosis in the lungs and gut and that attenuation of ARDS by RES may be mediated, at least in part, by alterations in microbiota in the lungs and the gut, especially through the induction of beneficial bacteria such as L. reuteri.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Enterotoxins , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Superantigens , Animals , Cell Line , Colon/immunology , Colon/metabolism , Colon/microbiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dysbiosis , Female , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lactobacillus reuteri/drug effects , Lactobacillus reuteri/growth & development , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Mice, Inbred C3H , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology
7.
Nature ; 589(7841): 270-275, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065893

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to create novel models using human disease-relevant cells to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) biology and to facilitate drug screening. Here, as SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, we developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-LOs). The hPSC-LOs (particularly alveolar type-II-like cells) are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and showed robust induction of chemokines following SARS-CoV-2 infection, similar to what is seen in patients with COVID-19. Nearly 25% of these patients also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes1. We therefore also generated complementary hPSC-derived colonic organoids (hPSC-COs) to explore the response of colonic cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that multiple colonic cell types, especially enterocytes, express ACE2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using hPSC-LOs, we performed a high-throughput screen of drugs approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) and identified entry inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, including imatinib, mycophenolic acid and quinacrine dihydrochloride. Treatment at physiologically relevant levels of these drugs significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of both hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs. Together, these data demonstrate that hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs infected by SARS-CoV-2 can serve as disease models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a valuable resource for drug screening to identify candidate COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Colon/cytology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Lung/cytology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colon/drug effects , Colon/virology , Drug Approval , Female , Heterografts/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Life Sci ; 264: 118450, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885374

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is proposed to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no report is currently available regarding the direct effects of HCQ on gut microbiota, which is associated with the outcomes of elderly patients with COVID-19. Here, we first investigated the effects of HCQ on intestinal microecology in mice. MAIN METHODS: Fifteen female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: HCQ group (n = 10) and control group (n = 5). Mice in the HCQ group were administered with HCQ at dose of 100 mg/kg by gavage daily for 14 days. The feces of mice were collected before and on the 7th and 14th days after HCQ challenge, and then analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. At the end of the experiment, the hematology, serum biochemistry and cytokines were determined, respectively. The mRNA expression of tight junction proteins in colonic tissues were also studied by RT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: HCQ challenge had no effects on the counts of white blood cells, the levels of serum cytokines, and the gene expression of tight junction proteins in colon. HCQ also did not increase the content of serum d-lactate in mice. Notably, HCQ significantly decreased the diversity of gut microbiota, increased the relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes whereas decreased that of Firmicutes. SIGNIFICANCE: Short-term high dose HCQ challenge changes gut microbiota but not the intestinal integrity and immunological responses in mice. Special attention should be paid to the effects of HCQ on intestinal microecology in future clinical use.


Subject(s)
Colon/drug effects , Colon/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Colon/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Lactic Acid/blood , Mice , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Tight Junction Proteins/biosynthesis
9.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(6): 797-808, 2020 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have intestinal inflammation and are treated with immune-modulating medications. In the face of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, we do not know whether patients with IBD will be more susceptible to infection or disease. We hypothesized that the viral entry molecules angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are expressed in the intestine. We further hypothesized that their expression could be affected by inflammation or medication usage. METHODS: We examined the expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 by quantitative polymerase chain reacion in animal models of IBD. Publicly available data from organoids and mucosal biopsies from patients with IBD were examined for expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. We conducted RNA sequencing for CD11b-enriched cells and peripheral and lamina propria T-cells from well-annotated patient samples. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were abundantly expressed in the ileum and colon and had high expression in intestinal epithelial cells. In animal models, inflammation led to downregulation of epithelial Ace2. Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not increased in samples from patients with compared with those of control patients. In CD11b-enriched cells but not T-cells, the level of expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the mucosa was comparable to other functional mucosal genes and was not affected by inflammation. Anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs, vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and steroids were linked to significantly lower expression of ACE2 in CD11b-enriched cells. CONCLUSIONS: The viral entry molecules ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the ileum and colon. Patients with IBD do not have higher expression during inflammation; medical therapy is associated with lower levels of ACE2. These data provide reassurance for patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Colon/drug effects , Colon/metabolism , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/physiopathology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Young Adult
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