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1.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 973-983, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846906

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of cancer death and disproportionately affects non-Hispanic Black patients. Routine screening with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) decreases CRC incidence and mortality, and previous literature suggests pairing FIT with live outreach. Screening delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic will likely increase CRC incidence and mortality, especially in underserved communities. We implemented a quality improvement (QI) project at an urban community health center (CHC) in which FIT was paired with live telephone outreach. The intervention increased CRC screening at the CHC by five percentage points. Fecal immunochemical test completion rates significantly increased with successful contact (24.6% for at least one vs. 3.0% for none, p < .0001) and ordering a FIT kit during a patient interaction (28.4% vs. 15.7%, p < .001). This intervention addressed disparities in CRC screening, and the report may have general implications for addressing systemic racism in preventive medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Community Health Centers , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Mass Screening , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Telephone
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058739, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a codesigned, culturally tailored, faith-based online intervention to increase uptake of breast, colorectal and cervical screening in Scottish Muslim women. The intervention was codesigned with Scottish Muslim women (n=10) and underpinned by the reframe, reprioritise and reform model and the behaviour change wheel. SETTING: The study was conducted online, using Zoom, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n=18) taking part in the intervention and subsequently in its evaluation, were Muslim women residing in Scotland, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling from a mosque and community organisations. Participants were aged between 25 years and 54 years and of Asian and Arab ethnicity. DESIGN: The study's codesigned intervention included (1) a peer-led discussion of barriers to screening, (2) a health education session led by a healthcare provider, (3) videos of Muslim women's experiences of cancer or screening, and (4) a religious perspective on cancer screening delivered by a female religious scholar (alimah). The intervention was delivered twice online in March 2021, followed 1 week later by two focus groups, consisting of the same participants, respectively, to discuss participants' experiences of the intervention. Focus group transcripts were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants accepted the content and delivery of the intervention and were positive about their experience of the intervention. Participants reported their knowledge of screening had increased and shared positive views towards cancer screening. They valued the multidimensional delivery of the intervention, appreciated the faith-based perspective, and in particular liked the personal stories and input from a healthcare provider. CONCLUSION: Participatory and community-centred approaches can play an important role in tackling health inequalities in cancer and its screening. Despite limitations, the intervention showed potential and was positively received by participants. Feasibility testing is needed to investigate effectiveness on a larger scale in a full trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Islam , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Qualitative Research , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
3.
Prev Med ; 160: 107076, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821533

ABSTRACT

The English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme invites people between the ages of 60 and 74 to take a Faecal Immunochemical Test every two years. This programme was interrupted during the coronavirus pandemic. The research aimed: (1) to estimate the impact of colorectal cancer (CRC) Faecal Immunochemical Test screening pauses of different lengths and the actual coronavirus-related screening pause in England, and (2) to analyse the most effective and cost-effective strategies to re-start CRC screening to prepare for future disruptions. The analysis used the validated Microsimulation Model in Cancer of the Bowel built in the R programming language. The model simulated the life course of a representative English screening population from 2019, by age, sex, socio-economic deprivation, and prior screening history. The modelling scenarios were based on assumptions and data from screening centres in England. Pausing bowel screening in England due to coronavirus pandemic is predicted to increase CRC deaths by 0.73% within 10 years and 0.13% over the population's lifetime, with excess deaths due to peak in 2023. More deaths are expected in men and people aged over 70. Pausing screening for longer would result in greater additional CRC cases and deaths. Postponing screening for everyone would be the most cost-effective strategy to minimise the impact of screening disruption without any additional endoscopy capacity. If endoscopy capacity can be increased, temporarily raising the Faecal Immunochemical Test threshold to 190 µg/g may help to minimise CRC deaths, particularly if screening programmes start from age 50 in the future.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Aged , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Early Detection of Cancer , England/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Occult Blood , Pandemics
4.
Cancer ; 128(11): 2119-2125, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related deaths over the next decade are expected to increase due to cancer screening deficits associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although national deficits have been quantified, a structured response to identifying and addressing local deficits has not been widely available. The objectives of this report are to share preliminary data on monthly screening deficits in breast, colorectal, lung, and cervical cancers across diverse settings and to provide online materials from a national quality improvement (QI) study to help other institutions to address local screening deficits. METHODS: This prospective, national QI study on Return-to-Screening enrolled 748 accredited cancer programs in the United States from April through June 2021. Local prepandemic and pandemic monthly screening test volumes (MTVs) were used to calculate the relative percent change in MTV to describe the monthly screening gap. RESULTS: The majority of facilities reported monthly screening deficits (colorectal cancer, 80.6% [n = 104/129]; cervical cancer, 69.0% [n = 20/29]; breast cancer, 55.3% [n = 241/436]; lung cancer, 44.6% [n = 98/220]). Overall, the median relative percent change in MTV ranged from -17.7% for colorectal cancer (interquartile range [IQR], -33.6% to -2.8%), -6.8% for cervical cancer (IQR, -29.4% to 1.7%), -1.6% for breast cancer (IQR, -9.6% to 7.0%), and 1.2% for lung cancer (IQR, -16.9% to 19.0%). Geographic differences were not observed. There were statistically significant differences in the percent change in MTV between institution types for colorectal cancer screening (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Cancer screening is still in need of urgent attention, and the screening resources made available online may help facilities to close critical gaps and address screenings missed in 2020. LAY SUMMARY: Question: How can the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on cancer screening be mitigated? FINDINGS: When national resources were provided, including methods to calculate local screening deficits, 748 cancer programs promptly enrolled in a national Return-to-Screening study, and the majority identified local screening deficits, most notably in colorectal cancer. Using these results, 814 quality improvement projects were initiated with the potential to add 70,000 screening tests in 2021. Meaning: Cancer screening is still in need of urgent attention, and the online resources that we provide may help to close critical screening deficits.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality Improvement , United States/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37(6): 1067-1075, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Surveillance colonoscopies may be delayed because of pressure on resources, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine whether delayed surveillance colonoscopy increases the risk for advanced neoplasia and whether interval screening with faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and other known risk factors can mitigate this risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of individuals undergoing surveillance colonoscopy for personal or family history of colorectal neoplasia was being provided with FIT between colonoscopies. Colonoscopy ≥ 6 months after the guideline-recommended interval was considered "delayed." Individuals were stratified based on prime colonoscopy findings to nonneoplastic findings, non-advanced adenoma, and advanced adenoma. The relative risk (RR) for developing advanced neoplasia was determined using a robust multivariable modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of 2548 surveillance colonoscopies, 1457 (57.18%) were delayed. Prior advanced adenoma, older age (> 60 years) and nonparticipation in interval FIT were associated with increased risk for advanced neoplasia (P < 0.05). There was a trend to increased risk in those with prior advanced adenoma with an increasing colonoscopy delay (P trend = 0.01). In participants who did not complete interval FIT and having advanced adenoma in the prime colonoscopy, risk of advanced neoplasia was 2.48 times higher (RR = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.20-5.13) in participants who had beyond 2 years of delayed colonoscopy compared with those with on-time colonoscopy. Colonoscopy delay did not increase the risk of advanced neoplasia in participants with negative interval FIT results. CONCLUSION: Surveillance colonoscopy can be safely extended beyond 6 months in elevated colorectal cancer risk patients who do not have prior advanced adenoma diagnosis, particularly if interval FIT is negative.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology , Adenoma/prevention & control , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(7): 739-743, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Procedural delays due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) preventive care. We aimed to measure racial and socioeconomic disparities in the prioritization of CRC screening or adenoma surveillance during the COVID reopening period. METHODS: We identified CRC screening or surveillance colonoscopies performed during two time periods: (1) 9 June 2019-30 September 2019 (pre-COVID) and (2) 9 June 2020-30 September 2020 (COVID reopening). We recorded the procedure indication, patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance status and zip code. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with undergoing colonoscopy in the COVID reopening era. RESULTS: We identified 1473 colonoscopies for CRC screening or adenoma surveillance; 890 occurred in the pre-COVID period and 583 occurred in the COVID reopening period. In total 342 (38.4%) pre-COVID patients underwent adenoma surveillance and 548 (61.6%) underwent CRC screening; in the COVID reopening cohort, 257 (44.1%) underwent adenoma surveillance and 326 (55.9%) underwent CRC screening (P = 0.031). This increased proportion of surveillance procedures in the reopening cohort was statistically significant on multivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.58]. Black patients comprised 17.4% of the pre-COVID cohort, which declined to 15.3% (P = 0.613). There was a trend toward an inverse association between reopening phase colonoscopy and Medicaid insurance compared with commercial insurance (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.49-1.04). No significant associations were found between reopening phase colonoscopy and the remaining variables. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID reopening period, colonoscopies for CRC fell by over one-third with significantly more surveillance than screening procedures. Nonwhite patients and non-English speakers comprised a shrinking proportion in the COVID reopening period.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology
8.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(5): 335-345, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642950

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common neoplasm. The immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is recommended for screening. The worksite setting has great potential to deliver preventive interventions. We aimed to design and evaluate the feasibility and potential impact of a multicomponent strategy in a workplace [Internal Revenue Agency of the Province of Buenos Aires (ARBA from its acronym in Spanish "Agencia de Recaudación de Buenos Aires") in Argentina].We used a quasi-experimental research design, a controlled interrupted time-series (ITS). The study involved: (i) a preintervention period (July 2015-September 2018); and (ii) an intervention period (October 2018-February 2019). We used semi-structured interviews and focus groups to design the intervention and to ensure feasibility and implementability. We fitted segmented linear regression models to evaluate changes in the monthly rates per 10,000 tests done in ARBA employees and controlling for the proportion of tests done in non-ARBA workers. A total of 1,552 ARBA employees aged 50 or more participated. Overall, iFOBT mean uptake rates were 16 times higher in the intervened during the five-month intervention period, remaining statistically significant after adjusting by the proportion of tests done in the control group (P < 0.001). The effect was higher in women aged 50 to 59 years. Activities were suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A multifaceted workplace-based intervention proved to be feasible and acceptable to increase the uptake of colorectal cancer screening in employees of Argentina. Achieving high implementation rates requires building a healthy relationship with the partner organization, adding their values and views, and establishing agreed-upon mechanisms. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Employee-facing multifaceted worksite cancer screening interventions are a valuable means to increase knowledge and utilization of workers. The controlled ITS showed that colorectal cancer screening mean uptake rates were 16 times higher in the intervened versus the control population during the intervention period, particularly among women aged 50 to 75.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Argentina/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Research Design , Workplace
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638437

ABSTRACT

In Virginia, 56% of colorectal cancers (CRC) are diagnosed late, making it one of three enduring CRC mortality hotspots in the US. Cervical cancer (CCa) exhibits a similar pattern, with 48% late-stage diagnosis. Mortality for these cancers is worse for non-Latinx/e(nL)-Black people relative to nL-White people in Virginia, but preventable with equitable screening access and timely diagnostic follow-up. However, structural barriers, such as fractured referral systems and extended time between medical visits, remain. Because Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) care for a large proportion of racial and ethnic minorities, and underserved communities, regardless of ability to pay, they are ideal partners to tackle structural barriers to cancer screenings. We piloted a quality improvement initiative at five FQHCs in southcentral Virginia to identify and address structural, race-related barriers to CRC, as well as CCa screening and diagnostic follow-up using evidence-based approaches. Uniquely, FQHCs were paired with local community organizations in a didactic partnership, to elevate the community's voice while together, increase support, acceptance, uptake, and intervention sustainability. We report on project development, and share preliminary data within the context of project goals, namely, to increase cancer screenings by 5-10%, improve knowledge and diagnostic follow-up processes, and build longitudinal partnerships.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening , Quality Improvement , Referral and Consultation
10.
Prev Med ; 155: 106929, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586233

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused the suspension at all levels of the Catalan FIT-based CRC screening program on March 12, 2020. Screening invitations to FIT were resumed on September 1, 2020. We aimed to assess the short-term impact of the pandemic and describe strategies implemented to minimize harm by the disruption of the FIT-based CRC screening in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. We analyzed participation rate, colonoscopy adherence, time intervals to colonoscopy, detection rates, and advanced-stage cancers in 2019 and 2020. To identify perceived distress levels during the suspension of the screening we conducted a phone interview. As a result of the suspension, 43% of the individuals due for screening did not receive their invitation by December 31, 2020. A percent decrease of 5.1% in participation and of 8.9% in colonoscopy adherence among invitees between January-March was observed, with a recovery to 2019 levels when the screening activities were restarted. The time interval between a positive test to colonoscopy was longer in 2020 than in 2019. A decrease in advanced neoplasia rate and an increase in later stages of CRC were also observed. Individuals with a positive test did not report higher levels of perceived distress compared to those with a negative test. Although the disruption of screening had a temporary impact on participation and colonoscopy adherence, timing delay continues and a large backlog in the invitation of the target population remains. Thus, it is critical to implement strategies to minimize the long-term effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Mass Screening , Occult Blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448904

ABSTRACT

An economic experiment was conducted in France in 2020 to evaluate consumer attitudes toward two ham products associated with different colorectal cancer risks. We focused specifically on comparing a conventional ham and a new hypothetical antioxidant-enriched ham with a reduced risk of provoking colorectal cancer. Study participants were given descriptions of the two hams before carrying out successive rounds of willingness-to-pay (WTP) assessments. The results show that WTP was higher for the antioxidant-enriched ham than for the conventional ham. WTP estimates were also impacted by providing additional information about the reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with the antioxidant-enriched ham. Based on the participants' WTP, we came up with ex ante estimates for the social impacts of introducing the antioxidant-enriched ham onto the market, and we suggest that it would be socially optimal to promote the product. Competition arising from pre-existing product labelling and marketing assertions could greatly limit the market potential of antioxidant-enriched ham, which suggests that alternative approaches may be necessary, such as regulations mandating antioxidant enrichment. These results also concern all countries with high levels of meat consumption.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Consumer Behavior/economics , Food Preferences/psychology , Food, Fortified/economics , Pork Meat/economics , Adult , Antioxidants , Choice Behavior , Commerce , Diet, Healthy/economics , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Food, Fortified/analysis , France , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pork Meat/analysis , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A customised data management system was required for a rapidly implemented COVID-19-adapted colorectal cancer pathway in order to mitigate the risks of delayed and missed diagnoses during the pandemic. We assessed its performance and robustness. METHODS: A system was developed using Microsoft Excel (2007) to retain the spreadsheets' intuitiveness of direct data entry. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) was used to construct a user-friendly interface to enhance efficiency of data entry and segregate the data for operational tasks. RESULTS: Large data segregation was possible using VBA macros. Data validation and conditional formatting minimised data entry errors. Computation by the COUNT function facilitated live data monitoring. CONCLUSION: It is possible to rapidly implement a makeshift database system with clinicians' regular input. Large-volume data management using a spreadsheet system is possible with appropriate data definition and VBA-programmed data segregation. The described concept is applicable to any data management system construction requiring speed and flexibility in a resource-limited situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Critical Pathways , Data Management , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Databases, Factual , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Software , Time Factors , User-Computer Interface
15.
Prev Med ; 151: 106681, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294332

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to decreases in breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer screenings between 86 and 94% compared to three-year averages. These postponed screenings have created backlogs that systems will need to address as healthcare facilities re-open for preventive care. The American Cancer Society is leading a 17-month intervention with 22 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) across the United States aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality disparities and alleviating additional strain caused by COVID-19. This study describes COVID-related cancer screening service disruptions reported by participating FQHCs. Selected FQHCs experienced service disruptions and/or preventive care cancellations due to COVID-19 that varied in severity and duration. Fifty-nine percent stopped cancer screenings completely. Centers transitioned to telehealth visits or rescheduled for the future, but the impact of these strategies may be limited by continued pandemic-related disruptions and the inability to do most screenings at home; colon cancer screening being the exception. Most centers have resumed in-person screening, but limited in person appointments and high levels of community transmission may reduce FQHC abilities to provide catch-up services. FQHCs provide critical cancer prevention services to vulnerable populations. The delivery of culturally competent, high-quality healthcare can mitigate and potentially reverse racial and ethnic disparities in cancer prevention testing and treatment. Ensuring and expanding access to care as we move out of the pandemic will be critical to preventing excess cancer incidence and mortality in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 416-424, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239918

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus-induced pandemic has put great pressure on health systems worldwide. Nonemergency health services, such as cancer screening, have been scaled down or withheld as a result of travel restrictions and resources being redirected to manage the pandemic. The present article discusses the challenges to cancer screening implementation in the pandemic environment, suggesting ways to optimize services for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: The manuscript was drafted by a team of public health specialists with expertise in implementation and monitoring of cancer screening. A scoping review of literature revealed the lack of comprehensive guidance on continuation of cancer screening in the midst of waxing and waning of infection. The recommendations in the present article were based on the advisories issued by different health agencies and professional bodies and the authors' understanding of the best practices to maintain quality-assured cancer screening. RESULTS: A well-coordinated approach is required to ensure that essential health services such as cancer management are maintained and elective services are not threatened, especially because of resource constraints. In the context of cancer screening, a few changes in invitation strategies, screening and management protocols and program governance need to be considered to fit into the new normal situation. Restoring public trust in providing efficient and safe services should be one of the key mandates for screening program reorganization. This may be a good opportunity to introduce innovations (eg, telehealth) and consider de-implementing non-evidence-based practices. It is necessary to consider increased spending on primary health care and incorporating screening services in basic health package. CONCLUSION: The article provides guidance on reorganization of screening policies, governance, implementation, and program monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
17.
J Cancer Educ ; 37(2): 251-262, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202857

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed cancer in the USA, and African Americans experience disproportionate CRC diagnosis and mortality. Early detection could reduce CRC incidence and mortality, and reduce CRC health disparities, which may be due in part to lower screening adherence and later stage diagnosis among African Americans compared to whites. Culturally tailored interventions to increase access to and uptake of CRC stool-based tests are one effective strategy to increase benefits of screening among African Americans. The objectives of this study were to obtain feedback from African Americans on CRC educational materials being developed for a subsequent behavioral clinical trial and explore participants' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about CRC and CRC screening. Seven focus groups were conducted between February and November 2020. Participants were African Americans recruited through community contacts. Four focus groups were held in-person and three were conducted virtually due to Covid-19 restrictions. Participants ranked CRC educational text messages and provided feedback on a culturally tailored educational brochure. A focus group guide with scripted probes was used to elicit discussion and transcripts were analyzed using traditional content analysis. Forty-two African Americans participated. Four themes were identified from focus group discussions: (1) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs on CRC and CRC screening; (2) reliable sources of cancer education information; (3) cultural factors affecting perspectives on health; and (4) community insights into cancer education. Participant input on the brochure was incorporated in content creation. Engaging African American community members to qualitatively examine cancer prevention has value in improving implementation strategy and planning for behavioral clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , African Americans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Focus Groups , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Mass Screening
20.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 35(10): 1951-1954, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a policy of severe restrictions in almost all countries strongly involved by the pandemic. National Health System is among activities suffering from the COVID-19 and the lockdown. AIM: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. METHODS: We report the change in the hospital organization to meet the growing healthcare needs determined by COVID-19. The limitations of CRC prevention secondary to COVID-19 and their effects on the healthcare are analyzed considering the features of the CRC screening programs in the average-risk population and endoscopic surveillance in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). RESULTS: The interruption of CRC prevention may lead to a delayed diagnosis of CRC, possibly in a more advanced stage. The economic burden and the impact on workload for gastroenterologists, surgeons, and oncologists will be greater as long as the CRC prevention remains suspended. To respond to the increased demand for colonoscopy once COVID-19 will be under control, we should optimize the resources. It will be necessary to stratify the CRC risk and reach an order of priority. It should be implemented the number of health workers, equipment, and spaces dedicated to performing colonoscopy for screening purpose and in subjects with alarm symptoms in the shortest time. To this aim, the funds earmarked for healthcare should be increased. CONCLUSION: The economic impact will be dramatic, but COVID-19 is the demonstration that healthcare has to be the primary goal of humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , National Health Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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