Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30577, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107665

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic screening is used widely to minimize the rates of colorectal cancer cases and deaths. During highly virulent infectious disease pandemics such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is essential to weigh the risks and benefits of receiving endoscopy, especially in regions with moderately high viral infection rates. An observational study was conducted to assess the number of patients seen for endoscopic procedure at 2 of our surgery centers. Reasons for their procedure were collected in addition to information regarding any positive COVID-19 cases. This study considers the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection along with the number of colorectal cancer cases encountered at a community endoscopy center to suggest that the benefits of undergoing endoscopic evaluation may outweigh the risks of attending an endoscopy procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the main reasons patients underwent endoscopic procedure was for colon cancer screenings (41.9%), and 5 of 1020 patients seen during the observation period were diagnosed with cancer. Of these 1020 patients, 8 were found to have positive tests for COVID-19 within 2 to 4 weeks after their procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Early Detection of Cancer , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Ann Ital Chir ; 93: 599-605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073042

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study presents the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on elective surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with colon cancer, in a University Clinic of Surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data from patients who underwent an elective surgery procedure for colon cancer during the pandemic period (26.02.2020-01.10.2021) was analyzed. This period was compared with the same interval for the years 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the number of patients that underwent an elective surgery for colon cancer during the pandemic. The Covid-19 generated pandemic has influenced the number of days from diagnosis to treatment, preoperative and postoperative hospitalization. There was an increase in the number of patients with severe symptoms, with complete or incomplete ileus. The number of lymphatic nodes harvested increased during the last period of study, being correlated with the advanced cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic had an influence on the management of the patients with colon cancer undergoing an elective surgery procedure. Firstly, their number decreased compared to the other periods, and they presented more severe symptoms. The duration of the surgical act was extended, but the postoperative stay was shortened. KEY WORDS: Colon cancer, Covid-19 Pandemic, Duration of surgery, Elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Ileus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ileus/etiology , Pandemics
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042854

ABSTRACT

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a surgical emergency if it causes paraplegia. Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci are the most common causes. Streptococcus gallolyticus has been reported to cause SEA only on three occasions earlier-all were associated with endocarditis or colonic malignancy. We report an older woman with diabetic ketoacidosis who presented with poorly localised back pain, fever and altered sensorium. Her lumbar puncture revealed frank pus, and MRI showed an SEA. She could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation post-surgical decompression, and she succumbed to ventilator-associated pneumonia. A triad of fever, back pain and neurological deficit should lead one to consider intraspinal suppuration. This report is the first S. gallolyticus-related SEA from India and the first in literature that was not associated with either endocarditis or colonic malignancy.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Endocarditis , Epidural Abscess , Aged , Back Pain/complications , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Endocarditis/complications , Epidural Abscess/complications , Epidural Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Streptococcus gallolyticus
4.
Ann Ital Chir ; 93: 599-605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2011343

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study presents the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on elective surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with colon cancer, in a University Clinic of Surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data from patients who underwent an elective surgery procedure for colon cancer during the pandemic period (26.02.2020-01.10.2021) was analyzed. This period was compared with the same interval for the years 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the number of patients that underwent an elective surgery for colon cancer during the pandemic. The Covid-19 generated pandemic has influenced the number of days from diagnosis to treatment, preoperative and postoperative hospitalization. There was an increase in the number of patients with severe symptoms, with complete or incomplete ileus. The number of lymphatic nodes harvested increased during the last period of study, being correlated with the advanced cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic had an influence on the management of the patients with colon cancer undergoing an elective surgery procedure. Firstly, their number decreased compared to the other periods, and they presented more severe symptoms. The duration of the surgical act was extended, but the postoperative stay was shortened. KEY WORDS: Colon cancer, Covid-19 Pandemic, Duration of surgery, Elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Ileus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ileus/etiology , Pandemics
5.
J Med Life ; 15(5): 640-644, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934917

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of colon cancer. This was due to the redistribution of doctors and medical resources to empower the treatment of Sars-CoV-2-infected patients. Moreover, the restrictions imposed by the authorities on the general population and hospitals were other key elements that had to be taken into consideration. The surgical activity was massively reduced for both elective and emergency surgeries during the pandemic; initially, the elective ones were postponed. This study aimed to analyze the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the 90-day postoperative mortality rate of patients who underwent emergency surgery for colon cancer in the First General Surgery Clinic of Pius Brinzeu County Hospital Timisoara. For conducting this study, data from patients who underwent emergency surgery for colon cancer between 26.02.2020-01.10.2021 and the same period of 2016-2017 and 2018-2019 were collected and analyzed, with a p<0.05 being considered statistically significant. As a result, the 90-days postoperative mortality rate increased to 34.5% during the pandemic. A 22.55% rate was observed during 2016-2017 and an 18.4% rate in 2018-2019. In addition, during the pandemic, correlations w ere identified between the presence of 90-day postoperative mortality and severe symptomatology when presenting to the hospital, stage of the disease, and Charlson comorbidity index. All these aspects influenced the 90-days mortality rate of patients undergoing emergency surgery to treat colon cancer during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ann Surg ; 275(5): 933-939, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified CAL-WR. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The use of segmental colectomy in patients with endoscopically unresectable colonic lesions results in significant morbidity and mortality. CAL-WR is an alternative procedure that may reduce morbidity. METHODS: This prospective multicenter study was performed in 13 Dutch hospitals between January 2017 and December 2019. Inclusion criteria were (1) colonic lesions inaccessible using current endoscopic resection techniques (judged by an expert panel), (2) non-lifting residual/recurrent adenomatous tissue after previous polypectomy or (3) an undetermined resection margin after endoscopic removal of a low-risk pathological T1 (pT1) colon carcinoma. Thirty-day morbidity, technical success rate and radicality were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 118 patients included (56% male, mean age 66 years, standard deviation ± 8 years), 66 (56%) had complex lesions unsuitable for endoscopic removal, 34 (29%) had non-lifting residual/recurrent adenoma after previous polypectomy and 18 (15%) had uncertain resection margins after polypectomy of a pT1 colon carcinoma. CAL-WR was technically successful in 93% and R0 resection was achieved in 91% of patients. Minor complications (Clavien-Dindo i-ii) were noted in 7 patients (6%) and an additional oncologic segmental resection was performed in 12 cases (11%). Residual tissue at the scar was observed in 5% of patients during endoscopic follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CAL-WR is an effective, organ-preserving approach that results in minor complications and circumvents the need for major surgery. CAL-WR, therefore, deserves consideration when endoscopic excision of circumscribed lesions is impossible or incomplete.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Carcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonic Polyps , Laparoscopy , Aged , Carcinoma/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonic Polyps/surgery , Colonoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Margins of Excision , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 486, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital primary tumors are unusual. We report a rare case of uterine cervix metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic issues. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 38-year-old North African Caucasian woman treated for a non-metastatic colon adenocarcinoma. She had a sigmoidectomy and incomplete adjuvant chemotherapy. Six months later, she consulted with vaginal bleeding caused by a cervical tumor, which was confirmed to be metastatic disease, and the patient underwent decompressive and hemostatic radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Uterine cervix metastasis from primary colon adenocarcinoma is rare. The resection remains the standard protocol for the local treatment of resectable metastatic disease. Otherwise, systemic therapy is the preferable option.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Adult , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
8.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 60(6): 1595-1612, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a new types of coronavirus which have turned into a pandemic within a short time. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is used for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in national healthcare centers. Because the number of PCR test kits is often limited, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose the disease at an early stage. However, X-ray technology is accessible nearly all over the world, and it succeeds in detecting symptoms of COVID-19 more successfully. Another disease which affects people's lives to a great extent is colorectal cancer. Tissue microarray (TMA) is a technological method which is widely used for its high performance in the analysis of colorectal cancer. Computer-assisted approaches which can classify colorectal cancer in TMA images are also needed. In this respect, the present study proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN) classification approach with optimized parameters using gradient-based optimizer (GBO) algorithm. Thanks to the proposed approach, COVID-19, normal, and viral pneumonia in various chest X-ray images can be classified accurately. Additionally, other types such as epithelial and stromal regions in epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) colon in TMAs can also be classified. The proposed approach was called COVID-CCD-Net. AlexNet, DarkNet-19, Inception-v3, MobileNet, ResNet-18, and ShuffleNet architectures were used in COVID-CCD-Net, and the hyperparameters of this architecture was optimized for the proposed approach. Two different medical image classification datasets, namely, COVID-19 and Epistroma, were used in the present study. The experimental findings demonstrated that proposed approach increased the classification performance of the non-optimized CNN architectures significantly and displayed a very high classification performance even in very low value of epoch.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Deep Learning , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Colorectal Dis ; 24(8): 925-932, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774771

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the capacity to diagnose and treat cancer worldwide due to the prioritization of COVID-19 treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate treatment and outcomes of colon cancer in Sweden before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In an observational study, using the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry, we included (i) all Swedish patients diagnosed with colon cancer, and (ii) all patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer, in 2016-2020. Incidence of colon cancer, treatments and outcomes in 2020 were compared with 2019. RESULTS: The number of colon cancer cases in Sweden in April-May 2020 was 27% lower than the previous year, whereas no difference was observed on an annual level (4,589 vs. 4,763 patients [-4%]). Among patients with colon cancer undergoing surgery in 2020, the proportion of resections was 93 vs. 94% in 2019, with no increase in acute resections. Time from diagnosis to elective surgery decreased (29 days vs. 33 days in 2020 vs. 2019). In 2020, more patients underwent a two-stage procedure with a diverting stoma as first surgery (6.1%) vs. (4.4%) in 2019 (p = 0.0020) and more patients were treated with preoperative chemotherapy (5.1%) vs. (3,5%) 2019 (p = 0.0016). The proportion of patients that underwent laparoscopic surgery increased from 54% to 58% (p = 0.0017) There were no differences in length of stay, surgical complications, reoperation, ICU-stay or 30-day mortality between the years. CONCLUSION: Based on nationwide annual data, we did not observe adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on colon cancer treatment and short time outcomes in Sweden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Laparoscopy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sweden/epidemiology
10.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(4): 849-854, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of death in the USA. CRC screening remains underutilized, especially in underinsured populations. Screening has been heavily disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: The goal is to explore the impact of the pandemic on ethnic and gender disparities in CRC screening. METHODS: Patients were identified 1 year before and after COVID-19 precautions began, using March 1, 2020, as the inflection point. The primary inclusion criterion was an ordered colonoscopy. The outcome of interest was a colonoscopy performed. Differences by year and race were assessed using chi-square analysis. A cohort of 1549 patients (899 in pre-COVID; 650 in post-COVID) between age 45 and 75 for whom a colonoscopy was ordered was selected from EHR at a large institution. RESULTS: There was a 51% reduction in screening colonoscopies performed. White patients had a decrease of 49%, and African Americans had a 55% reduction. Stool testing increased from 47% prior to the pandemic to 94% during the pandemic representing a greater than 100% increase in stool testing uptake. CONCLUSION: The true impact of COVID-19 on colorectal cancer is yet to be uncovered as future mortality estimates from CRC are ongoing. Due to the widespread closure of endoscopy centers and delay in screening, we believe that the pandemic worsened the screening disparities most prevalent among minority populations. Our study points to the drastic reduction of screening for all races, especially for African Americans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 21(3): e171-e178, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712514

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health care services worldwide. In the Netherlands, the first confirmed COVID-19 infection was on February 27, 2020. We aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on colorectal cancer care in the Netherlands. METHODS: Colorectal cancer patients who were diagnosed in 25 hospitals in weeks 2 to 26 of the year 2020 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and divided in 4 periods. The average number of patients treated per type of initial treatment was analyzed by the Mantel-Haenszel test adjusted for age. Median time between diagnosis and treatment and between (neo)adjuvant therapy and surgery were analyzed by the Mann Whitney test. Percentages of (acute) resection, stoma and (neo)adjuvant therapy were compared using the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: In total, 1,653 patients were included. The patient population changed during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding higher stage and more clinical presentation with ileus at time of diagnosis. Slight changes were found regarding type of initial treatment. Median time between diagnosis and treatment decreased on average by 4.5 days during the pandemic. The proportion of colon cancer patients receiving a stoma significantly increased with 6.5% during the pandemic. No differences were found in resection rate and treatment with (neo)adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION: Despite the disruptive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global health care, the impact on colorectal cancer care in the Netherlands was limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Intestinal Obstruction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics
12.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686898

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the second most fatal disease worldwide, with colon cancer being the third most prevalent and fatal form of cancer in several Western countries. The risk of acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant hurdle in the management of various types of cancer, especially colon cancer. Therefore, it is essential to develop alternative treatment modalities. Naturally occurring alkaloids have been shown to regulate various mechanistic pathways linked to cell proliferation, cell cycle, and metastasis. This review aims to shed light on the potential of alkaloids as anti-colon-cancer chemotherapy agents that can modulate or arrest the cell cycle. Preclinical investigated alkaloids have shown anti-colon cancer activities and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at different stages, suggesting that alkaloids may have the potential to act as anticancer molecules.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Discovery , Humans
13.
Int J Oncol ; 60(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662722

ABSTRACT

miR­1291 exerts an anti­tumor effect in a subset of human carcinomas, including pancreatic cancer. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression and effect of miR­1291 in CRC cells was investigated. It was identified that miR­1291 significantly suppressed the proliferation, invasion, cell mobility and colony formation of CRC cells. Additionally, miR­1291 induced cell apoptosis. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR­1291 directly bound the 3'­untranslated region sequence of doublecortin­like kinase 1 (DCLK1). miR­1291 also suppressed DCLK1 mRNA and protein expression in HCT116 cells that expressed DCLK1. Furthermore, miR­1291 suppressed cancer stem cell markers BMI1 and CD133, and inhibited sphere formation. The inhibitory effects on sphere formation, invasion and mobility in HCT116 cells were also explored and verified using DCLK1 siRNAs. Furthermore, miR­1291 induced CDK inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 in three CRC cell lines, and the overexpression of DCLK1 in HCT116 cells led to a decrease of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1. Intravenous administration of miR­1291 loaded on the super carbonate apatite delivery system significantly inhibited tumor growth in the DLD­1 xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the resultant tumors exhibited significant upregulation of the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 protein with treatment of miR­1291. Taken together, the results indicated that miR­1291 served an anti­tumor effect by modulating multiple functions, including cancer stemness and cell cycle regulation. The current data suggested that miR­1291 may be a promising nucleic acid medicine against CRC.


Subject(s)
Cell Line/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Cell Line/immunology , Colonic Neoplasms/physiopathology , /metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/administration & dosage
14.
Int J Cancer ; 150(10): 1609-1618, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615974

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov2 may have impaired care trajectories, patient overall survival (OS), tumor stage at initial presentation for new colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. This study aimed at assessing those indicators before and after the beginning of the pandemic in France. In this retrospective cohort study, we collected prospectively the clinical data of the 11.4 million of patients referred to the Greater Paris University Hospitals (AP-HP). We identified new CRC cases between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2020, and compared indicators for 2018-2019 to 2020. pTNM tumor stage was extracted from postoperative pathology reports for localized colon cancer, and metastatic status was extracted from CT-scan baseline text reports. Between 2018 and 2020, 3602 and 1083 new colon and rectal cancers were referred to the AP-HP, respectively. The 1-year OS rates reached 94%, 93% and 76% for new CRC patients undergoing a resection of the primary tumor, in 2018-2019, in 2020 without any Sars-Cov2 infection and in 2020 with a Sars-Cov2 infection, respectively (HR 3.78, 95% CI 2.1-7.1). For patients undergoing other kind of anticancer treatment, the percentages are 64%, 66% and 27% (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). Tumor stage at initial presentation, emergency level of primary tumor resection, delays between the first multidisciplinary meeting and the first anticancer treatment did not differ over time. The SARS-Cov2 pandemic has been associated with less newly diagnosed CRC patients and worse 1-year OS rates attributable to the infection itself rather than to its impact on hospital care delivery or tumor stage at initial presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitals, University , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Tumori ; 108(4): 392-393, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480348

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to protect patients with cancer, reduction in hospital access, reduction in myelosuppression risk, and postponing/withholding unnecessary treatments were important in order to reduce risk of infection. Little is known about the risk burden for patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). Use of an oral chemotherapy regimen represents a convenient, safe, and manageable therapy for both fit and elderly patients. In the metastatic setting, treatment of solitary metastases may be performed, omitting postresection chemotherapy due to lack of literature data. In case of unresectable CRC, short induction chemotherapy, followed by a maintenance phase, may improve compliance and reduce toxicity. In the adjuvant setting, a shorter duration (3 months) may be discussed with patients except in very high-risk cases. Clinical judgment may reduce the risk of COVID-19 exposure in patients with CRC. Oral regimens, treatment delay, and chemotherapy holiday are ways to minimize the global risk for patients during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047162, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376492

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diet, shown to impact colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, is a modifiable environmental factor. Fibre foods fermented by gut microbiota produce metabolites that not only provide food for the colonic epithelium but also exert regulatory effects on colonic mucosal inflammation and proliferation. We describe methods used in a double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial with Alaska Native (AN) people to determine if dietary fibre supplementation can substantially reduce CRC risk among people with the highest reported CRC incidence worldwide. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Eligible patients undergoing routine screening colonoscopy consent to baseline assessments and specimen/data collection (blood, urine, stool, saliva, breath and colon mucosal biopsies) at the time of colonoscopy. Following an 8-week stabilisation period to re-establish normal gut microbiota post colonoscopy, study personnel randomise participants to either a high fibre supplement (resistant starch, n=30) or placebo (digestible starch, n=30) condition, repeating stool sample collection. During the 28-day supplement trial, each participant consumes their usual diet plus their supplement under direct observation. On day 29, participants undergo a flexible sigmoidoscopy to obtain mucosal biopsy samples to measure the effect of the supplement on inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk, with follow-up assessments and data/specimen collection similar to baseline. Secondary outcome measures include the impact of a high fibre supplement on the oral and colonic microbiome and biofluid metabolome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approvals were obtained from the Alaska Area and University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Boards and Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium and Southcentral Foundation research review bodies. A data safety monitoring board, material transfer agreements and weekly study team meetings provide regular oversight throughout the study. Study findings will first be shared with AN tribal leaders, health administrators, providers and community members. Peer-reviewed journal articles and conference presentations will be forthcoming once approved by tribal review bodies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03028831.


Subject(s)
Alaskan Natives , Colonic Neoplasms , Alaska , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Dietary Fiber , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 76(2): 196-205, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Marked geographical disparities in survival from colon cancer have been consistently described in England. Similar patterns have been observed within London, almost mimicking a microcosm of the country's survival patterns. This evidence has suggested that the area of residence plays an important role in the survival from cancer. METHODS: We analysed the survival from colon cancer of patients diagnosed in 2006-2013, in a pre-pandemic period, living in London at their diagnosis and received care in a London hospital. We examined the patterns of patient pathways between the area of residence and the hospital of care using flow maps, and we investigated whether geographical variations in survival from colon cancer are associated with the hospital of care. To estimate survival, we applied a Bayesian excess hazard model which accounts for the hierarchical structure of the data. RESULTS: Geographical disparities in colon cancer survival disappeared once controlled for hospitals, and the disparities seemed to be augmented between hospitals. However, close examination of patient pathways revealed that the poorer survival observed in some hospitals was mostly associated with higher proportions of emergency diagnosis, while their performance was generally as expected for patients diagnosed through non-emergency routes. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the need to better coordinate primary and secondary care sectors in some areas of London to improve timely access to specialised clinicians and diagnostic tests. This challenge remains crucially relevant after the recent successive regroupings of Clinical Commissioning Groups (which grouped struggling areas together) and the observed exacerbation of disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Bayes Theorem , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
20.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2915-2920, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294969

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant chemotherapy has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Potential utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) prior to and post surgery has been reported across various solid tumors. We initiated a new type of adaptive platform trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of ctDNA analysis and refine precision adjuvant therapy for resectable colorectal cancer, named CIRCULATE-Japan including three clinical trials. The GALAXY study is a prospectively conducted large-scale registry designed to monitor ctDNA for patients with clinical stage II to IV or recurrent colorectal cancer who can undergo complete surgical resection. The VEGA trial is a randomized phase III study designed to test whether postoperative surgery alone is noninferior to the standard therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for 3 months in patients with high-risk stage II or low-risk stage III colon cancer if ctDNA status is negative at week 4 after curative surgery in the GALAXY study. The ALTAIR trial is a double-blind, phase III study designed to establish the superiority of trifluridine/tipiracil as compared with placebo in patients with resected colorectal cancer who show circulating tumor-positive status in the GALAXY study. Therefore, CIRCULATE-Japan encompasses both "de-escalation" and "escalation" trials for ctDNA-negative and -positive patients, respectively, and helps to answer whether measuring ctDNA postoperatively has prognostic and/or predictive value. Our ctDNA-guided adaptive platform trials will accelerate clinical development toward further precision oncology in the field of adjuvant therapy. Analysis of ctDNA status could be utilized as a predictor of risk stratification for recurrence and to monitor the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. ctDNA is a promising, noninvasive tumor biomarker that can aid in tumor monitoring throughout disease management.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/blood , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Japan , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Thymine/administration & dosage , Trifluridine/administration & dosage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL