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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 878-884, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206733

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to sharp declines in cancer screening. However, the total deficit in screening in the US associated with the pandemic and the differential impact on individuals in different geographic regions and by socioeconomic status (SES) index have yet to be fully characterized. Objectives: To quantify the screening rates for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in different geographic regions and for individuals in different SES index quartiles and estimate the overall cancer screening deficit in 2020 across the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study uses the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which comprises single-payer administrative claims data and enrollment information covering approximately 60 million people in Medicare Advantage and commercial health plans from across geographically diverse regions of the US. Participants were individuals in the database in January through July of 2018, 2019, and 2020 without diagnosis of the cancer of interest prior to the analytic index month. Exposures: Analytic index month and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. Results: Screening for all 3 cancers declined sharply in March through May of 2020 compared with 2019, with the sharpest decline in April (breast, -90.8%; colorectal, -79.3%; prostate, -63.4%) and near complete recovery of monthly screening rates by July for breast and prostate cancers. The absolute deficit across the US population in screening associated with the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated to be 3.9 million (breast), 3.8 million (colorectal), and 1.6 million (prostate). Geographic differences were observed: the Northeast experienced the sharpest declines in screening, while the West had a slower recovery compared with the Midwest and South. For example, percentage change in breast cancer screening rate (2020 vs 2019) for the month of April ranged from -87.3% (95% CI, -87.9% to -86.7%) in the West to -94.5% (95% CI, -94.9% to -94.1%) in the Northeast (decline). For the month of July, it ranged from -0.3% (95% CI, -2.1% to 1.5%) in the Midwest to -10.6% (-12.6% to -8.4%) in the West (recovery). By SES, the largest screening decline was observed in individuals in the highest SES index quartile, leading to a narrowing in the disparity in cancer screening by SES in 2020. For example, prostate cancer screening rates per 100 000 enrollees for individuals in the lowest and highest SES index quartiles, respectively, were 3525 (95% CI, 3444 to 3607) and 4329 (95% CI, 4271 to 4386) in April 2019 compared with 1535 (95% CI, 1480 to 1589) and 1338 (95% CI, 1306 to 1370) in April 2020. Multivariable analysis showed that telehealth use was associated with higher cancer screening. Conclusions and Relevance: Public health efforts are needed to address the large cancer screening deficit associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including increased use of screening modalities that do not require a procedure.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , Telemedicine , United States
2.
Br J Cancer ; 124(9): 1516-1523, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening programmes were disrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the effects of five restart strategies after the disruption on required screening capacity and cancer burden. METHODS: Microsimulation models simulated five restart strategies for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. The models estimated required screening capacity, cancer incidence, and cancer-specific mortality after a disruption of 6 months. The restart strategies varied in whether screens were caught up or not and, if so, immediately or delayed, and whether the upper age limit was increased. RESULTS: The disruption in screening programmes without catch-up of missed screens led to an increase of 2.0, 0.3, and 2.5 cancer deaths per 100 000 individuals in 10 years in breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Immediately catching-up missed screens minimised the impact of the disruption but required a surge in screening capacity. Delaying screening, but still offering all screening rounds gave the best balance between required capacity, incidence, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies with the smallest loss in health effects were also the most burdensome for the screening organisations. Which strategy is preferred depends on the organisation and available capacity in a country.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications
3.
Br J Cancer ; 124(7): 1231-1236, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) was introduced to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of possible colorectal cancer in English primary care in 2017, underpinned by little primary care evidence. METHODS: All healthcare providers in the South West of England (population 4 million) participated in this evaluation. 3890 patients aged ≥50 years presenting in primary care with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer had a FIT from 01/06/2018 to 31/12/2018. A threshold of 10 µg Hb/g faeces defined a positive test. RESULTS: Six hundred and eighteen (15.9%) patients tested positive; 458 (74.1%) had an urgent referral to specialist lower gastrointestinal (GI) services within three months. Forty-three were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. 3272 tested negative; 324 (9.9%) had an urgent referral within three months. Eight were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. Positive predictive value was 7.0% (95% CI 5.1-9.3%). Negative predictive value was 99.8% (CI 99.5-99.9%). Sensitivity was 84.3% (CI 71.4-93.0%), specificity 85.0% (CI 83.8-86.1%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (CI 0.86-0.96). A threshold of 37 µg Hb/g faeces would identify patients with an individual 3% risk of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: FIT performs exceptionally well to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer in primary care; a higher threshold may be appropriate in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , England , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weight Loss
4.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1353-1356, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060624

ABSTRACT

Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on systemic anticancer therapy delivery (SACT) is crucial to appreciate the short- and long-term consequences for cancer patients and plan future care. Here, we report real-time national SACT delivery data from NHS Scotland. We demonstrate an initial rapid reduction in patient attendance of 28.7% with subsequent rapid recovery following service redesign. The smallest decrease was seen in breast cancer (19.7%), which also had the most rapid recovery and the largest decrease seen in colorectal cancer (43.4%). Regional variation in the magnitude of impact on SACT delivery was observed, but nadirs occurred at the same time and the rate of recovery was similar across all regions. This recovery reflected a coordinated national approach and associated patient and clinician support structures, which facilitated the creation of COVID-19-protected areas for SACT delivery in Scottish cancer centres enabling rapid sharing of successful and innovative strategies. The data show that these actions have limited the disadvantage to cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Scotland/epidemiology
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 208-211, 2020 Mar 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833290

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV infection has been reported in Wuhan since December 2019, and spread rapidly across the country. The radical operation of colorectal cancer is semi-elective operation. Patients with colorectal cancer should receive operation as soon as possible after elective operation is resumed in each hospital. 2019-nCoV virus can be transmitted by asymptomatic infectors, and it has been confirmed to be transmitted by droplets and contact. However, fecal-oral transmission and aerosol transmission have not been excluded. Based on our experience with laparoscopic colorectal operation, we propose some surgery strategies for colorectal cancer patients under the corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) situation: the screening process should be strictly carried out before surgery to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection in the later stage; laparoscopic-assisted surgery is recommended for radical surgery for patients with colorectal cancer; strict aerosol management must be made during the operation; natural orifice specimen extraction surgery and transanal total mesorectal excision are should be performed prudently; scientific and reasonable prophylactic stoma should be done; personnel protection in surgical ward and operation room must be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Laparoscopy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , China , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Disease Outbreaks , Humans
6.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 52(1): 73-79, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer might be at an increased risk of infection with COVID-19 and a more severe disease course. However, different tumor types have differing susceptibility to the infection and COVID-19 phenotypes. Thus, the risk and prevalence of COVID-19 is not uniform across the different tumor types. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the risk and prevalence of COVID-19 infection in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed up to July 25, 2020, thorough PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, CNKI, CBM, China Science, Wan Fang, and SciELO databases. The risk of COVID-19 infection in CRC patients was performed based on the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of six studies with 204 different cancer patients with COVID-19 and 92 CRC infected patients with COVID-19 were selected. Our results showed that the prevalence of COVID-19 infection in CRC patients was 45.1% in the global population. The pooled data showed that there is no a significant risk of infection with COVID-19 in CRC patients in the global population (OR = 0.261, 95% CI 0.099-0.533, p = 0.082). However, when subgroup analysis was performed based on country of origin, we found a significant correlation in Chinese CRC patients (OR = 0.221, 95% CI 0.146-0.319, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study results revealed that Chinese CRC patients harbored a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. However, more multicenter, larger sample sizes and high-quality studies are required to verify this meta-analysis result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , China/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(12): 3385-3388, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tends to affect multiple organs and induce abnormal laboratory parameters. We designed this study to investigate the association between carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation and SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 177 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who received plasma CEA assays during hospitalization. Patients with other causes of CEA elevation were excluded. Data regarding epidemiological and demographical characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and outcomes were analyzed. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between CEA levels and inflammation severity. RESULTS: 171 patients were included in the final study and 32 patients (18.7%) had raised serum of CEA (> 5 ng/ml), with a median (range) age of 66 (53-86). The median [interquartile range (IQR)] CEA level was 11.4 ng/ml (8.1-21.6), which was significantly higher than the upper limit of reference range. CEA level between 5-10 ng/ml was in 11 patients, 10-15 ng/ml in 10 patients, and > 15 ng/ml in 11 patients. No correlation was found between CEA levels and lymphocyte (R2 = 0.055; P = 0.10) nor CRP (R2 = 0.026; P = 0.38). The median levels of CEA were 20.0 ng/ml (IQR, 14.7-23.0) in non-survivors and 10.9 ng/ml (IQR 7.5-16.1) in survivors, and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection might be another cause of CEA elevation, with nearly 20% of patients experienced transient and marked CEA increment during COVID-19 pneumonia. The false-positive results of CEA elevation might have clinical significance for patients with colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(8): 962-968, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706491

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically impacted numerous health and economic fronts. Because of the stay-at-home mandate and practice of physical distancing, nearly all preventive care measures have been halted, including colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The health consequences of this temporary suspension are of great concern, particularly for underserved populations, who experience substantial CRC-related disparities. In this commentary, we describe challenges and opportunities to deliver COVID-19-adapted CRC screening to medically underserved populations receiving care in community health centers (CHC). This perspective is based on key informant interviews with CHC medical directors, teleconference discussions, and strategic planning assessments. To address the unprecedented challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, we identify 2 broad calls to action: invest in CHCs now and support equitable and adaptable telehealth solutions now and in the future. We also recommend 4 CRC-specific calls to action: establish COVID-19-adapted best practices to implement mailed fecal immunochemical test programs, implement grassroots advocacy to identify community gastroenterologists who commit to performing colonoscopies for CHC patients, assess cancer prevention priorities among individuals in underserved communities, and assess regional CRC screening and follow-up barriers and solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic may further exacerbate existing CRC screening disparities in underserved individuals. This will likely lead to delayed diagnosis, a shift to later-stage disease, and increased CRC deaths. To prevent this from happening, we call for timely action and a commitment to address the current extraordinary CRC screening challenges for vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Mass Screening , Medically Underserved Area , Occult Blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Telemedicine/trends
15.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 201-208, 2020 Mar 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-12779

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 began to occur. Its pathogen is 2019-nCoV, which has the characteristics of strong infectivity and general susceptibility. The current situation of prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia is severe. In this context, as front-line medical workers bearing important responsibilities and pressure, while through strict management strategy, we can minimize the risk of infection exposure. By summarizing the research progress and guidelines in recent years in the fields of colorectal cancer disease screening, treatment strategies (including early colorectal cancer, locally advanced colorectal cancer, obstructive colorectal cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer and the treatment of patients after neoadjuvant therapy), the choice of medication and time limit for adjuvant therapy, the protective measures for patients undergoing emergency surgery, the re-examination of postoperative patients and the protection of medical staff, etc., authors improve treatment strategies in order to provide more choices for patients to obtain the best treatment under the severe epidemic situation of new coronavirus pneumonia. Meanwhile we hope that it can also provide more timely treatment modeling schemes for colleagues.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Outbreaks , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
16.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 211-216, 2020 Mar 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-12607

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently raging in China. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be transmitted from human to human and cause hospital infection, which seriously threatens surgical staffs and inpatients. Although colorectal surgery is not a front-line subject in the fight against the epidemic, but in this special situation, it is a difficult task to provide the highest quality medical services and ensure the orderly clinical work, on the premise of maximizing the protection for patients and their families, health of medical staff, and the safety of wards and hospitals, We summarize how to carry out the clinical practice of colorectal surgery under the situation of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemiology, including the procedures of diagnose and treatment for emergency patients with colorectal tumor, and share the experiences of the diagnosis of colorectal tumor, the management of patients with colorectal cancer who are scheduled to be admitted for surgery, the protection of wards, the perioperative management. More importantly, we introduce in detail the operative management and perioperative management of colorectal surgery patients suspected or diagnosed with new coronary pneumonia, including prevention and control measures for medical staff, operating rooms and surgical instruments. The main points are as follows: (1) Multidisciplinary team (MDT) must be run through the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The members include not only routine departments, but also respiratory department and infectious department. (2) Colonoscopy examination may cause cross infection of COVID-19 to patients and doctors. Therefore, it is prior to examine the emergency cases and life-threatening patients (bleeding, obstruction, gastrointestinal foreign bodies, etc.). If the emergent patients (intestinal obstruction) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, the surgeons must perform emergency surgery, and intestinal decompressive tube through colonoscopy is not recommended. (3) The colorectal cancer patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be placed in the isolated room with separate medical devices, and the operative room with negative pressure (under -5 Pa) must be separated. All disposable medical items, body fluids and feces of the patients in perioperative periods must be unified disposed according to the medical waste standard. (4) The surgical medical workers who process colorectal cancer patients with COVID-19 must be protected by three-level. After operation, the medical workers must receive medical observation and be isolated for 14 days. We hope our "Renji experience" will be beneficial to colleagues.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , China , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Humans
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