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Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974


Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.

COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
World J Surg ; 45(6): 1652-1662, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144325


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome due to coronavirus 2 has rapidly spread worldwide in an unprecedented pandemic. Patients with an ongoing COVID-19 infection requiring surgery have higher risk of mortality and complications. This study describes the mortality and morbidity in patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection undergoing elective and emergency surgeries. METHODS: Prospective cohort of consecutive patients who required a general, gastroesophageal, hepatobiliary, colorectal, or emergency surgery during COVID-19 pandemic at an academic teaching hospital. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and major complications. Secondary outcomes were specific respiratory mortality and complications. RESULTS: A total of 701 patients underwent surgery, 39 (5.6%) with a perioperative COVID-19 infection. 30-day mortality was 12.8% and 1.4% in patients with and without COVID-19 infection, respectively (p < 0.001). Major surgical complications occurred in 25.6% and 6.8% in patients with and without COVID-19 infection, respectively (p < 0.001). Respiratory complications occurred in 30.8% and 1.4% in patients with and without COVID-19 infection, respectively (p < 0.001). Mortality due to a respiratory complication was 100% and 11.1% in patients with and without COVID-19 infection, respectively (p < 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: 30-day mortality and surgical complications are higher in patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection. Indications for elective surgery need to be reserved for non-deferrable procedures in order to avoid unnecessary risks of non-urgent procedures.

Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Surgery/mortality , Splenectomy/mortality , Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Pandemics , Preoperative Period , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenectomy/adverse effects