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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480712

ABSTRACT

This study aims to give an overview of the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in 9727 samples (2996 for L. monocytogenes and 6731 for Salmonella spp.) from different categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, collected over 2 years from 28 large retailers and 148 canteens in the regions of northern Italy. The RTE samples were classified into two groups according to the preparation methods: (i) multi-ingredient preparations consisting of fully cooked food ready for immediate consumption, or with minimal further handling before consumption (Group A), and (ii) multi-ingredient preparations consisting of cooked and uncooked food, or preparations consisting of only raw ingredients (Group B). L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were investigated in both of these categories. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. was 0.13% and 0.07%, respectively. More specifically, L. monocytogenes was found in 0.04% of 2442 analysed RTE food samples belonging to group A and in 0.54% of 554 samples belonging to group B. Furthermore, 0.03% of 5367 RTE food samples from group A and 0.21% of 1364 samples from group B tested positive for Salmonella spp. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide a significant contribution to L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. risk analysis in RTE foods.


Subject(s)
Listeria monocytogenes , Colony Count, Microbial , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Prevalence , Salmonella
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376828

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dirt removal (bacteria and organic matter) of several hand-cleaning procedures. The results from the hand hygiene experiment indicated that washing hands with warm water and soap for 20 s is the most effective method investigated when hands are either dirty or greasy. Even if not proper washing, rinsing under running water for 5 s is a cleaning procedure that may significantly reduce the probability of cross-contamination, as it removes 90% of the hands' dirt. Although less effective than water and soap, the usage of antibacterial wipes was significantly more effective than wet wipes, indicating that they are a better choice when water and soap are not available. The results of this study enable us to inform consumers about the effectiveness of hand-cleaning procedures applied in their homes when cooking. Moreover, it can make consumers understand why, during the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities recommended washing hands as a preventive measure of infection and using an anti-bacterial hand gel or wiping hands with an antimicrobial wipe if water and soap are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Bacteria , Colony Count, Microbial , Cooking , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 575: 36-41, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370449

ABSTRACT

Air spaces and material surfaces in a pathogen-contaminated environment can often be a source of infection to humans, and disinfection has become a common intervention focused on reducing the contamination levels. In this study, we examined the efficacy of SAIW, a unique electrolyzed water with chlorine-free, high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen, and low oxygen reduction potential, for the inactivation of several viruses and bacteria. Infectivity assays revealed that initial viral titers of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, human coronavirus, feline calicivirus, and canine parvovirus, were reduced by 2.9- to 5.5-log10 within 30 s of SAIW exposure. Similarly, the culturability of three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Legionella) dropped down by 1.9- to 4.9-log10 within 30 s of SAIW treatment. Mechanistically, treatment with SAIW was found to significantly decrease the binding and subsequent entry efficiencies of SARS-CoV-2 on Vero cells. Finally, we showed that this chlorine-free electrolytic ion water had no acute inhalation toxicity in mice, demonstrating that SAIW holds promise for a safer antiviral and antibacterial disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Water/pharmacology , Animals , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Calicivirus, Feline/growth & development , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colony Count, Microbial , Electrolysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/growth & development , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Legionella/drug effects , Legionella/growth & development , Mice , Parvovirus, Canine/drug effects , Parvovirus, Canine/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella/growth & development , Skin/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load
4.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 746-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of hand recontamination is often neglected after using hand washing facilities, which can increase the spread of pathogens. The study aimed to evaluate the hygienic condition of posthandwashing facilities in public washrooms at different timeslots, particularly those near food courts and restaurants located in shopping malls. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in 12 public washrooms that ranged from low-end, middle-end, to high-end category on 3 different timeslots including baseline, T1 (immediate postcleaning) and T2 (1-hour postcleaning, with counting the footfall). Hand-touch surfaces with a high risk of recontamination after handwashing, which included paper tower dispensers, air drying outlets, and exit door handles, were evaluated by the surface adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence method (ATP-value). ATP-values <500 relative light units (RLUs) were considered a good hygiene. Cleaning schedules and footfalls of each sampled washroom were obtained by direct observations. RESULTS: The overall mean ATP value of washroom was 785 RLU (N = 108); the ATP values of female and male washrooms at T2 were 203 and 3,718 RLUs, respectively. The highest ATP value was found on the exit door handles of male washrooms (range = 13-26,695 RLUs, mean = 3,229 RLU). Regarding passed/failed hygiene conditions, there were significant differences in the proportion of exit door handles between genders (P = .018) and timeslots (P = .007) as well as that of paper towel button/screw between timeslots (P= .025). CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid at the exit door handles of male washrooms, where are high risks of cross and re-contamination.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hygiene , Adenosine Triphosphate , Colony Count, Microbial , Female , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Male
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21448, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242034

ABSTRACT

The in vitro interactions of isavuconazole with colistin were evaluated against 15 clinical Candida auris isolates by a microdilution checkerboard technique based on the EUCAST reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing and by agar diffusion using isavuconazole gradient concentration strips with or without colistin incorporated RPMI agar. Interpretation of the checkerboard results was done by the fractional inhibitory concentration index and by response surface analysis based on the Bliss model. By checkerboard, combination was synergistic for 93% of the isolates when interpretation of the data was done by fractional inhibitory concentration index, and for 80% of the isolates by response surface analysis interpretation. By agar diffusion test, although all MICs in combination decreased compared to isavuconazole alone, only 13% of the isolates met the definition of synergy. Essential agreement of EUCAST and gradient concentration strip MICs at +/- 2 log2 dilutions was 93.3%. Antagonistic interactions were never observed for any technique or interpretation model used.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Colistin/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Agar , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Synergism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
J Endod ; 47(5): 732-739, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to investigate aerosolized microorganisms generated during endodontic emergencies and nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT), to assess the spread of airborne microbes, and to verify the spatial distribution of airborne microbial spread. METHODS: A total of 45 endodontic procedures were sampled, including full pulpotomy (n = 15), pulpectomy (n = 15), and NSRCT (n = 15). Samples were collected during room resting and after treatment. The passive air sampling technique using settle plates was applied. Agar plates were set at different locations in the operatory. The colony-forming unit (CFU) was counted in brain-heart infusion blood agar plates. A set of agar plates containing selective chromogenic culture media was used for the isolation and presumptive identification of target microorganisms. Fungi were investigated using Sabouraud dextrose agar. RESULTS: Pulpotomy generated the lowest mean CFU count (P < .05). There was no difference between the mean CFU counts found in pulpectomy and NSRCT (P > .05). A higher mean CFU count was found close to the patient's mouth (0.5 m) than at a 2-m distance in pulpectomy and NSRCT (P < .05). There was no difference between the mean CFU count found in front of the patient's mouth versus diagonal in pulpectomy and NSRCT (P > .05). Staphylococcus aureus (22/45, 48.8%) was the most frequent bacteria species. Longer treatment times were associated with higher CFU counts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that pulpotomy generates less aerosolized microorganisms than pulpectomy and NSRCT. The proximity to the patient's mouth and the treatment duration were implicated in the level of contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163310

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness and ease of N95 respirator decontamination methods in a clinic setting and to identify the extent of microbial colonization on respirators associated with reuse. METHODS: In a prospective fashion, N95 respirators (n = 15) were randomized to a decontamination process (time, dry heat, or ultraviolet C light [UVC]) in outpatient clinics. Each respirator was re-used up to 5 separate clinic sessions. Swabs on each respirator for SARS-CoV-2, bacteria, and fungi were obtained before clinic, after clinic and post-treatment. Mask integrity was checked after each treatment (n = 68). Statistical analyses were performed to determine factors for positive samples. RESULTS: All three decontamination processes reduced bacteria counts similarly. On multivariate mixed model analysis, there were an additional 8.1 colonies of bacteria (95% CI 5.7 to 10.5; p < 0.01) on the inside compared to the outside surface of the respirators. Treatment resulted in a decrease of bacterial load by 8.6 colonies (95% CI -11.6 to -5.5; p < 0.01). Although no decontamination treatment affected the respirator filtration efficiency, heat treatments were associated with the breakdown of thermoplastic elastomer straps. Contamination with fungal and SARS-CoV-2 viral particles were minimal to non-existent. CONCLUSIONS: Time, heat and UVC all reduced bacterial load on reused N95 respirators. Fungal contamination was minimal. Heat could permanently damage some elastic straps making the respirators nonfunctional. Given its effectiveness against microbes, lack of damage to re-treated respirators and logistical ease, UVC represents an optimal decontamination method for individual N95 respirators when reuse is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , Colony Count, Microbial , Hot Temperature , Humans , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Ultraviolet Rays
8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 223: 178-183, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135232

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to investigate bacterial dispersion with patient face mask use during simulated intravitreal injections. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited for this single-center study. Each participant was instructed not to speak for 2 minutes, simulating a "no-talking" policy, while in an ophthalmic examination chair with an blood agar plate secured to the forehead and wearing various face masks (no mask, loose fitting surgical mask, tight-fitting surgical mask without tape, tight-fitting surgical mask with adhesive tape securing the superior portion of the mask, N95 mask, and cloth mask). Each scenario was then repeated while reading a 2-minute script, simulating a talking patient. The primary outcome measures were the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) and microbial species. RESULTS: During the "no-talking" scenario, subjects wearing a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape developed fewer CFUs compared with subjects wearing the same mask without tape (difference 0.93 CFUs [95% confidence interval 0.32-1.55]; P = .003). During the speech scenarios, subjects wearing a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape had significantly fewer CFUs compared with subjects without a face mask (difference 1.07 CFUs; P = .001), subjects with a loose face mask (difference 0.67 CFUs; P = .034), and subjects with a tight face mask without tape (difference 1.13 CFUs; P < .001). There was no difference between those with a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape and an N95 mask in the "no-talking" (P > .99) and "speech" (P = .831) scenarios. No oral flora were isolated in "no-talking" scenarios but were isolated in 8 of 75 (11%) cultures in speech scenarios (P = .02). CONCLUSION: The addition of tape to the superior portion of a patient's face mask reduced bacterial dispersion during simulated intravitreal injections and had no difference in bacterial dispersion compared with wearing N95 masks.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Design , Intravitreal Injections , Masks , Patient Simulation , Adult , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013686, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many dental procedures produce aerosols (droplets, droplet nuclei and splatter) that harbour various pathogenic micro-organisms and may pose a risk for the spread of infections between dentist and patient. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to greater concern about this risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of methods used during dental treatment procedures to minimize aerosol production and reduce or neutralize contamination in aerosols. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases on 17 September 2020: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (in the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946); Embase Ovid (from 1980); the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease; the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov); and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) performed by dental healthcare providers that evaluated methods to reduce contaminated aerosols in dental clinics (excluding preprocedural mouthrinses). The primary outcomes were incidence of infection in dental staff or patients, and reduction in volume and level of contaminated aerosols in the operative environment. The secondary outcomes were cost, accessibility and feasibility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened search results, extracted data from the included studies, assessed the risk of bias in the studies, and judged the certainty of the available evidence. We used mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect estimate for continuous outcomes, and random-effects meta-analysis to combine data. We assessed heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies with 425 participants aged 5 to 69 years. Eight studies had high risk of bias; eight had unclear risk of bias. No studies measured infection. All studies measured bacterial contamination using the surrogate outcome of colony-forming units (CFU). Two studies measured contamination per volume of air sampled at different distances from the patient's mouth, and 14 studies sampled particles on agar plates at specific distances from the patient's mouth. The results presented below should be interpreted with caution as the evidence is very low certainty due to heterogeneity, risk of bias, small sample sizes and wide confidence intervals. Moreover, we do not know the 'minimal clinically important difference' in CFU. High-volume evacuator Use of a high-volume evacuator (HVE) may reduce bacterial contamination in aerosols less than one foot (~ 30 cm) from a patient's mouth (MD -47.41, 95% CI -92.76 to -2.06; 3 RCTs, 122 participants (two studies had split-mouth design); very high heterogeneity I² = 95%), but not at longer distances (MD -1.00, -2.56 to 0.56; 1 RCT, 80 participants). One split-mouth RCT (six participants) found that HVE may not be more effective than conventional dental suction (saliva ejector or low-volume evacuator) at 40 cm (MD CFU -2.30, 95% CI -5.32 to 0.72) or 150 cm (MD -2.20, 95% CI -14.01 to 9.61). Dental isolation combination system One RCT (50 participants) found that there may be no difference in CFU between a combination system (Isolite) and a saliva ejector (low-volume evacuator) during AGPs (MD -0.31, 95% CI -0.82 to 0.20) or after AGPs (MD -0.35, -0.99 to 0.29). However, an 'n of 1' design study showed that the combination system may reduce CFU compared with rubber dam plus HVE (MD -125.20, 95% CI -174.02 to -76.38) or HVE (MD -109.30, 95% CI -153.01 to -65.59). Rubber dam One split-mouth RCT (10 participants) receiving dental treatment, found that there may be a reduction in CFU with rubber dam at one-metre (MD -16.20, 95% CI -19.36 to -13.04) and two-metre distance (MD -11.70, 95% CI -15.82 to -7.58). One RCT of 47 dental students found use of rubber dam may make no difference in CFU at the forehead (MD 0.98, 95% CI -0.73 to 2.70) and occipital region of the operator (MD 0.77, 95% CI -0.46 to 2.00). One split-mouth RCT (21 participants) found that rubber dam plus HVE may reduce CFU more than cotton roll plus HVE on the patient's chest (MD -251.00, 95% CI -267.95 to -234.05) and dental unit light (MD -12.70, 95% CI -12.85 to -12.55). Air cleaning systems One split-mouth CCT (two participants) used a local stand-alone air cleaning system (ACS), which may reduce aerosol contamination during cavity preparation (MD -66.70 CFU, 95% CI -120.15 to -13.25 per cubic metre) or ultrasonic scaling (MD -32.40, 95% CI - 51.55 to -13.25). Another CCT (50 participants) found that laminar flow in the dental clinic combined with a HEPA filter may reduce contamination approximately 76 cm from the floor (MD -483.56 CFU, 95% CI -550.02 to -417.10 per cubic feet per minute per patient) and 20 cm to 30 cm from the patient's mouth (MD -319.14 CFU, 95% CI - 385.60 to -252.68). Disinfectants ‒ antimicrobial coolants Two RCTs evaluated use of antimicrobial coolants during ultrasonic scaling. Compared with distilled water, coolant containing chlorhexidine (CHX), cinnamon extract coolant or povidone iodine may reduce CFU: CHX (MD -124.00, 95% CI -135.78 to -112.22; 20 participants), povidone iodine (MD -656.45, 95% CI -672.74 to -640.16; 40 participants), cinnamon (MD -644.55, 95% CI -668.70 to -620.40; 40 participants). CHX coolant may reduce CFU more than povidone iodine (MD -59.30, 95% CI -64.16 to -54.44; 20 participants), but not more than cinnamon extract (MD -11.90, 95% CI -35.88 to 12.08; 40 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no studies that evaluated disease transmission via aerosols in a dental setting; and no evidence about viral contamination in aerosols. All of the included studies measured bacterial contamination using colony-forming units. There appeared to be some benefit from the interventions evaluated but the available evidence is very low certainty so we are unable to draw reliable conclusions. We did not find any studies on methods such as ventilation, ionization, ozonisation, UV light and fogging. Studies are needed that measure contamination in aerosols, size distribution of aerosols and infection transmission risk for respiratory diseases such as COVID-19 in dental patients and staff.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aerosols , Aged , Air Filters , Child , Child, Preschool , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Dentistry , Disinfectants , Humans , Infection Control, Dental/economics , Infection Control, Dental/instrumentation , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Rubber Dams , Suction , Young Adult
11.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726126

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is a highly significant infection problem in health care centers, particularly after surgery. It has been shown that nearly 80% of S. aureus infections following surgery are the same as those in the anterior nares of patients, suggesting that the anterior nares is the source of the infection strain. This has led to the use of mupirocin ointment being applied nasally to reduce infections; mupirocin resistance is being observed. This study was undertaken to determine whether gel composed of 5% glycerol monolaurate solubilized in a glycol-based, nonaqueous gel (5% GML gel) could be used as an alternative. In our study, 40 healthy human volunteers swabbed their anterior nares for 3 days with the 5% GML gel. Prior to swabbing and 8 to 12 h after swabbing, S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal CFU per milliliter were determined by plating the swabs on mannitol salt agar. Fourteen of the volunteers had S. aureus in their nares prior to 5% GML gel treatment, most persons with the organisms present in both nares; five had pure cultures of S. aureus All participants without pure culture of S. aureus were cocolonized with S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Five of the S. aureus strains produced the superantigens commonly associated with toxic shock syndrome, though none of the participants became ill. For both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the 5% GML gel treatment resulted in a 3-log-unit reduction in microorganisms. For S. aureus, the reduction persisted for 2 or 3 days.IMPORTANCE In this microflora study, we show that a 5% glycerol monolaurate nonaqueous gel is safe for use in the anterior nares. The gel was effective in reducing Staphylococcus aureus nasally, a highly significant hospital-associated pathogen. The gel may be a useful alternative or additive to mupirocin ointment for nasal use prior to surgery, noting that 80% of hospital-associated S. aureus infections are due to the same organism found in the nose. This gel also kills all enveloped viruses tested and should be considered for studies to reduce infection and transmission of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/microbiology , Laurates/pharmacology , Monoglycerides/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Colony Count, Microbial , Gels/chemistry , Gels/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Young Adult
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(11): 1370-1374, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are known to carry pathogenic bacteria and viruses on their surfaces, posing a risk to healthcare providers (HCPs) and hospital infection prevention efforts. We utilize an Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) device to provide an effective method for mobile phone disinfection and survey HCPs about infection risk. METHODS: Environmental swabs were used to culture HCPs' personal mobile phone surfaces. Four cultures were obtained per phone: before and after the UV-C device's 30-second disinfecting cycle, at the beginning and end of a 12-hour shift. Surveys were administered to participants pre- and poststudy. RESULTS: Total bacterial colony forming units were reduced by 90.5% (P = .006) after one UV-C disinfection cycle, and by 99.9% (P = .004) after 2 cycles. Total pathogenic bacterial colony forming units were decreased by 98.2% (P = .038) after one and >99.99% (P = .037) after 2 disinfection cycles. All survey respondents were willing to use the UV-C device daily to weekly, finding it convenient and beneficial. DISCUSSION: This novel UV-C disinfecting device is effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria on mobile phones. HCPs would frequently use a phone disinfecting device to reduce infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, a standardized approach to phone disinfection may be valuable in preventing healthcare-associated infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/radiation effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Cell Phone , Disinfection/instrumentation , Ultraviolet Rays , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Colony Count, Microbial , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 105(2): 213-215, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324553

ABSTRACT

The effect of alcohol hand rub was tested in eradicating Escherichia coli, and compared with hand wash using ozonized tap water or soap and water. Alcohol eradicated all bacteria in 10 out of 35 participants, but with an average (SD) of 2330 (4227) cfu/mL left after disinfection, whereas ozonized water removed all bacteria in 10 out of 55 participants, with an average of only 538 (801) cfu/mL left (P = 0.045). Soap washing was the most effective with total removal of bacteria in six out of 20 participants, with an average of 98 (139) cfu/mL (P = 0.048 and 0.018 versus ozonized water and alcohol, respectively).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Soaps/pharmacology , Water/pharmacology , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Colony Count, Microbial , Disinfectants/classification , Ethanol/pharmacology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Ozone/pharmacology , Young Adult
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