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1.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 29(6): 663-668, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all aspects of clinical care including diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancers (CRCs) globally, including in Türkiye. During the initial peak of the pandemic, elective surgeries and outpatient clinics were restricted in addition to the government-imposed lockdown, resulting in a decrease in the number of colonoscopies being performed and patients admitted to inpatient wards for treatment of CRCs. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the pandemic has affected presentation characteristics and outcomes of obstructive colorectal cancer in this period. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study based on all CRC adenocarcinoma patients that underwent surgical resection in a high-volume tertiary referral center in Istanbul, Türkiye. Patients were divided into two groups before and after 15 months of identification of 'patient-zero' in Türkiye (March 18, 2020). Patient demographics, initial presentation characteristics, clin-ical outcomes, and pathological cancer stages were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 215 patients underwent resection for CRC adenocarcinoma during 30 months (COVID era: 107, pre-COVID era: 108). Patient characteristics, tumor location, and clinical staging were comparable between two groups. During the COVID period, the number of obstructive CRCs (P<0.01) and emergency presentations (P<0.01) increased significantly compared to the respective pre-COVID period. However, there were no differences between 30-day morbidity, mortality, and pathological outcomes (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Although the results of our study indicate a significant increase in emergency presentation and a decrease in elective admissions of CRCs during the pandemic, patients treated during the COVID period were not at a significant disadvantage in terms of post-operative outcomes. Further efforts should be made to decrease risks related to an emergency presentation of CRCs for future adverse events.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery
2.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 32(4): 396-409, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Significant health inequities exist in screening uptake for certain types of cancer. The review question was to identify and describe interactive, tailored digital, computer, and web-based interventions to reduce health inequity in cancer screening and review the effectiveness of such interventions in increasing screening rates versus usual care. METHODS: We searched four medical literature databases for randomized control trials (RCTs) published until 12 January 2023 that evaluated interventions aimed at increasing the percentage of breast, prostate, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening uptake. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: After screening 4200 titles and abstracts, 17 studies were included. Studies focused on colorectal ( n  = 10), breast ( n  = 4), cervical ( n  = 2), and prostate ( n  = 1) cancer screening. All were based in the USA except two. Most studies focused on ethnicity/race, while some included low-income populations. Intervention types were heterogeneous and used computer programs, apps, or web-based methods to provide tailored or interactive information to participants about screening risks and options. Some studies found positive effects for increasing cancer screening uptake in the intervention groups compared to usual care, but results were heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: Interventions that use individual and cultural tailoring of cancer screening educational material should be further developed and investigated outside of the USA. Designing effective digital intervention strategies, with components that can be adapted to remote delivery may be an important strategy for reducing health inequities in cancer screening during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control
3.
Elife ; 122023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317583

ABSTRACT

The aftermath of the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to the widening of disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes due to differential disruptions to CRC screening. This comparative microsimulation analysis uses two CISNET CRC models to simulate the impact of ongoing screening disruptions induced by the COVID-19 pandemic on long-term CRC outcomes. We evaluate three channels through which screening was disrupted: delays in screening, regimen switching, and screening discontinuation. The impact of these disruptions on long-term CRC outcomes was measured by the number of life-years lost due to CRC screening disruptions compared to a scenario without any disruptions. While short-term delays in screening of 3-18 months are predicted to result in minor life-years loss, discontinuing screening could result in much more significant reductions in the expected benefits of screening. These results demonstrate that unequal recovery of screening following the pandemic can widen disparities in CRC outcomes and emphasize the importance of ensuring equitable recovery to screening following the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
5.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(10): 1125-1133.e10, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing. There is an increasing number of long-term survivors, many of whom are elderly and have comorbidities. We conducted a population-based study in Hong Kong to assess the long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence associated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy among CRC survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the population-based electronic medical database of Hong Kong, we identified adults who were diagnosed with high-risk stage II-III CRC and treated with radical surgery followed by adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy between 2010 and 2019. We evaluated the cause-specific cumulative incidence of CVD (including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and stroke) using the flexible parametric competing risk modeling framework. The control group without a history of CVD was selected from among a noncancer random sample from primary care clinics in the same geographic area. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,037 treated patients with CRC and 5,078 noncancer controls. The adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) for CVD in the cancer cohort compared with the control group was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.39-3.20). The 1-, 5-, and 10-year cause-specific cumulative incidences were 2.0%, 4.5%, and 5.4% in the cancer cohort versus 1.2%, 3.0%, and 3.8% in the control group, respectively. Age at cancer diagnosis (HR per 5-year increase, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.24), male sex (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.86), comorbidity (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.36-2.61 for 1 comorbidity vs none, and HR, 6.61; 95% CI, 4.55-9.60 for ≥2 comorbidities vs none), diabetes (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.04-1.84), hypertension (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.39-4.50), and dyslipidemia/hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.68-3.81) were associated with incident CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD among survivors of high-risk stage II-III CRC. Cardiovascular risk monitoring of this group throughout cancer survivorship is advisable.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Survivors
6.
Gut ; 72(7): 1319-1325, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of delayed invitation on screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers (CRC) within a faecal immunochemical testing (FIT)-based CRC screening programme. DESIGN: All individuals that participated in 2017 and 2018 with a negative FIT and were eligible for CRC screening in 2019 and 2020 were included using individual-level data. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between either the different time periods (ie, 'before', 'during' and 'after' the first COVID-19 wave) or the invitation interval on screen-detected and interval CRCs. RESULTS: Positive predictive value for advanced neoplasia (AN) was slightly lower during (OR=0.91) and after (OR=0.95) the first COVID-19 wave, but no significant difference was observed for the different invitation intervals. Out of all individuals that previously tested negative, 84 (0.004%) had an interval CRC beyond the 24 months since their last invitation. The time period of invitation as well as the extended invitation interval was not associated with detection rates for AN and interval CRC rate. CONCLUSION: The impact of the first COVID-19 wave on screening yield was modest. A very small proportion of the FIT negatives had an interval CRC possibly due to an extended interval, which potentially could have been prevented if they had received the invitation earlier. Nonetheless, no increase in interval CRC rate was observed, indicating that an extended invitation interval up to 30 months had no negative impact on the performance of the CRC screening programme and a modest extension of the invitation interval seems an appropriate intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Occult Blood , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy
7.
Gastroenterology ; 163(3): 723-731.e6, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected clinical services globally, including colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnostic testing. We investigated the pandemic's impact on fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening, colonoscopy utilization, and colorectal neoplasia detection across 21 medical centers in a large integrated health care organization. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients ages 18 to 89 years in 2019 and 2020 and measured changes in the numbers of mailed, completed, and positive FITs; colonoscopies; and cases of colorectal neoplasia detected by colonoscopy in 2020 vs 2019. RESULTS: FIT kit mailings ceased in mid-March through April 2020 but then rebounded and there was an 8.7% increase in kits mailed compared with 2019. With the later mailing of FIT kits, there were 9.0% fewer FITs completed and 10.1% fewer positive tests in 2020 vs 2019. Colonoscopy volumes declined 79.4% in April 2020 compared with April 2019 but recovered to near pre-pandemic volumes in September through December, resulting in a 26.9% decline in total colonoscopies performed in 2020. The number of patients diagnosed by colonoscopy with CRC and advanced adenoma declined by 8.7% and 26.9%, respectively, in 2020 vs 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic led to fewer FIT screenings and colonoscopies in 2020 vs 2019; however, after the lifting of shelter-in-place orders, FIT screenings exceeded, and colonoscopy volumes nearly reached numbers from those same months in 2019. Overall, there was an 8.7% reduction in CRC cases diagnosed by colonoscopy in 2020. These data may help inform the development of strategies for CRC screening and diagnostic testing during future national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Community Health Services , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Elife ; 122023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274176

ABSTRACT

Australia introduced COVID-19 infection prevention and control measures in early 2020. To help prepare health services, the Australian Government Department of Health commissioned a modelled evaluation of the impact of disruptions to population breast, bowel, and cervical cancer screening programmes on cancer outcomes and cancer services. We used the Policy1 modelling platforms to predict outcomes for potential disruptions to cancer screening participation, covering periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. We estimated missed screens, clinical outcomes (cancer incidence, tumour staging), and various diagnostic service impacts. We found that a 12-mo screening disruption would reduce breast cancer diagnoses (9.3% population-level reduction over 2020-2021) and colorectal cancer (up to 12.1% reduction over 2020-21), and increase cervical cancer diagnoses (up to 3.6% over 2020-2022), with upstaging expected for these cancer types (2, 1.4, and 6.8% for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, respectively). Findings for 6-12-mo disruption scenarios illustrate that maintaining screening participation is critical to preventing an increase in the burden of cancer at a population level. We provide programme-specific insights into which outcomes are expected to change, when changes are likely to become apparent, and likely downstream impacts. This evaluation provided evidence to guide decision-making for screening programmes and emphasises the ongoing benefits of maintaining screening in the face of potential future disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control
9.
Ir Med J ; 116(No.1): 3, 2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278357

ABSTRACT

BowelScreen paused activity in March 2020 to prioritise the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of this delay. Cases affected by the pause and subsequently completed were compared to the same period in 2019. Endoscopy and histology data were obtained from the BowelScreen database and patient records. One-hundred and seven colonoscopies were performed during the study period. This compared with 224 colonoscopies during the same period in 2019. Median lead time to colonoscopy in 2020 was 74 days compared to 34 days in 2019. Adenoma detection rate was 59% for both periods. Advanced adenoma and cancer detection rates were similar in both periods. While there was a marked reduction in activity and significant delays for BowelScreen patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, this does not appear to have impacted on clinical outcomes for patients who attended for screening colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colonoscopy , Mass Screening , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 546, 2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Response to the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the temporary disruption of cancer screening in the UK, and strong public messaging to stay safe and to protect NHS capacity. Following reintroduction in services, we explored the impact on inequalities in uptake of the Bowel Screening Wales (BSW) programme to identify groups who may benefit from tailored interventions. METHODS: Records within the BSW were linked to electronic health records (EHR) and administrative data within the Secured Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. Ethnic group was obtained from a linked data method available within SAIL. We examined uptake for the first 3 months of invitations (August to October) following the reintroduction of BSW programme in 2020, compared to the same period in the preceding 3 years. Uptake was measured across a 6 month follow-up period. Logistic models were conducted to analyse variations in uptake by sex, age group, income deprivation quintile, urban/rural location, ethnic group, and clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) status in each period; and to compare uptake within sociodemographic groups between different periods. RESULTS: Uptake during August to October 2020 (period 2020/21; 60.4%) declined compared to the same period in 2019/20 (62.7%) but remained above the 60% Welsh standard. Variation by sex, age, income deprivation, and ethnic groups was observed in all periods studied. Compared to the pre-pandemic period in 2019/20, uptake declined for most demographic groups, except for older individuals (70-74 years) and those in the most income deprived group. Uptake continues to be lower in males, younger individuals, people living in the most income deprived areas and those of Asian and unknown ethnic backgrounds. CONCLUSION: Our findings are encouraging with overall uptake achieving the 60% Welsh standard during the first three months after the programme restarted in 2020 despite the disruption. Inequalities did not worsen after the programme resumed activities but variations in CRC screening in Wales associated with sex, age, deprivation and ethnic group remain. This needs to be considered in targeting strategies to improve uptake and informed choice in CRC screening to avoid exacerbating disparities in CRC outcomes as screening services recover from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Wales/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(9): 1492-1508, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its complete roll-out in 2009, the French colorectal cancer screening program (CRCSP) experienced 3 major constraints [use of a less efficient Guaiac-test (gFOBT), stopping the supply of Fecal-Immunochemical-Test kits (FIT), and suspension of the program due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] affecting its effectiveness. AIM: To describe the impact of the constraints in terms of changes in the quality of screening-colonoscopy (Quali-Colo). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included screening-colonoscopies performed by gastroenterologists between Jan-2010 and Dec-2020 in people aged 50-74 living in Ile-de-France (France). The changes in Quali-colo (Proportion of colonoscopies performed beyond 7 mo (Colo_7 mo), Frequency of serious adverse events (SAE) and Colonoscopy detection rate) were described in a cohort of Gastroenterologists who performed at least one colonoscopy over each of the four periods defined according to the chronology of the constraints [gFOBT: Normal progress of the CRCSP using gFOBT (2010-2014); FIT: Normal progress of the CRCSP using FIT (2015-2018); STOP-FIT: Year (2019) during which the CRCSP experienced the cessation of the supply of test kits; COVID: Program suspension due to the COVID-19 health crisis (2020)]. The link between each dependent variable (Colo_7 mo; SAE occurrence, neoplasm detection rate) and the predictive factors was analyzed in a two-level multivariate hierarchical model. RESULTS: The 533 gastroenterologists (cohort) achieved 21509 screening colonoscopies over gFOBT period, 38352 over FIT, 7342 over STOP-FIT and 7995 over COVID period. The frequency of SAE did not change between periods (gFOBT: 0.3%; FIT: 0.3%; STOP-FIT: 0.3%; and COVID: 0.2%; P = 0.10). The risk of Colo_7 mo doubled between FIT [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.2 (1.1; 1.2)] and STOP-FIT [aOR: 2.4 (2.1; 2.6)]; then, decreased by 40% between STOP-FIT and COVID [aOR: 2.0 (1.8; 2.2)]. Regardless of the period, this Colo_7 mo's risk was twice as high for screening colonoscopy performed in a public hospital [aOR: 2.1 (1.3; 3.6)] compared to screening-colonoscopy performed in a private clinic. The neoplasm detection, which increased by 60% between gFOBT and FIT [aOR: 1.6 (1.5; 1.7)], decreased by 40% between FIT and COVID [aOR: 1.1 (1.0; 1.3)]. CONCLUSION: The constraints likely affected the time-to-colonoscopy as well as the colonoscopy detection rate without impacting the SAE's occurrence, highlighting the need for a respectable reference time-to-colonoscopy in CRCSP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Gastroenterologists , Humans , Guaiac , Early Detection of Cancer , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy , Occult Blood , Radiopharmaceuticals
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258906

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the emergency treatment of patients with colorectal cancer in a university surgery clinic. Data from patients undergoing emergency surgery during the pandemic period (2020-2021) was taken into consideration and the results were analyzed and compared with the periods 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. A significant decrease in the number of patients undergoing emergency surgery was reported (p = 0.028). The proportion of patients who presented more severe symptoms at the hospital was significantly higher (p = 0.007). There was an increase in the average duration of surgical interventions compared to pre-pandemic periods (p = 0.021). An increase in the percentage of stomas performed during the pandemic was reported. The average duration of postoperative hospitalization was shorter during the pandemic. A postoperative mortality of 25.7% was highlighted. Conclusions: The pandemic generated by COVID-19 had significant consequences on the emergency treatment of patients with colon cancer. A smaller number of patients showed up at the hospital, and with more severe symptoms. In order to reduce the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus, the postoperative hospitalization period was shortened and a higher number of protective stomas were performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
13.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 101(2): 90-96, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis delay, symptoms, and stage of patients with CRC during the pandemic with a control cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients referred to the CRC multidisciplinary team between September 2019 and January 2020 (cohort 1, control group) were compared with those who presented between September 2020 and March 2021 (cohort 2, pandemic group). RESULTS: 389 patients were included, 169 in cohort 1 and 220 in cohort 2. No differences were observed in the main characteristics of the patients. CRC screening and anaemia were the most common causes leading to the diagnosis of the tumour in cohort 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). Diagnostic and therapeutic delay was longer in cohort 2 [6.4 (95% CI 5.8-6.9) vs. 4.8 (95% CI 4.3-5.3) months, p<0.001]. More patients required non-elective treatment in the pandemic cohort (15.5% vs. 9.5%, p=0.080). The tumour stage was more advanced in patients in cohort 2 [positive nodes in 52.3% vs. 36.7% (p=0.002), and metastatic disease in 23.6% vs. 16.6% (p=0.087)]. CONCLUSION: CRC patients in the pandemic cohort had a longer diagnostic and therapeutic delay and less patients were diagnosed because of CRC screening. In addition, patients with CRC during the pandemic needed non-elective treatment more frequently than patients in the control cohort, and their tumour stage tended to be more advanced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Time Factors
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2251384, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233403

ABSTRACT

Importance: Noninvasive stool-based screening tests (SBTs) are effective alternatives to colonoscopy. However, a positive SBT result requires timely follow-up colonoscopy (FU-CY) to complete the colorectal cancer screening paradigm. Objectives: To evaluate FU-CY rates after a positive SBT result and to assess the association of the early COVID-19 pandemic with FU-CY rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mixed-methods cohort study included retrospective analysis of deidentified administrative claims and electronic health records data between June 1, 2015, and June 30, 2021, from the Optum Labs Data Warehouse and qualitative, semistructured interviews with clinicians from 5 health care organizations (HCOs). The study population included data from average-risk primary care patients aged 50 to 75 years with a positive SBT result between January 1, 2017, and June 30, 2020, at 39 HCOs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the FU-CY rate within 1 year of a positive SBT result according to patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, insurance type, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and prior SBT use. Results: This cohort study included 32 769 individuals (16 929 [51.7%] female; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [7.1] years; 2092 [6.4%] of Black and 28 832 [88.0%] of White race; and 825 [2.5%] of Hispanic ethnicity). The FU-CY rates were 43.3% within 90 days of the positive SBT result, 51.4% within 180 days, and 56.1% within 360 days (n = 32 769). In interviews, clinicians were uniformly surprised by the low FU-CY rates. Rates varied by race, ethnicity, insurance type, presence of comorbidities, and SBT used. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, the strongest positive association was with multitarget stool DNA use (hazard ratio, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.57-1.68] relative to fecal immunochemical tests; P < .001), and the strongest negative association was with the presence of comorbidities (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.59-0.71] for a CCI of >4 relative to 0; P < .001). The early COVID-19 pandemic was associated with lower FU-CY rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that FU-CY rates after a positive SBT result for colorectal cancer screening were low among an average-risk population, with the median HCO achieving a 53.4% FU-CY rate within 1 year. Socioeconomic factors and the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with lower FU-CY rates, presenting opportunities for targeted intervention by clinicians and health care systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233211

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) and post-COVID-19 tectonic changes in healthcare delivery have made it possible for cancer survivors to obtain disease-related information for remote management online rather than through healthcare providers. To comprehend and evaluate health information, digital literacy is crucial. Objectives: This study examined cancer survivors' information-seeking behaviour, information sources, digital health literacy, and digital trends, as well as potential determinants of e-health information receptivity and online resource use. Methods: A national 30-item cross-sectional survey using a representative random sample of cancer survivors from Jordan's cancer registry was conducted. Chi-square tests established categorical variable relationships. Using the mean and standard deviation, we calculated the Likert scale's ordinal data average. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Logistic regression identified predictors of interest in late-trajectory information acquisition and use of e-health platforms (apps, portals) for cancer self-management. Results: Lower digital literacy and electronic searching were associated with older age and lower income, education, and employment status (p ≤ 0.001). Digital literacy independently predicted m-health app use for remote management and interest in cancer supportive care information. Digitally literate survivors preferred the use of digital platforms (p ≤ 0.001). Information acquisition barriers included "reliability" (26%, n = 25) and "health information trustworthiness" (16.2%, n = 25). Following treatment completion, Internet-seeking behaviour decreased significantly when compared to the early cancer trajectory. Conclusion: Our findings imply that Jordanian cancer survivors' low digital literacy may hinder information acquisition and technology-enabled cancer care. Digital interventions for cancer survivors should be adaptable to varying levels of digital health literacy. Healthcare policymakers should recognise digital inequities and devise focused initiatives to bridge the digital divide while responding to the urgent need to digitalise cancer care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Colorectal Neoplasms , Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Survivors , Information Seeking Behavior , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Internet , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(1): 32-34, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218866

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to major changes in the provision of surgical services and also affected patients' health-seeking behaviour. This contributes to delayed presentation of many surgical conditions resulting in poorer outcomes. Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who present with acute surgical emergencies such as complete bowel obstruction, perforation, bleeding or sepsis often require immediate intervention. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the proportion of emergency surgery in CRC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. All CRC patients who underwent elective and emergency surgery from January until December 2019 (pre-COVID era) and September 2020 until August 2021 (COVID era) were included. Patient demographics, presentation, tumour stage, surgery performed and waiting time for surgery were collected. Data were then compared. RESULTS: Seventy-seven and 76 new cases of CRC underwent surgery before and during COVID-19, respectively. The proportions of emergency surgery before and during COVID-19 are 29% vs 33% (p=0.562). Of those who required emergency surgery, the proportions of patients who required stoma formation are 59% vs 72% (p= 0.351). There was no difference in median waiting time for patients requiring elective surgery (p= 0.668). CONCLUSION: The proportion of emergency surgery for CRC patients is not statistically higher during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures
17.
Elife ; 122023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217492

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide, most colorectal cancer screening programmes were paused at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, while the Danish faecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based programme continued without pausing. We examined colorectal cancer screening participation and compliance with subsequent colonoscopy in Denmark throughout the pandemic. Methods: We used data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database among individuals aged 50-74 years old invited to participate in colorectal cancer screening from 2018 to 2021 combined with population-wide registries. Using a generalised linear model, we estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer screening participation within 90 days since invitation and compliance with colonoscopy within 60 days since a positive FIT test during the pandemic in comparison with the previous years adjusting for age, month and year of invitation. Results: Altogether, 3,133,947 invitations were sent out to 1,928,725 individuals and there were 94,373 positive FIT tests (in 92,848 individuals) during the study period. Before the pandemic, 60.7% participated in screening within 90 days. A minor reduction in participation was observed at the start of the pandemic (PR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94-0.96 in pre-lockdown and PR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.85-0.86 in first lockdown) corresponding to a participation rate of 54.9% during pre-lockdown and 53.0% during first lockdown. This was followed by a 5-10% increased participation in screening corresponding to a participation rate of up to 64.9%. The largest increase in participation was observed among 55-59 years old and among immigrants. The compliance with colonoscopy within 60 days was 89.9% before the pandemic. A slight reduction was observed during first lockdown (PR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), where after it resumed to normal levels. Conclusions: Participation in the Danish FIT-based colorectal cancer screening programme and subsequent compliance to colonoscopy after a positive FIT result was only slightly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Funding: The study was funded by the Danish Cancer Society Scientific Committee (Grant number R321-A17417) and the Danish regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 259(4): 301-306, 2023 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214905

ABSTRACT

We recently reported the decrease in the number of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer diagnoses in 2020 due to disturbance of the healthcare system by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, using a hospital-based cancer registration system in Akita prefecture, Japan. In this study, we extended the research by showing the latest data (2021) on the number of cancers and examinations. Information on the occurrence and stage of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers was collected from the same database. The number of GI examinations (cancer screening procedures and endoscopic examinations) was also investigated. Following the immediate decrease in the numbers of both GI examinations and GI cancer diagnoses in 2020, a rebound increase in the numbers of GI cancer diagnoses-especially colorectal cancers-was observed in 2021, resulting from an increased number of GI examinations i.e., the total number of colorectal cancers in 2021 increased by 9.0% and 6.8% in comparison to 2020 and pre-pandemic era, respectively. However, the rebound increase in 2021 was largely due to an increase in early-stage cancers, and there was no apparent trend toward the increased predominance of more advanced cancers. It therefore seems that we managed to escape from the worst-case scenario of disturbance of the healthcare system due to pandemic (i.e., an increase in the number of more advanced cancers due to delayed diagnoses). We need to continue to watch the trends in Akita prefecture, which has the highest rate of mortality from the 3 major GI cancers in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 304-314, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening programmes worldwide have been disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to estimate the impact of hypothetical disruptions to organised faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening programmes on short-term and long-term colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in three countries using microsimulation modelling. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used four country-specific colorectal cancer microsimulation models-Policy1-Bowel (Australia), OncoSim (Canada), and ASCCA and MISCAN-Colon (the Netherlands)-to estimate the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to screening on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Australia, Canada, and the Netherlands annually for the period 2020-24 and cumulatively for the period 2020-50. Modelled scenarios varied by duration of disruption (3, 6, and 12 months), decreases in screening participation after the period of disruption (0%, 25%, or 50% reduction), and catch-up screening strategies (within 6 months after the disruption period or all screening delayed by 6 months). FINDINGS: Without catch-up screening, our analysis predicted that colorectal cancer deaths among individuals aged 50 years and older, a 3-month disruption would result in 414-902 additional new colorectal cancer diagnoses (relative increase 0·1-0·2%) and 324-440 additional deaths (relative increase 0·2-0·3%) in the Netherlands, 1672 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·3%) and 979 additional deaths (relative increase 0·5%) in Australia, and 1671 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·2%) and 799 additional deaths (relative increase 0·3%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. A 6-month disruption would result in 803-1803 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·2-0·4%) and 678-881 additional deaths (relative increase 0·4-0·6%) in the Netherlands, 3552 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·6%) and 1961 additional deaths (relative increase 1·0%) in Australia, and 2844 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·3%) and 1319 additional deaths (relative increase 0·4%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. A 12-month disruption would result in 1619-3615 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·4-0·9%) and 1360-1762 additional deaths (relative increase 0·8-1·2%) in the Netherlands, 7140 additional diagnoses (relative increase 1·2%) and 3968 additional deaths (relative increase 2·0%) in Australia, and 5212 additional diagnoses (relative increase 0·6%) and 2366 additional deaths (relative increase 0·8%) in Canada between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. Providing immediate catch-up screening could minimise the impact of the disruption, restricting the relative increase in colorectal cancer incidence and deaths between 2020 and 2050 to less than 0·1% in all countries. A post-disruption decrease in participation could increase colorectal cancer incidence by 0·2-0·9% and deaths by 0·6-1·6% between 2020 and 2050, compared with undisrupted screening. INTERPRETATION: Although the projected effect of short-term disruption to colorectal cancer screening is modest, such disruption will have a marked impact on colorectal cancer incidence and deaths between 2020 and 2050 attributable to missed screening. Thus, it is crucial that, if disrupted, screening programmes ensure participation rates return to previously observed rates and provide catch-up screening wherever possible, since this could mitigate the impact on colorectal cancer deaths. FUNDING: Cancer Council New South Wales, Health Canada, and Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Occult Blood , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology
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