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2.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 304-314, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening programmes worldwide have been disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to estimate the impact of hypothetical disruptions to organised faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening programmes on short-term and long-term colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in three countries using microsimulation modelling. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used four country-specific colorectal cancer microsimulation models-Policy1-Bowel (Australia), OncoSim (Canada), and ASCCA and MISCAN-Colon (the Netherlands)-to estimate the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to screening on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Australia, Canada, and the Netherlands annually for the period 2020-24 and cumulatively for the period 2020-50. Modelled scenarios varied by duration of disruption (3, 6, and 12 months), decreases in screening participation after the period of disruption (0%, 25%, or 50% reduction), and catch-up screening strategies (within 6 months after the disruption period or all screening delayed by 6 months). FINDINGS: Without catch-up screening, our analysis predicted that colorectal cancer deaths among individuals aged 50 years and older, a 3-month disruption would result in 414-902 additional new colorectal cancer diagnoses (relative increase 0·1-0·2%) and 324-440 additional deaths (relative increase 0·2-0·3%) in the Netherlands, 1672 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·3%) and 979 additional deaths (relative increase 0·5%) in Australia, and 1671 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·2%) and 799 additional deaths (relative increase 0·3%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. A 6-month disruption would result in 803-1803 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·2-0·4%) and 678-881 additional deaths (relative increase 0·4-0·6%) in the Netherlands, 3552 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·6%) and 1961 additional deaths (relative increase 1·0%) in Australia, and 2844 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·3%) and 1319 additional deaths (relative increase 0·4%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. A 12-month disruption would result in 1619-3615 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·4-0·9%) and 1360-1762 additional deaths (relative increase 0·8-1·2%) in the Netherlands, 7140 additional diagnoses (relative increase 1·2%) and 3968 additional deaths (relative increase 2·0%) in Australia, and 5212 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·6%) and 2366 additional deaths (relative increase 0·8%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. Providing immediate catch-up screening could minimise the impact of the disruption, restricting the relative increase in colorectal cancer incidence and deaths between 2020 and 2050 to less than 0·1% in all countries. A post-disruption decrease in participation could increase colorectal cancer incidence by 0·2-0·9% and deaths by 0·6-1·6% between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. INTERPRETATION: Although the projected effect of short-term disruption to colorectal cancer screening is modest, such disruption will have a marked impact on colorectal cancer incidence and deaths between 2020 and 2050 attributable to missed screening. Thus, it is crucial that, if disrupted, screening programmes ensure participation rates return to previously observed rates and provide catch-up screening wherever possible, since this could mitigate the impact on colorectal cancer deaths. FUNDING: Cancer Council New South Wales, Health Canada, and Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Occult Blood , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2243119, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127459

ABSTRACT

Importance: Delays in screening programs and the reluctance of patients to seek medical attention because of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 could be associated with the risk of more advanced colorectal cancers at diagnosis. Objective: To evaluate whether the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was associated with more advanced oncologic stage and change in clinical presentation for patients with colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included all 17 938 adult patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (pandemic period), and from January 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic period), in 81 participating centers in Italy, including tertiary centers and community hospitals. Follow-up was 30 days from surgery. Exposures: Any type of surgical procedure for colorectal cancer, including explorative surgery, palliative procedures, and atypical or segmental resections. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was advanced stage of colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were distant metastasis, T4 stage, aggressive biology (defined as cancer with at least 1 of the following characteristics: signet ring cells, mucinous tumor, budding, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphangitis), stenotic lesion, emergency surgery, and palliative surgery. The independent association between the pandemic period and the outcomes was assessed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression, with hospital as the cluster variable. Results: A total of 17 938 patients (10 007 men [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [12.2] years) underwent surgery for colorectal cancer: 7796 (43.5%) during the pandemic period and 10 142 (56.5%) during the prepandemic period. Logistic regression indicated that the pandemic period was significantly associated with an increased rate of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), aggressive biology (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.53; P < .001), and stenotic lesions (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.31; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests a significant association between the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the risk of a more advanced oncologic stage at diagnosis among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer and might indicate a potential reduction of survival for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adult , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Community , Italy/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery
4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(4)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is effective at reducing CRC mortality. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with deferred care, especially screening for CRC. AIM: We sought to develop a mailed FIT programme (MFP) to increase CRC screening and make recommendations for adoption across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and for other large healthcare systems. SETTING: 2 regional VA medical centres in California and Washington state. PARTICIPANTS: 5667 average risk veterans aged 50-75 overdue or due within 90 days for CRC screening. PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION: A multidisciplinary implementation team collaborated to mail an FIT kit to eligible veterans. Both sites mailed a primer postcard, and one site added an automated reminder call. PROGRAMME EVALUATION: We monitored FIT return and positivity rate, as well as impact of the programme on clinical staff. 34% of FIT kits were returned within 90 days and 7.8% were abnormal. DISCUSSION: We successfully implemented a population-based MFP at multiple regional VA sites and recommend that these efforts be spread across VA. Our model of regional leadership, facility champions and using centralised resources can be adaptable to other large healthcare systems. MFPs support catch-up from disrupted care by addressing access to CRC screening, unburden primary care visits and conserve limited procedural resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Veterans , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2806-2812, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced hospital visits due to concerns regarding infection and also resulted in cancer screening delays. These changes may have had an impact on the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for CRC using a correlation analysis of clinical outcomes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study targeted CRC patients who underwent MIS between January 2018 and December 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and between April 2020 and March 2021 (COVID-19). A comparison analysis of clinical, surgical, and pathological findings between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 groups was performed. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients underwent MIS for CRC pre-COVID-19 and 67 during COVID-19. The number of CRC cases detected by fecal occult blood tests was slightly higher in the pre-COVID-19 group than that in the COVID-19 group. Re-evaluations of laparoscopic videos revealed that the number of cases of surgical T4 CRC resected with the combined resection of the adjacent organs was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than that in the pre-COVID-19 group (16.4 vs. 4.4%, p=0.010). Furthermore, surgical times were significantly longer in the COVID-19 group than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (p<0.001). Pathological findings showed that the number of pT4 cases was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than that in the pre-COVID-19 group (p=0.026). CONCLUSION: The number of T4 CRC cases was higher during than before the COVID-19 pandemic, with increases in the surgical difficulty of MIS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099508

ABSTRACT

The predictions on the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on access to medical services in Romania predicted a 35% drop in oncological hospitalizations in 2020 compared to the previous decade, raising the hypothesis that patients with colorectal cancer can become indirect victims of the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, the aim of the current research was to observe how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced colorectal cancer surgery in Romania, to determine the level of addressability towards specialized care, to compare the cancer staging between the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods, and to observe the risk factors for disease progression. This retrospective study was spread over three years, respectively, from March 2019 to March 2022, and included a total of 198 patients with a history of colorectal cancer surgery. It was decided to perform a parallel comparison of 2019, 2020, and 2021 to observe any significant changes during the pandemic. Our clinic encountered a significant decrease in all interventions during the pandemic; although the number of CRC surgeries remained constant, the cases were more difficult, with significantly more patients presenting in emergency situations, from 31.3% in 2019 to 50.0% in 2020 and 57.1% in 2021. Thus, the number of elective surgeries decreased significantly. The proportion of TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) staging was, however, statistically significant between the pre-pandemic and pandemic period. In 2019, 13.3% of patients had stage IIa, compared with 28.8% in 2020 and 13.1% in 2021. Similarly, the proportion of very advanced colorectal cancer was higher during the pandemic period of 2020 and 2021 (12.0% in 2019 vs. 12.5% in 2020 and 25.0% in 2021), which was represented by a significantly higher proportion of patients with bowel perforation. Patients with an advanced TNM stage had a 6.28-fold increased risk of disease progression, followed by lymphovascular invasion (HR = 5.19). However, the COVID-19 pandemic, represented by admission years 2020 and 2021, did not pose a significant risk for disease progression and mortality. In-hospital mortality during the pandemic also did not change significantly. After the pandemic restrictions have been lifted, it would be advisable to conduct a widespread colorectal cancer screening campaign in order to identify any instances of the disease that went undetected during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Disease Progression
7.
Surg Endosc ; 36(11): 7898-7914, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have continued to evolve, the length of hospitalization (LOS) following elective minimally invasive colorectal surgery has continued to decline. Further refinements in multimodal perioperative pain management strategies have resulted in reduced opioid consumption. The interest in ambulatory colectomy has dramatically accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe restrictions in hospital capacity and fear of COVID transmission forced surgical teams to rethink strategies to further reduce length of inpatient stay. METHODS: Members of the SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee began reviewing the emergence of SDD protocols and early publications for SDD in 2019. The authors met at regular intervals during 2020-2022 period reviewing SDD protocols, safe patient selection criteria, surrogates for postoperative monitoring, and early outcomes. RESULTS: Early experience with SDD protocols for elective, minimally invasive colorectal surgery suggests that SDD is feasible and safe in well-selected patients and procedures. SDD protocols are associated with reduced opioid use and prescribing. Patient perception and experience with SDD is favourable. For early adopters, SDD has been the natural evolution of well-developed ERPs. Like all ERPs, SDD begins in the office setting, identifying the correct patient and procedure, aligning goals and objectives, and the perioperative education of the patient and their supporting significant others. A thorough discussion with the patient regarding expected activity levels, oral intake, and pain control post operatively lays the foundation for a successful application of SDD programs. These observations may not apply to all patient populations, institutions, practice types, or within the scope of an existing ERP. However, if the underlying principles of SDD can be incorporated into an existing institutional ERP, it may further reduce the incidence of post operative ileus, prolonged LOS, and improve the effectiveness of oral analgesia for postoperative pain management and reduced opioid use and prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: The SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee has performed a comprehensive review of the early experience with SDD. This manuscript summarizes SDD early results and considerations for safe and stepwise implementation of SDD with a specific focus on ERP evolution, patient selection, remote monitoring, and other relevant considerations based on hospital settings and surgical practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Colectomy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Patient Selection , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer is rising in adults <50 years of age. As a primarily unscreened population, they may have clinically important delays to diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to review the literature on delay intervals in patients <50 years with colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore associations between longer intervals and outcomes. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS were searched until December 2, 2021. We included studies published after 1990 reporting any delay interval in adults <50 with CRC. Interval measures and associations with stage at presentation or survival were synthesized and described in a narrative fashion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, Institute of Health Economics Case Series Quality Appraisal Checklist, and the Aarhus Checklist for cancer delay studies. RESULTS: 55 studies representing 188,530 younger CRC patients were included. Most studies used primary data collection (64%), and 47% reported a single center. Sixteen unique intervals were measured. The most common interval was symptom onset to diagnosis (21 studies; N = 2,107). By sample size, diagnosis to treatment start was the most reported interval (12 studies; N = 170,463). Four studies examined symptoms onset to treatment start (total interval). The shortest was a mean of 99.5 days and the longest was a median of 217 days. There was substantial heterogeneity in the measurement of intervals, and quality of reporting. Higher-quality studies were more likely to use cancer registries, and be population-based. In four studies reporting the relationship between intervals and cancer stage or survival, there were no clear associations between longer intervals and adverse outcomes. DISCUSSION: Adults <50 with CRC may have intervals between symptom onset to treatment start greater than 6 months. Studies reporting intervals among younger patients are limited by inconsistent results and heterogeneous reporting. There is insufficient evidence to determine if longer intervals are associated with advanced stage or worse survival. OTHER: This study's protocol was registered with the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; registration number CRD42020179707).


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Staging , Registries , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
12.
Gut ; 71(11): 2152-2166, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020114

ABSTRACT

The Asia-Pacific region has the largest number of cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and one of the highest levels of mortality due to this condition in the world. Since the publishing of two consensus recommendations in 2008 and 2015, significant advancements have been made in our knowledge of epidemiology, pathology and the natural history of the adenoma-carcinoma progression. Based on the most updated epidemiological and clinical studies in this region, considering literature from international studies, and adopting the modified Delphi process, the Asia-Pacific Working Group on Colorectal Cancer Screening has updated and revised their recommendations on (1) screening methods and preferred strategies; (2) age for starting and terminating screening for CRC; (3) screening for individuals with a family history of CRC or advanced adenoma; (4) surveillance for those with adenomas; (5) screening and surveillance for sessile serrated lesions and (6) quality assurance of screening programmes. Thirteen countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific region were represented in this exercise. International advisors from North America and Europe were invited to participate.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Colonic Polyps , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology , Adenoma/surgery , Asia/epidemiology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Consensus , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans
14.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 45(9): 381-390, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the coronavirus-19 pandemic, experts recommended delaying routine cancer screening and modifying treatment strategies. We sought to understand the sequalae of these recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer. Data was collected from our institutional cancer registry. Prepandemic (2016-2019) was compared with pandemic (2020) data. RESULTS: Three thousand three sixty one screening chest computed tomography scans (CTs), 35,917 colonoscopies, and 48,093 screening mammograms were performed. There was no difference in CTs [81.0 (SEM10.0) vs. 65.6 (SEM3.29), P =0.067] or mammograms [1017.0 (SEM171.8) vs. 809.4 (SEM56.41), P =0.177] in 2020 versus prepandemic. There were fewer colonoscopies in 2020 [651.4 (SEM103.5) vs. 758.91 (SEM11.79), P =0.043]. There was a decrease in cancer diagnoses per month in 2020 of lung [22.70 (SEM1.469) vs. 28.75 (SEM0.8216), P =0.003] and breast [38.56 (SEM6.133) vs. 51.82 (SEM1.257), P =0.001], but not colorectal [13.11 (SEM1.467) vs. 15.88 (SEM0.585), P =0.074] cancer. There was no change in stage at presentation for lung ( P =0.717), breast ( P =0.115), or colorectal cancer ( P =0.180). Lung had a shorter time-to-treatment in 2020 [38.92 days (SEM 2.48) vs. 66 (SEM1.46), P =0.002]. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, there was no difference in screening studies for lung and breast cancer but there was a decrease in new diagnoses. Although there were fewer colonoscopies performed in 2020, there was no change in new colorectal cancer diagnoses. Despite changes in guidelines during the pandemic, the time-to-treatment for lung cancer was shorter and was unchanged for colorectal and breast cancer. These findings highlight the importance of continuing care for a vulnerable patient population despite a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lung , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
15.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(9): 2013-2020, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999924

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on the health services worldwide. We aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on colorectal cancer (CRC) care in the Netherlands in 2020. METHODS: CRC patients, diagnosed in 2018-2020 in the Netherlands, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). The year 2020 was divided in four periods reflecting COVID-19 developments in the Netherlands (pre-COVID, 1st peak, recovery period, 2nd peak) and compared with the same periods in 2018/2019. Patient characteristics and treatment were compared using the Chi-squared test. Median time between diagnosis and treatment, and between (neo)adjuvant therapy and surgery were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: In total, 38,021 CRC patients were diagnosed in 2018/2019 (n = 26,816) and 2020 (n = 11,205). Median time between diagnosis and initial treatment decreased on average 4 days and median time between neoadjuvant radiotherapy and surgery in clinical stage II or III rectal cancer patients increased on average 34 days during the three COVID-19 periods compared to the same periods of 2018/2019. The proportion of colon cancer patients that underwent elective surgery significantly decreased with 3.0% during the 1st peak. No differences were found in the proportion of patients who received (neo)adjuvant therapy, systemic therapy, or no anti-cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: Only minor changes in the care for CRC patients occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, mostly during the 1st peak. In conclusion, the impact on CRC care in the Netherlands was found to be limited. However, long-term effects cannot be precluded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061941, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health system resources were reallocated to provide care for patients with COVID-19, limiting access for others. Patients themselves also constrained their visits to healthcare providers. In this study, we analysed the heterogeneous effects of the pandemic on the new diagnoses of lung, colorectal and breast cancer in Hungary. DESIGN: Time series and panel models of quarterly administrative data, disaggregated by gender, age group and district of residence. PARTICIPANTS: Data for the whole population of Hungary between the first quarter of 2017 and the second quarter of 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of patients newly diagnosed with lung, colorectal and breast cancer, defined as those who were hospitalised with the appropriate primary International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision diagnosis code but had not had hospital encounters with such a code within the previous 5 years. RESULTS: The incidence of lung, colorectal and breast cancer decreased by 14.4% (95% CI 10.8% to 17.8%), 19.9% (95% CI 12.2% to 26.9%) and 15.5% (95% CI 2.5% to 27.0%), respectively, during the examined period of the pandemic, with different time patterns across cancer types. The incidence decreased more among people at least 65 years old than among the younger (p<0.05 for lung cancer and p<0.1 for colorectal cancer). At the district level, both the previously negative income gap in lung cancer incidence and the previously positive income gap in breast cancer incidence significantly narrowed during the pandemic (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in new cancer diagnoses, caused by a combination of supply-side and demand-side factors, suggests that some cancer cases have remained hidden. It calls for action by policy makers to engage individuals with high risk of cancer more in accessing healthcare services, to diagnose the disease early and to prepare for effective management of patient pathways from diagnosis to survival or end-of-life care.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Incidence , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Time Factors
17.
Br J Cancer ; 127(8): 1525-1533, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991565

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) faces endoscopy capacity challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic and plans to lower the screening starting age. This may necessitate modifying the interscreening interval or threshold. METHODS: We analysed data from the English Faecal Immunochemical Testing (FIT) pilot, comprising 27,238 individuals aged 59-75, screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) using FIT. We estimated screening sensitivity to CRC, adenomas, advanced adenomas (AA) and mean sojourn time of each pathology by faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) thresholds, then predicted the detection of these abnormalities by interscreening interval and f-Hb threshold. RESULTS: Current 2-yearly screening with a f-Hb threshold of 120 µg/g was estimated to generate 16,092 colonoscopies, prevent 186 CRCs, detect 1142 CRCs, 7086 adenomas and 4259 AAs per 100,000 screened over 15 years. A higher threshold at 180 µg/g would reduce required colonoscopies to 11,500, prevent 131 CRCs, detect 1077 CRCs, 4961 adenomas and 3184 AAs. A longer interscreening interval of 3 years would reduce required colonoscopies to 10,283, prevent 126 and detect 909 CRCs, 4796 adenomas and 2986 AAs. CONCLUSION: Increasing the f-Hb threshold was estimated to be more efficient than increasing the interscreening interval regarding overall colonoscopies per screen-benefited cancer. Increasing the interval was more efficient regarding colonoscopies per cancer prevented.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , England , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(8): 1521-1531, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer screening is a complex process involving multiple steps and levels of influence (e.g., patient, provider, facility, health care system, community, or neighborhood). We describe the design, methods, and research agenda of the Population-based Research to Optimize the Screening Process (PROSPR II) consortium. PROSPR II Research Centers (PRC), and the Coordinating Center aim to identify opportunities to improve screening processes and reduce disparities through investigation of factors affecting cervical, colorectal, and lung cancer screening in U.S. community health care settings. METHODS: We collected multilevel, longitudinal cervical, colorectal, and lung cancer screening process data from clinical and administrative sources on >9 million racially and ethnically diverse individuals across 10 heterogeneous health care systems with cohorts beginning January 1, 2010. To facilitate comparisons across organ types and highlight data breadth, we calculated frequencies of multilevel characteristics and volumes of screening and diagnostic tests/procedures and abnormalities. RESULTS: Variations in patient, provider, and facility characteristics reflected the PROSPR II health care systems and differing target populations. PRCs identified incident diagnoses of invasive cancers, in situ cancers, and precancers (invasive: 372 cervical, 24,131 colorectal, 11,205 lung; in situ: 911 colorectal, 32 lung; precancers: 13,838 cervical, 554,499 colorectal). CONCLUSIONS: PROSPR II's research agenda aims to advance: (i) conceptualization and measurement of the cancer screening process, its multilevel factors, and quality; (ii) knowledge of cancer disparities; and (iii) evaluation of the COVID-19 pandemic's initial impacts on cancer screening. We invite researchers to collaborate with PROSPR II investigators. IMPACT: PROSPR II is a valuable data resource for cancer screening researchers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics
19.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(8): 2229-2235, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971816

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Many communities remain under the 80% CRC screening goal. We aimed to identify factors associated with non-adherence to CRC screening and to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in CRC screening patterns. A retrospective review of patients aged 50-75 years seen at the Griffin Faculty Physicians primary care offices between January 2019 and December 2020 was performed. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with CRC screening non-adherence. Of 12,189 patients, 66.2% had an updated CRC screen. On univariable logistic regression, factors associated with CRC screening non-adherence included age ≤ 55 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.267, p < 0.001], White/Caucasian race (OR 0.858, p = 0.030), Medicaid insurance (OR 2.097, p < 0.001), morbid obesity (OR 1.436, p < 0.001), current cigarette smoking (OR 1.849, p < 0.001), and elevated HbA1c (OR 1.178, p = 0.004). Age, Medicaid insurance, morbid obesity, current smoking, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% remained significant in the final multivariable model. Compared to 2019, there was an 18.2% decrease in the total number of CRC screening tests in 2020. The proportion of colonoscopy procedures was lower in 2020 compared to the proportion of colonoscopy procedures conducted in 2019 (65.9% vs 81.7%, p < 0.001), with a concurrent increase in stool-based tests. CRC screening rates in our population are comparable to national statistics but below the 80% goal. COVID-19 affected CRC screening. Our results underscore the need to identify patient groups most vulnerable to missing CRC screening and highlight the importance of stool-based testing to bridge screening gaps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Obesity, Morbid , United States , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Pandemics , Occult Blood , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods
20.
Br J Cancer ; 127(3): 558-568, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic responses impacted behaviour and health services. We estimated the impact on incidence, stage and healthcare pathway to diagnosis for female breast, colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers at population level in Wales. METHODS: Cancer e-record and hospital admission data linkage identified adult cases, stage and healthcare pathway to diagnosis (population ~2.5 million). Using multivariate Poisson regressions, we compared 2019 and 2020 counts and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: Cases decreased 15.2% (n = -1011) overall. Female breast annual IRR was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86, p < 0.001), colorectal 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79-0.81, p < 0.001) and non-small cell lung 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90-0.92, p < 0.001). Decreases were largest in 50-69 year olds for female breast and 80+ year olds for all cancers. Stage I female breast cancer declined 41.6%, but unknown stage increased 55.8%. Colorectal stages I-IV declined (range 26.6-29.9%), while unknown stage increased 803.6%. Colorectal Q2-2020 GP-urgent suspected cancer diagnoses decreased 50.0%, and 53.9% for non-small cell lung cancer. Annual screen-detected female breast and colorectal cancers fell 47.8% and 13.3%, respectively. Non-smal -cell lung cancer emergency presentation diagnoses increased 9.5% (Q2-2020) and 16.3% (Q3-2020). CONCLUSION: Significantly fewer cases of three common cancers were diagnosed in 2020. Detrimental impacts on outcomes varied between cancers. Ongoing surveillance with health service optimisation will be needed to mitigate impacts.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
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