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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065702

ABSTRACT

The spread and resurgence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19 disease) threatens human health and social relations. Prevention of COVID-19 disease partly relies on fabricating low-cost, point-of-care (POC) sensing technology that can rapidly and selectively detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We report a colorimetric, paper-based polydiacetylene (PDA) biosensor, designed to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in artificial saliva. Analytical characterizations of the PDA sensor using NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy showed the correct structural elucidation of PCDA-NHS conjugation. The PDA sensor platform containing the N-Hydroxysuccinimide ester of 10, 12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA-NHS) was divided into three experimental PCDA-NHS concentration groups of 10%, 20%, and 30% to optimize the performance of the sensor. The optimal PCDA-NHS molar concentration was determined to be 10%. The PDA sensor works by a color change from blue to red as its colorimetric output when the immobilized antibody binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in saliva samples. Our results showed that the PDA sensing platform was able to rapidly and qualitatively detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein within the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng/mL after four hours of incubation. Further investigation of pH and temperature showed minimal influence on the PDA sensor for the detection of COVID-19 disease. After exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, smartphone images of the PDA sensor were used to assess the sensor output by using the red chromatic shift (RCS) of the signal response. These results indicate the potential and practical use of this PDA sensor design for the rapid, colorimetric detection of COVID-19 disease in developing countries with limited access to medical testing.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Saliva, Artificial , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Esters , Saliva
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 217: 114714, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031161

ABSTRACT

Timely and accurate detection of virus is crucial for preventing spread of disease and early treatment of the infected cases. Herein we design an integrated logic-operated three-dimensional DNA walker for colorimetric detection of viral RNA fragments, by taking SARS-CoV-2 as an example. The DNA walker is composed of small amounts of dually-blocked walking strands and large amounts of dual-stem-loop track strands on gold nanoparticles. The walking strand contains a swing arm domain and a DNAzyme domain blocked at both sides of catalytic core, while the track strand contains a substrate domain located at the peripheral larger loop. Only the presence of both ORF1ab and N RNA fragments can fully de-block the walking strand, which then continuously hybridizes with track strands and cleaves them by DNAzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. As the cleavage of track strands from long-stranded, double stem-loop structure to short-stranded, linear sequence, the DNA walker shows much lowered stability due to decreased negative charge density and diminished steric repulsion, which then gets aggregated at high salt concentration, accompanied by a visible color change. The colorimetric DNA walker detects RNA fragments down to 1 nM, responds dual viral genes in a "AND" logic way, and shows high specificity to target sequence. It can further detect large nucleic acids containing ORF1ab and N sequences, and reach 200 copies/mL detection limit by coupling a simple upstream amplification of sample. The method may provide a convenient way for reliable detection of viral RNA.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA, Catalytic , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Colorimetry/methods , DNA/chemistry , DNA, Catalytic/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Logic , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023161

ABSTRACT

Responsive two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPC) hydrogels have been widely used as smart sensing materials for constructing various optical sensors to accurately detect different target analytes. Herein, we report photonic hydrogel aptasensors based on aptamer-functionalized 2DPC poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid-N-tert-butyl acrylamide) hydrogels for facile, label-free and colorimetric detection of lysozyme in human serum. The constructed photonic hydrogel aptasensors undergo shrinkage upon exposure to lysozyme solution through multi-factors cooperative actuation. Here, the specific binding between the aptamer and lysozyme, and the simultaneous interactions between carboxyl anions and N-tert-butyl groups with lysozyme, increase the cross-linking density of the hydrogel, leading to its shrinkage. The aptasensors' shrinkage decreases the particle spacing of the 2DPC embedded in the hydrogel network. It can be simply monitored by measuring the Debye diffraction ring of the photonic hydrogel aptasensors using a laser pointer and a ruler without needing sophisticated apparatus. The significant shrinkage of the aptasensors can be observed by the naked eye via the hydrogel size and color change. The aptasensors show good sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1.8 nM, high selectivity and anti-interference for the detection of lysozyme. The photonic hydrogel aptasensors have been successfully used to accurately determine the concentration of lysozyme in human serum. Therefore, novel photonic hydrogel aptasensors can be constructed by designing functional monomers and aptamers that can specifically bind target analytes.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry , Hydrogels , Acrylamides , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Muramidase , Photons
4.
Anal Chem ; 94(37): 12699-12705, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016502

ABSTRACT

Reporting the activity of a specific viral protease remains an acute need for rapid point-of-care detection strategies that can distinguish active infection from a resolved infection. In this work, we present a simple colorimetric approach for reporting the activity of a specific viral protease through direct color conversion on a cotton swab, which has the potential to be extended to detect the corresponding virus. We use SARS-CoV-2 viral protease as a proof-of-concept model system. We use 4-aminomalachite green (4-AMG) as the base chromophore structure to design a CoV2-AMG reporter, which is selective toward the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro but does not produce any observable color change in the presence of other viral proteases. The color change is observable by the naked eye, as well as smartphone imaging, which affords a lower limit of detection. The simplicity and generalizability of the method could be instrumental in combating future viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , Viral Proteases
5.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 22(6): 1391-1401, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014179

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of infections and deaths worldwide since it infected humans almost 3 years ago. Improvements of current assays and the development of new rapid tests or to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 are urgent. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a rapid and propitious assay, allowing to detect both colorimetric and/or fluorometric nucleic acid amplifications. This study describes the analytical and clinical evaluation of RT-LAMP assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2, by designing LAMP primers targeting N (nucleocapsid phosphoprotein), RdRp (polyprotein), S (surface glycoprotein), and E (envelope protein) genes. The assay's performance was compared with the gold standard RT-PCR, yielding 94.6% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity. Among the tested primer sets, the ones for S and N genes had the highest analytical sensitivity, showing results in about 20 min. The colorimetric and fluorometric comparisons revealed that the latter is faster than the former. The limit of detection (LoD) of RT-LAMP reaction in both assays is 50 copies/µl of the reaction mixture. However, the simple eye-observation advantage of the colorimetric assay (with a color change from yellow to red) serves a promising on-site point-of-care testing method anywhere, including, for instance, laboratory and in-house applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcription , Colorimetry/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics
6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1226: 340286, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995927

ABSTRACT

This study aims to use a paper-based sensor array for point-of-care detection of COVID-19 diseases. Various chemical compounds such as nanoparticles, organic dyes and metal ion complexes were employed as sensing elements in the array fabrication, capturing the metabolites of human serum samples. The viral infection caused the type and concentration of serum compositions to change, resulting in different color responses for the infected and control samples. For this purpose, 118 serum samples of COVID-19 patients and non-COVID controls both men and women with the age range of 14-88 years were collected. The serum samples were initially subjected to the sensor, followed by monitoring the variation in the color of sensing elements for 5 min using a scanner. By taking into consideration the statistical information, this method was capable of discriminating COVID-19 patients and control samples with 83.0% accuracy. The variation of age did not influence the colorimetric patterns. The desirable correlation was observed between the sensor responses and viral load values calculated by the PCR test, proposing a rapid and facile way to estimate the disease severity. Compared to other rapid detection methods, the developed assay is cost-effective and user-friendly, allowing for screening COVID-19 diseases reliably.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Colorimetry/methods , Electronic Nose , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Young Adult
7.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 8(9): 3924-3932, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984354

ABSTRACT

Gold nanoparticle-based point-of-care tests (POCT) are one of the most widely used diagnostic tools for SARS-CoV-2 screening. However, the limitation of their insufficient sensitivity often leads to false negative results in early disease diagnostics. The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 makes diagnostic tools that are more accurate, sensitive, simple, and affordable in high demand. In this work, we develop a platinum-decorated gold nanoparticle (Au@Pt NP)-based microfluidic chip immunoassay with a sensitivity surpassing that of paper-based detection of nucleocapsid (N) protein, one of the most conserved biomarkers of COVID-19. The synthesized Au@Pt NPs show high stability and catalytic activity in complex environments. The catalytic amplification of Au@Pt NPs enables naked-eye detection of N protein in the low femtogram range (ca. 0.1 pg/mL) and the detection of throat swab samples in under 40 min. This microfluidic chip immunoassay is easy for operation and readout without instrument assistance, making it more suitable for on-site detection and future pathogen surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Microfluidics , Platinum , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(9): 316, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971724

ABSTRACT

A colorimetric sensor array designed on a paper substrate with a microfluidic structure has been developed. This array is capable of detecting COVID-19 disease by tracking metabolites of urine samples. In order to determine minor metabolic changes, various colorimetric receptors consisting of gold and silver nanoparticles, metalloporphyrins, metal ion complexes, and pH-sensitive indicators are used in the array structure. By injecting a small volume of the urine sample, the color pattern of the sensor changes after 7 min, which can be observed visually. The color changes of the receptors (recorded by a scanner) are subsequently calculated by image analysis software and displayed as a color difference map. This study has been performed on 130 volunteers, including 60 patients infected by COVID-19, 55 healthy controls, and 15 cured individuals. The resulting array provides a fingerprint response for each category due to the differences in the metabolic profile of the urine sample. The principal component analysis-discriminant analysis confirms that the assay sensitivity to the correctly detected patient, healthy, and cured participants is equal to 73.3%, 74.5%, and 66.6%, respectively. Apart from COVID-19, other diseases such as chronic kidney disease, liver disorder, and diabetes may be detectable by the proposed sensor. However, this performance of the sensor must be tested in the studies with a larger sample size. These results show the possible feasibility of the sensor as a suitable alternative to costly and time-consuming standard methods for rapid detection and control of viral and bacterial infectious diseases and metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microfluidics , Silver/chemistry
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11500, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921715

ABSTRACT

Despite the advance of vaccination worldwide, epidemic waves caused by more transmissible and immune evasive genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 have sustained the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19. Monitoring such variants is expensive, as it usually relies on whole-genome sequencing methods. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternatives that could help identify samples from specific variants. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a method that has been increasingly used for nucleic acid amplification, as it is cheaper and easier to perform when compared to other molecular techniques. As a proof of concept that can help distinguish variants, we present an RT-LAMP assay capable of detecting samples carrying a group of mutations that can be related to specific SARS-CoV-2 lineages, here demonstrated for the Variant of Concern Gamma. We tested 60 SARS-CoV-2 RNA samples extracted from swab samples and the reaction showed a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 88.89% and a kappa value of 0.822 for samples with a Ct ≤ 22.93. The RT-LAMP assay demonstrated to be useful to distinguish VOC Gamma and may be of particular interest as a screening approach for variants in countries with poor sequencing coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorimetry/methods , DNA Primers , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7043, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890246

ABSTRACT

Access to fast and reliable nucleic acid testing continues to play a key role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the context of increased vaccine break-through risks due to new variants. We report a rapid, low-cost (~ 2 USD), simple-to-use nucleic acid test kit for self-administered at-home testing without lab instrumentation. The entire sample-to-answer workflow takes < 60 min, including noninvasive sample collection, one-step RNA preparation, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) in a thermos, and direct visual inspection of a colorimetric test result. To facilitate long-term storage without cold-chain, a fast one-pot lyophilization protocol was developed to preserve all required biochemical reagents of the colorimetric RT-LAMP test in a single microtube. Notably, the lyophilized RT-LAMP assay demonstrated reduced false positives as well as enhanced tolerance to a wider range of incubation temperatures compared to solution-based RT-LAMP reactions. We validated our RT-LAMP assay using simulated infected samples, and detected a panel of SARS-CoV-2 variants with successful detection of all variants that were available to us at the time. With a simple change of the primer set, our lyophilized RT-LAMP home test can be easily adapted as a low-cost surveillance platform for other pathogens and infectious diseases of global public health importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Talanta ; 246: 123537, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852116

ABSTRACT

The monitoring of profile concentrations of chemical markers in saliva samples can be used to diagnose COVID-19 patients, and differentiate them from healthy individuals. Here, this purpose is achieved by designing a paper-based colorimetric sensor with an origami structure, containing general receptors such as pH-sensitive organic dyes, Lewis donors or acceptors, functionalized nanoparticles, and ion metal complexes. The color changes taking place in the receptors in the presence of chemical markers are visually observed and recorded with a digital instrument. Different types and amounts of the chemical markers provide the sensor with a unique response for patients (60 samples) or healthy (55 samples) individuals. These two categories can be discriminated with 84.3% accuracy. This study evidences that the saliva composition of cured and healthy participants is different from each other with accuracy of 85.7%. Moreover, viral load values obtained from the rRT-PCR method can be estimated by the designed sensor. Besides COVID-19, it may possible to simultaneously identify smokers and people with kidney disease and diabetes using the specified electronic tongue. Due to its high efficiency, the prepared paper device can be employed as a rapid detection kit to detect COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Electronic Nose , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Point-of-Care Systems
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 133-137, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, poses an ongoing global threat, particularly in low-immunization coverage regions. Thus, rapid, accurate, and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods are in urgent demand to halt the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate the clinical performance of the FastProof 30 min-TTR SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method using leftover RNA samples extracted from 315 nasopharyngeal swabs. The sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP were determined in comparison with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Of 315 nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA was detected in 154 samples (48.9%) by RT-PCR assay. Compared with RT-PCR, overall sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP were 81.82% (95% CI: 74.81-87.57) and 100% (95% CI: 97.73-100), respectively. A 100% positivity rate was achieved in samples with cycle threshold (Ct) <31 for RT-PCR targeting the ORF1ab gene. However, samples with Ct >31 accounted for false-negative results by RT-LAMP in 28 samples. CONCLUSIONS: RT-LAMP reliably detected viral RNA with high sensitivity and specificity and has potential application for mass screening of patients with acute COVID-19 infection when viral load is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thailand/epidemiology
13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(5): 176, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838341

ABSTRACT

A probing system has been developed based on dual-site ligation-assisted loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLig-LAMP) for the selective colorimetric detection of SARS-CoV-2. This approach can induce false-positive and -negative detection in real clinical samples; dLig-LAMP operates with improved selectivity. Unlike RT-LAMP, the selectivity of dLig-LAMP is determined in both the ligation and primer binding steps, not in the reverse transcription step. With this selective system in hand, we developed a colorimetric signaling system for point-of-care detection. We also developed a colorimetric probe for sensing pyrophosphate, which arises as a side product during the LAMP DNA amplification. Thus, dLig-LAMP appears to be an alternative method for improving the selectivity problems associated with reverse transcription. In addition, combining dLig-LAMP with colorimetric pyrophosphate probing allows point-of-care detection of SARS-CoV-2 within 1 h with high selectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Talanta ; 249: 123375, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730117

ABSTRACT

Colorimetric loop-mediated DNA isothermal amplification-based assays have gained momentum in the diagnosis of COVID-19 owing to their unmatched feasibility in low-resource settings. However, the vast majority of them are restricted to proprietary pH-sensitive dyes that limit downstream assay optimization or hinder efficient result interpretation. To address this problem, we developed a novel dual colorimetric RT-LAMP assay using in-house pH-dependent indicators to maximize the visual detection and assay simplicity, and further integrated it with the artificial intelligence (AI) operated tool (RT-LAMP-DETR) to enable a more precise and rapid result analysis in large scale testing. The dual assay leverages xylenol orange (XO) and a newly formulated lavender green (LG) dye for distinctive colorimetric readouts, which enhance the test accuracy when performed and analyzed simultaneously. Our RT-LAMP assay has a detection limit of 50 viral copies/reaction with the cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤ 39.7 ± 0.4 determined by the WHO-approved RT-qPCR assay. RT-LAMP-DETR exhibited a complete concordance with the results from naked-eye observation and RT-qPCR, achieving 100% sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy that altogether render it suitable for ultrasensitive point-of-care COVID-19 screening efforts. From the perspective of pandemic preparedness, our method offers a simpler, faster, and cheaper (∼$8/test) approach for COVID-19 testing and other emerging pathogens with respect to RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Colorimetry/methods , DNA , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715645

ABSTRACT

Measuring the colorimetric signals produced by the biospecific accumulation of colorimetric probes and recording the results is a key feature for next-generation paper-based rapid tests. Manual processing of these tests is time-consuming and prone to a loss of accuracy when interpreting faint and patchy signals. Proprietary, closed-source readers and software companies offering automated smartphone-based assay readings have both been criticized for interoperability issues. Here, we introduce a minimal reader prototype composed of open-source hardware and open-source software that has the benefits of automatic assay quantification while avoiding the interoperability issues associated with closed-source readers. An image-processing algorithm was developed to automate the selection of an optimal region of interest and measure the average pixel intensity. When used to quantify signals produced by lateral flow immunoassays for detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, results obtained with the proposed algorithm were comparable to those obtained with a manual method but with the advantage of improving the precision and accuracy when quantifying small spots or faint and patchy signals.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(9): e202112995, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633678

ABSTRACT

The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has led to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nucleic acid testing while specific has limitations for mass surveillance. One alternative is the main protease (Mpro ) due to its functional importance in mediating the viral life cycle. Here, we describe a combination of modular substrate and gold colloids to detect Mpro via visual readout. The strategy involves zwitterionic peptide that carries opposite charges at the C-/N-terminus to exploit the specific recognition by Mpro . Autolytic cleavage releases a positively charged moiety that assembles the nanoparticles with rapid color changes (t<10 min). We determine a limit of detection for Mpro in breath condensate matrices <10 nM. We further assayed ten COVID-negative subjects and found no false-positive result. In the light of simplicity, our test for viral protease is not limited to an equipped laboratory, but also is amenable to integrating as portable point-of-care devices including those on face-coverings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Breath Tests , COVID-19/virology , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Proteolysis
17.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625180

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) has been regarded as one of the ideal targets for the development of antiviral drugs. The currently used methods for the probing of Mpro activity and the screening of its inhibitors require the use of a double-labeled peptide substrate. In this work, we suggested that the label-free peptide substrate could induce the aggregation of AuNPs through the electrostatic interactions, and the cleavage of the peptide by the Mpro inhibited the aggregation of AuNPs. This fact allowed for the visual analysis of Mpro activity by observing the color change of the AuNPs suspension. Furthermore, the co-assembly of AuNPs and peptide was achieved on the peptide-covered electrode surface. Cleavage of the peptide substrate by the Mpro limited the formation of AuNPs/peptide assembles, thus allowing for the development of a simple and sensitive electrochemical method for Mpro detection in serum samples. The change of the electrochemical signal was easily monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limits of the colorimetric and electrochemical methods are 10 and 0.1 pM, respectively. This work should be valuable for the development of effective antiviral drugs and the design of novel optical and electrical biosensors.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/analysis , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold , Metal Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(3): 276-281, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571696

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic requires a rapid, reliable, and user-friendly diagnostic test to help control the spread of the virus. Reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Here, we develop a protocol based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and demonstrate increased sensitivity of this technique using fresh RNA extracts compared to RNA samples subjected to freezing/thawing cycles. We further compare RT-LAMP to RT-qPCR and demonstrate that the RT-LAMP approach has high sensitivity in fresh RNA extracts and can detect positive samples with Ct values between 8 and 35.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Colorimetry/methods , DNA Primers , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 335, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411927

ABSTRACT

A practical colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this purpose, magnetic γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a peroxidase-like mimic activity molecule. In the presence of γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the color change of H2O2 included 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine was monitored at the wavelength of 654 nm when spike protein interacted with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. This oxidation-reduction reaction was examined both spectroscopically and by using electrochemical techniques. The experimental parameters were optimized and the analytical characteristics investigated. The developed assay was applied to real SARS-CoV-2 samples, and very good results that were in accordance with the real time polymerase chain reaction were obtained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzidines/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Catalysis , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxidase/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41445-41453, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371587

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of exhaled virus can rapidly spread, thereby increasing disease progression from local incidents to pandemics. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, states and local governments have enforced the use of protective masks in public and work areas to minimize the disease spread. Here, we have leveraged the function of protective face coverings toward COVID-19 diagnosis. We developed a user-friendly, affordable, and wearable collector. This noninvasive platform is integrated into protective masks toward collecting airborne virus in the exhaled breath over the wearing period. A viral sample was sprayed into the collector to model airborne dispersion, and then the enriched pathogen was extracted from the collector for further analytical evaluation. To validate this design, qualitative colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and antibody-based dot blot assays were performed to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We envision that this platform will facilitate sampling of current SARS-CoV-2 and is potentially broadly applicable to other airborne diseases for future emerging pandemics.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Collodion/chemistry , Colorimetry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Porosity , Proof of Concept Study , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/analysis , Viral Proteins/immunology
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