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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 844-848, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) and riboflavin (RB) are light-activated dyes with demonstrated antimicrobial activity. They require no specialized equipment, making them attractive for widespread use. Due to COVID-19-related worldwide shortages of surgical masks, simple, safe, and effective decontamination methods for reusing masks have become desirable in clinical and public settings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant on surgical masks and Revolution-Zero Environmentally Sustainable (RZES) reusable masks using these photoactivated dyes. We pre-treated surgical masks with 2 MB concentrations, 2 RB concentrations, and 2 combinations of MB and RB. We also tested 7 MB concentrations on RZES masks. RESULTS: Photoactivated MB consistently inactivated SARS-CoV-2 at >99.9% for concentrations of 2.6 µM or higher within 30 min on RZES masks and 5 µM or higher within 5 min on disposable surgical masks. RB alone showed a lower, yet still significant inactivation (∼93-99%) in these conditions. DISCUSSION: MB represents a cost-effective, rapid, and widely deployable decontamination method for SARS-CoV-2. The simplicity of MB formulation makes it ideal for mask pre-treatment in low-resource settings. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that MB effectively decontaminates SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations above 5 µM on surgical masks and above 10 µM on RZES masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Masks
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1212: 339937, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943914

ABSTRACT

Until now, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remained to be an enormous threat for global health. As one viral illness induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), versatile, rapid and sensitive method for SARS-CoV-2 detection in early stage is urgently needed. Here, we reported an ultrasensitive and visual in-one-tube detection method which could be accomplished within half an hour from sampling-to-result. By integrating all reactions in one tube, liquid handling steps were omitted and amplicon contamination could be totally avoided. Magnetic beads were employed to achieve the fast extraction of viral nucleic acid and increase the sensitivity. Using portable thermocycler and blue light, the fluorescent results could be directly observed by naked eyes. The proposed method is of higher specificity and sensitivity, nearly at single molecule level. More important, results demonstrated 100% positive detection rate for 40 clinical samples, which was consistent with standard RT-PCR. Thus, our method is considerably simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, holding great promise for the instant detecting of viruses including SARS-CoV-2 and the next generation of molecular diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coloring Agents , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4132, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908246

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a deep learning-driven portable, accurate, low-cost, and easy-to-use device to perform Reverse-Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) to facilitate rapid detection of COVID-19. The 3D-printed device-powered using only a 5 Volt AC-DC adapter-can perform 16 simultaneous RT-LAMP reactions and can be used multiple times. Moreover, the experimental protocol is devised to obviate the need for separate, expensive equipment for RNA extraction in addition to eliminating sample evaporation. The entire process from sample preparation to the qualitative assessment of the LAMP amplification takes only 45 min (10 min for pre-heating and 35 min for RT-LAMP reactions). The completion of the amplification reaction yields a fuchsia color for the negative samples and either a yellow or orange color for the positive samples, based on a pH indicator dye. The device is coupled with a novel deep learning system that automatically analyzes the amplification results and pays attention to the pH indicator dye to screen the COVID-19 subjects. The proposed device has been rigorously tested on 250 RT-LAMP clinical samples, where it achieved an overall specificity and sensitivity of 0.9666 and 0.9722, respectively with a recall of 0.9892 for Ct < 30. Also, the proposed system can be widely used as an accurate, sensitive, rapid, and portable tool to detect COVID-19 in settings where access to a lab is difficult, or the results are urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 Testing , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , Printing, Three-Dimensional , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 507, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864775

ABSTRACT

Protein-lipid interactions are vital for numerous transmembrane signaling pathways. However, simple tools to characterize these interactions remain scarce and are much needed to advance our understanding of signal transduction across lipid bilayers. To tackle this challenge, we herein engineer nanodisc as a robust fluorescent sensor for reporting membrane biochemical reactions. We circularize nanodiscs via split GFP and thereby create an intensity-based fluorescent sensor (isenND) for detecting membrane binding and remodeling events. We show that isenND responds robustly and specifically to the action of a diverse array of membrane-interacting proteins and peptides, ranging from synaptotagmin and synuclein involved in neurotransmission to viral fusion peptides of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Together, isenND can serve as a versatile biochemical reagent useful for basic and translational research of membrane biology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Biophysical Phenomena , Coloring Agents , Humans , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(5): 202, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850343

ABSTRACT

The construction of a rapid and easy immunofluorescence bioassay for SARS-CoV-2 detection is described. We report for the first time a novel one-pot synthetic approach for simultaneous photoinduced step-growth polymerization of pyrene (Py) and ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (PCL) to produce a graft fluorescent copolymer PPy-g-PCL that was conjugated to SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies using EDC/NHS chemistry. The synthesis steps and conjugation products were fully characterized using standard spectral analysis. Next, the PPy-g-PCL was used for the construction of a dot-blot assay which was calibrated for applications to human nasopharyngeal samples. The analytical features of the proposed sensor showed a detection range of 6.03-8.7 LOG viral copy mL-1 (Ct Scores: 8-25), the limit of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) of 1.84 and 6.16 LOG viral copy mL-1, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the platform had a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging between 1.2 and 5.9%. The fluorescence-based dot-blot assay was tested with human samples. Significant differences were observed between the fluorescence intensity of the negative and positive samples, with an overall correct response of 93.33%. The assay demonstrated a high correlation with RT-PCR data. This strategy opens new insights into simplified synthesis procedures of the reporter molecules and their high potential sensing and diagnosis applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Assay , COVID-19/diagnosis , Caproates , Coloring Agents , Humans , Lactones , Poly A , Polyesters , Polymerization , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785834

ABSTRACT

Saffron is a valued herb, obtained from the stigmas of the C. sativus Linn (Iridaceae), with therapeutic effects. It has been described in pharmacopoeias to be variously acting, including as an anti-depressant, anti-carcinogen, and stimulant agent. The therapeutic effects of saffron are harbored in its bioactive molecules, notably crocins, the subject of this paper. Crocins have been demonstrated to act as a monoamine oxidase type A and B inhibitor. Furthermore, saffron petal extracts have experimentally been shown to impact contractile response in electrical field stimulation. Other research suggests that saffron also inhibits the reuptake of monoamines, exhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonism, and improves brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. A host of experimental studies found saffron/crocin to be similarly effective as fluoxetine and imipramine in the treatment of depression disorders. Saffron and crocins propose a natural solution to combat depressive disorders. However, some hurdles, such as stability and delivery, need to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Crocus , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Coloring Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 276: 121188, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768515

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID -19 in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Application of computational calculations for choosing the sensitive reagent in spectrophotometric quantitative analysis is very limited. Computational and theoretical studies were used for choosing the best acid dye for selective visible spectrophotometric quantitative analysis of remdesivir. The calculations were performed using Gaussian 03 software with the density functional theory method using B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis set. The theoretical studies revealed that bromophenol blue is a better match for remdesivir than other acid dyes due to the higher calculated interaction energy. The proposed method was based on the reaction of remdesivir with the computationally selected acid dye bromophenol blue to form a yellow ion-pair complex. The spectra showed absorption peaks at 418 nm. Various factors affecting the reaction were optimized. The method was successfully applied for the determination of remdesivir in the pharmaceutical preparation with good accuracy and precision. Beer's law was observed in the concentration range of 2-12 µg/mL of remdesivir. The proposed reaction was used as a basis for the spectrophotometric determination of remdesivir in pure form and in the pharmaceutical preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coloring Agents , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bromphenol Blue/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , United States
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 229: 112415, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712830

ABSTRACT

Noscapine (NSC) is a benzyl-isoquinoline alkaloid discovered in 1930 as an antitussive agent. Recently, NSC has also been reported to exhibit antitumor activity and, according to computational studies, it is able to attack the protease enzyme of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and thus could be used as antiviral for COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, an increasing use of this drug could be envisaged in the coming years. NSC is readily metabolized with a half-life of 4.5 h giving rise to cotarnine, hydrocotarnine, and meconine, arising from the oxidative breaking of the CC bond between isoquinoline and phthalide moieties. Because of its potentially increasing use, high concentrations of NSC but also its metabolites will be delivered in the environment and potentially affect natural ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the degradation of NSC in the presence of naturally occurring photocatalysts. As a matter of fact, the present contribution has demonstrated that NSC can be efficiently degraded in the presence of a derivative of the natural organic dye Riboflavin (RFTA) upon exposure to visible light. Indeed, a detailed study of the mechanism involved in the photodegradation revealed the similarities between the biomimetic and the photocatalyzed processes. In fact, the main photoproducts of NSC were identified as cotarnine and opianic acid based on a careful UPLC-MS2 analysis compared to the independently synthesized standards. The former is coincident with one of the main metabolites obtained in humans, whereas the latter is related to meconine, a second major metabolite of NSC. Photophysical experiments demonstrated that the observed oxidative cleavage is mediated mainly by singlet oxygen in a medium in which the lifetime of 1O2 is long enough, or by electron transfer to the triplet excited state of RFTA if the photodegradation occurs in aqueous media, where the 1O2 lifetime is very short.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Noscapine , Biomimetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Coloring Agents , Ecosystem , Humans , Light , Pandemics , Photolysis , Riboflavin/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water/chemistry
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 206: 115-147, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697104

ABSTRACT

Thanks to their unique attributes, such as good sensitivity, selectivity, high surface-to-volume ratio, and versatile optical and electronic properties, fluorescent-based bioprobes have been used to create highly sensitive nanobiosensors to detect various biological and chemical agents. These sensors are superior to other analytical instrumentation techniques like gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis for being biodegradable, eco-friendly, and more economical, operational, and cost-effective. Moreover, several reports have also highlighted their application in the early detection of biomarkers associated with drug-induced organ damage such as liver, kidney, or lungs. In the present work, we comprehensively overviewed the electrochemical sensors that employ nanomaterials (nanoparticles/colloids or quantum dots, carbon dots, or nanoscaled metal-organic frameworks, etc.) to detect a variety of biological macromolecules based on fluorescent emission spectra. In addition, the most important mechanisms and methods to sense amino acids, protein, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, vitamins, ions, metals, and electrolytes, blood gases, drugs (i.e., anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics), toxins, alkaloids, antioxidants, cancer biomarkers, urinary metabolites (i.e., urea, uric acid, and creatinine), and pathogenic microorganisms were outlined and compared in terms of their selectivity and sensitivity. Altogether, the small dimensions and capability of these nanosensors for sensitive, label-free, real-time sensing of chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical agents could be used in array-based screening and in-vitro or in-vivo diagnostics. Although fluorescent nanoprobes are widely applied in determining biological macromolecules, unfortunately, they present many challenges and limitations. Efforts must be made to minimize such limitations in utilizing such nanobiosensors with an emphasis on their commercial developments. We believe that the current review can foster the wider incorporation of nanomedicine and will be of particular interest to researchers working on fluorescence technology, material chemistry, coordination polymers, and related research areas.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , Quantum Dots , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbon/chemistry , Coloring Agents
10.
Surg Innov ; 29(2): 278-281, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582575

ABSTRACT

Background. Droplet simulation often requires expensive and inaccessible equipment. Herein, we develop and assess a low-cost droplet simulation model using easily accessible materials, open-source software, and a smartphone-based cobalt blue light. Methods. The simulation model was developed using commercial-grade materials and fluorescein dye. A clear face shield was assessed ten times following a simulated cough using fluorescein dye. A conventional ultraviolet Woods lamp was compared to a smartphone-based cobalt blue light to detect fluorescein illumination. Results. The simulation platform and smartphone-based cobalt blue light cost $20.18. A Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed that the median droplet area of fluorescence under the UV Wood's lamp was not significantly different than that of the smartphone-based cobalt blue light (2.89 vs 2.94, P = .386). Conclusions. This simulation model is inexpensive and easily reproducible. The smartphone application may be a convenient alternative to standard ultraviolet lights. This model has great potential for use in financially restricted academic centers during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Cobalt , Coloring Agents , Fluorescein , Humans , Pandemics
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(11): 164, 2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343003

ABSTRACT

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that can degrade several xenobiotics, including textile dyes. Present study investigated the nature of laccase isoforms induced by 2,6-dimethylaniline in Cyathus bulleri cultivated on basal salt medium. Two isoforms, LacI and LacII were identified and purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The MS spectrum of the two proteins displayed a number of non-identical and identical molecular peaks (m/z), and, the latter were mapped to protein originating from the previously reported Laccase (Lcc) 1 gene. The LacI isoform exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol and pyrogallol and was tolerant to high levels of chloride ions and resistant to EDTA. Higher decolorization of several dyes such as Direct Scarlet B (67%), Reactive Brilliant blue-R (96%), Direct Orange 34 (50%) and Reactive Red198 (95%) by the LacI isoform makes it a good candidate for degradation of synthetic dyes. The decolorization of Direct Orange 34 by laccases is being reported for the first time. Many of the properties exhibited by this isoform make it a good candidate for large scale production and applications for use in the dyeing industry.


Subject(s)
Coloring Agents/metabolism , Cyathus/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Textiles , Amino Acid Sequence , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism
13.
Skin Res Technol ; 27(6): 1043-1048, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the rapid spread of COVID-19, the makeup trend in the cosmetics market is changing as mask-wearing has become a common practice. This study was conducted to establish an objective and reliable method for analyzing the transfer of colored cosmetics onto face masks. METHODS: A total of 24 women participated in this test. The participants were requested to wear Korean Filter 94 masks after having applied colored cosmetics on their faces and lips. VISIA-CR was used to photograph the face, and a camera was used to photograph the mask, which had smeared the cosmetics. Each image was analyzed using the Image-pro® 10 image analysis software. RESULTS: Immediately after applying the cosmetics, the intensity of the face decreased and the redness of the lips increased when compared with the results 30 minutes after washing the face. After wearing a mask, the intensity increased and the redness decreased when compared with immediately after applying the cosmetics. The area before and after the colored cosmetics smeared onto the mask was increased. CONCLUSION: It is expected that this study could be used as a reference for further experiments on analysis of methods for preventing mask stains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cosmetics , Coloring Agents , Female , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 115, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unexpected pressure on medical supplies, interrupting supply chains and increasing prices. The supply of antiviral filters which form an essential part of the ventilator circuit have been affected by these issues. Three-dimensional (3D) printing may provide a solution to some of these issues. METHODS: We designed and tested 3D printed heat and moisture exchange (HME) and antiviral casing. For each casing we tested two different filter materials derived from a sediment water filter cartridge or 1.5-µm glass fiber filter paper. A polyurethane sponge was used for the HME. Each design was tested for circuit leak, circuit compliance, peak inspiratory pressure and casing integrity using methylene blue dye. RESULTS: We designed, produced, and tested two different types of antiviral filters with six different internal configurations. Overall, we tested 10 modified filter designs and compared them with the original commercial filter. Except for the combination of 1.5-µm filter paper and 5 mm sponge peak inspiratory pressure and circuit compliance of the filters produced were within the operating limits of the ventilator. All In addition, all filters passed the dye test. CONCLUSIONS: Our filter may be of particular importance to those working in low middle-income countries unable to compete with stronger economies. Our design relies on products available outside the healthcare supply chain, much of which can be purchased in grocery stores, hardware stores, or industrial and academic institutions. We hope that these HMEs and viral filters may be beneficial to clinicians who face critical supply chain issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ultrafiltration/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , Viruses , COVID-19/therapy , Coloring Agents , Equipment Design , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Paper , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Polyurethanes , Reproducibility of Results , Surgical Sponges
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 876, 2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigates the effectiveness of curcumin-containing Nanomicelles as a therapeutic supplement in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and its effect on immune responses balance changes following treatment. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is conducted as a prospective, placebo-controlled with parallel group, single-center randomized clinical trial on COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: Patients are selected from the COVID-19 ward of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Real time PCR-approved positive COVID-19 test. 2. Both gender 3. Age between 18 and 75 years 4. Signing a written consent 5. Lack of participation in other clinical trials Exclusion criteria: 1. Pregnancy or lactation 2. Allergy to turmeric or curcumin 3. Smoking 4. Patient connected to the ventilator 5. SaO2 less than 90% or PaO2 less than 8 kPa 6. Having comorbidities (such as severe renal failure, Glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min, liver failure, Congestive heart failure, or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) 7. History of gallstones 8. History of gastritis or active gastrointestinal ulcer INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In addition to the routine standard treatments for COVID-19, in the intervention group, 40mg nanomicelles containing curcumin (SinaCurcumin Capsule, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran), four times per day (after breakfast, lunch, dinner and before bedtime) and in the placebo group as the control group, capsules with the same appearance and characteristics (Placebo capsules, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran) are prescribed for two weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: The effectiveness of Nano micelles containing curcumin treatment will be evaluated as daily clinical examinations of patients in both groups and, on days 0, 7 and 14, complete clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including peripheral blood and serum parameters such as inflammatory markers will be measured and recorded. Moreover, in order to evaluate the balance of immune responses changes following treatments, serum level of IFN-γ, IL-17, Il-4 and TGF-ß serum cytokines will be measured in both groups at time points of 0, 7 and 14 days post treatment. Gene expression of t-bet, GATA-3, FoxP3 and ROR- γT will also be measured at mentioned time points to assess the shift of T helper1, T helper2, T regulatory and T helper 17 immune responses following treatment. RANDOMISATION: Randomized trials will be performed on 40 COVID-19 patients which will be randomized using encoded sealed boxes with computer generated random digits with 1:1 allocation ratio. In order to randomization, placebo and SinaCurcumin Capsules will be numbered first by computer generated random digits. SinaCurcumin and placebo will then be stored and numbered in sealed packages based on generated random numbers. Finally, according to the order in which patients enter the study, packages are given to patients based on their number. BLINDING (MASKING): The present study will be blind for all patients, physicians and nurses, laboratory technicians and statisticians. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 40 patients will be included in the study, 20 of them will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and 20 to the placebo group. TRIAL STATUS: This is Version 1.0 of protocol dated 21 May 2020. The recruitment was started June 24, 2020 and is expected to be completed by October 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This present clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the registration code of "IRCT20200611047735N1", https://www.irct.ir/trial/48843 . Dated: 19 June 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coloring Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coloring Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcumin/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Humans , Interleukins/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Micelles , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 48(8): 813-815, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245147

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing a worldwide challenge to control and contain. SARS-CoV-2 is a highly infectious virus. Health care providers at the front lines are at high risk of getting the infection and the risk applies also to laboratory personnel as they deal with specimens that might be contaminated with infectious materiel. Cytopathology teams specifically are at high risk of dealing with contaminated material because of patients encounter during fine-needle aspiration biopsies or Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE) for adequacy. In our article, we discuss alternative safer staining methods to the widely used Diff-Quick stain that can be utilized for ROSE to decrease the risk of viral exposure during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Staining and Labeling/methods , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , COVID-19 , Coloring Agents , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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