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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884201

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Less than half of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is locally advanced. CRC is a heterogenous disease associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. Diagnostic markers are used for risk stratification and early detection, which might prolong overall survival. Nowadays, the widespread use of semi-invasive endoscopic methods and feacal blood tests characterised by suboptimal accuracy of diagnostic results has led to the detection of cases at later stages. New molecular noninvasive tests based on the detection of CRC alterations seem to be more sensitive and specific then the current methods. Therefore, research aiming at identifying molecular markers, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, would improve survival rates and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. The identification of "ideal" diagnostic biomarkers, having high sensitivity and specificity, being safe, cheap and easy to measure, remains a challenge. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in novel diagnostic biomarkers for tumor tissue, blood and stool samples in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Feces/chemistry , Humans , Liquid Biopsy/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , Volatile Organic Compounds
2.
Biosci Rep ; 41(12)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592575

ABSTRACT

Parasporin-2Aa1 (PS2Aa1) is a toxic protein of 37 KDa (30 kDa, activated form produced by proteolysis) that was shown to be cytotoxic against specific human cancer cells, although its mechanism of action has not been elucidated yet. In order to study the role of some native peptide fragments of proteins on anticancer activity, here we investigated the cytotoxic effect of peptide fragments from domain-1 of PS2Aa1 and one of the loops present in the binding region of the virus spike protein from Alphacoronavirus (HCoV-229E), the latter according to scientific reports, who showed interaction with the human APN (h-APN) receptor, evidence corroborated through computational simulations, and thus being possible active against colon cancer cells. Peptides namely P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa were synthesized using the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS). Additionally, one region from loop 1 of HCoV-229E, Loop1-HCoV-229E, was also synthesized and characterized. The A4W-GGN5 anticancer peptide and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were taken as a control in all experiments. Circular dichroism revealed an α-helix structure for the peptides derived from PS2Aa1 (P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa) and ß-laminar structure for the peptide derived from Alphacoronavirus spike protein Loop1-HCoV-229E. Peptides showed a hemolysis percentage of less than 20% at 100 µM concentration. Besides, peptides exhibited stronger anticancer activity against SW480 and SW620 cells after exposure for 48 h. Likewise, these compounds showed significantly lower toxicity against normal cells CHO-K1. The results suggest that native peptide fragments from Ps2Aa1 may be optimized as a novel potential cancer-therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , CHO Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cricetulus , Endotoxins/toxicity , Hemolysis/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis , Peptide Fragments/toxicity , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Sheep, Domestic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/toxicity , Structure-Activity Relationship
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545905

ABSTRACT

Spatial transcriptomics has been emerging as a powerful technique for resolving gene expression profiles while retaining tissue spatial information. These spatially resolved transcriptomics make it feasible to examine the complex multicellular systems of different microenvironments. To answer scientific questions with spatial transcriptomics and expand our understanding of how cell types and states are regulated by microenvironment, the first step is to identify cell clusters by integrating the available spatial information. Here, we introduce SC-MEB, an empirical Bayes approach for spatial clustering analysis using a hidden Markov random field. We have also derived an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm based on an iterative conditional mode for SC-MEB. In contrast to BayesSpace, a recently developed method, SC-MEB is not only computationally efficient and scalable to large sample sizes but is also capable of choosing the smoothness parameter and the number of clusters. We performed comprehensive simulation studies to demonstrate the superiority of SC-MEB over some existing methods. We applied SC-MEB to analyze the spatial transcriptome of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tissues and mouse hypothalamic preoptic region. Our analysis results showed that SC-MEB can achieve a similar or better clustering performance to BayesSpace, which uses the true number of clusters and a fixed smoothness parameter. Moreover, SC-MEB is scalable to large 'sample sizes'. We then employed SC-MEB to analyze a colon dataset from a patient with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19, and further performed differential expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the clustering results. The heatmap of identified signature genes showed that the clusters identified using SC-MEB were more separable than those obtained with BayesSpace. Using pathway analysis, we identified three immune-related clusters, and in a further comparison, found the mean expression of COVID-19 signature genes was greater in immune than non-immune regions of colon tissue. SC-MEB provides a valuable computational tool for investigating the structural organizations of tissues from spatial transcriptomic data.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression Profiling , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Colon/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Markov Chains , Mice
4.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534201

ABSTRACT

What if a new technology based on therapeutic deep eutectic systems would disrupt the current treatment of major economic and socially burden diseases? The classical definition of eutectic systems is that they are the combination of two or more compounds that interact via hydrogen bonds, from which results a melting temperature depression in comparison with that of its individual components. Therapeutic deep eutectic systems are defined as eutectic systems in which at least one of the individual components is an active pharmaceutical ingredient, or a eutectic system in which the active pharmaceutical ingredient is dissolved. Current literature reports on tuberculosis have been mostly based on the most common anti-tuberculosis drugs prescribed. Using eutectic systems based on naturally occurring molecules known for their anti-microbial activity may also present a promising therapeutic strategy able to cope with the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and prevent the appearance of multidrug resistance strains. With regards to colorectal cancer, literature has been unravelling combinations of terpenes with anti-inflammatory drugs that are selectively cytotoxic towards colorectal cancer cells and do not compromise the viability of normal intestinal cells. This technology could contribute to preventing tumor growth and metastasis while providing a patient compliance therapeutics, which will be crucial to the success of overcoming the challenges presented by cancers.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Humans
5.
Biosci Rep ; 41(12)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526113

ABSTRACT

Parasporin-2Aa1 (PS2Aa1) is a toxic protein of 37 KDa (30 kDa, activated form produced by proteolysis) that was shown to be cytotoxic against specific human cancer cells, although its mechanism of action has not been elucidated yet. In order to study the role of some native peptide fragments of proteins on anticancer activity, here we investigated the cytotoxic effect of peptide fragments from domain-1 of PS2Aa1 and one of the loops present in the binding region of the virus spike protein from Alphacoronavirus (HCoV-229E), the latter according to scientific reports, who showed interaction with the human APN (h-APN) receptor, evidence corroborated through computational simulations, and thus being possible active against colon cancer cells. Peptides namely P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa were synthesized using the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS). Additionally, one region from loop 1 of HCoV-229E, Loop1-HCoV-229E, was also synthesized and characterized. The A4W-GGN5 anticancer peptide and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were taken as a control in all experiments. Circular dichroism revealed an α-helix structure for the peptides derived from PS2Aa1 (P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa) and ß-laminar structure for the peptide derived from Alphacoronavirus spike protein Loop1-HCoV-229E. Peptides showed a hemolysis percentage of less than 20% at 100 µM concentration. Besides, peptides exhibited stronger anticancer activity against SW480 and SW620 cells after exposure for 48 h. Likewise, these compounds showed significantly lower toxicity against normal cells CHO-K1. The results suggest that native peptide fragments from Ps2Aa1 may be optimized as a novel potential cancer-therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , CHO Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cricetulus , Endotoxins/toxicity , Hemolysis/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis , Peptide Fragments/toxicity , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Sheep, Domestic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/toxicity , Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
Nat Med ; 27(8): 1362-1366, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246381

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are currently prioritized in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs globally, which includes administration of mRNA vaccines. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has not been reported with mRNA vaccines and is an extremely rare immune-related adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We present a case of CRS that occurred 5 d after vaccination with BTN162b2 (tozinameran)-the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine-in a patient with colorectal cancer on long-standing anti-PD-1 monotherapy. The CRS was evidenced by raised inflammatory markers, thrombocytopenia, elevated cytokine levels (IFN-γ/IL-2R/IL-18/IL-16/IL-10) and steroid responsiveness. The close temporal association of vaccination and diagnosis of CRS in this case suggests that CRS was a vaccine-related adverse event; with anti-PD1 blockade as a potential contributor. Overall, further prospective pharmacovigillence data are needed in patients with cancer, but the benefit-risk profile remains strongly in favor of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 612969, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217047

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the world pose a global health emergency. Cancer has been identified as a risk factor for the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection for mediating viral entry into the host cell. However, a systematic analysis of aberrant expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not yet reported in multiple human cancers. Here, we analyzed gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 across 31 types of tumors. Notably, overexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been observed in colorectal cancer including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), and rectum adenocarcinoma (READ). In addition, the colorectal tumors with upregulated gene expressing presented with decreased DNA methylation levels. DNA methylation might be one of the reasons for abnormal expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Conclusively, colorectal cancer was the only cancer with the upregulated expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. More care of colorectal cancer patients is needed in multiple cancers affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Methylation/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics
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