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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0255757, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633355

ABSTRACT

As many U.S. states implemented stay-at-home orders beginning in March 2020, anecdotes reported a surge in alcohol sales, raising concerns about increased alcohol use and associated ills. The surveillance report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism provides monthly U.S. alcohol sales data from a subset of states, allowing an investigation of this potential increase in alcohol use. Meanwhile, anonymized human mobility data released by companies such as SafeGraph enables an examination of the visiting behavior of people to various alcohol outlets such as bars and liquor stores. This study examines changes to alcohol sales and alcohol outlet visits during COVID-19 and their geographic differences across states. We find major increases in the sales of spirits and wine since March 2020, while the sales of beer decreased. We also find moderate increases in people's visits to liquor stores, while their visits to bars and pubs substantially decreased. Noticing a significant correlation between alcohol sales and outlet visits, we use machine learning models to examine their relationship and find evidence in some states for likely panic buying of spirits and wine. Large geographic differences exist across states, with both major increases and decreases in alcohol sales and alcohol outlet visits.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , United States
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622345

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the reaction of stock markets to the Covid-19 pandemic and the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 (GFC) and compares their influence in terms of risk exposures. The empirical investigation is conducted using the modified ICSS test, DCC-GARCH, and Diebold-Yilmaz connectedness analysis to examine financial contagion and volatility spillovers. To further reveal the impact of these two crises, the statistical features of tranquil and crisis periods under different time intervals are also compared. The test results show that although the outbreak's origin was in China, the US stock market is the source of financial contagion and volatility spillovers during the pandemic, just as it was during the GFC. The propagation of shocks is considerably higher between developed economies compared to emerging markets. Additionally, the results show that the COVID-19 pandemic induced a more severe contagious effect and risk transmission than the GFC. The study provides an extensive examination of the COVID-19 pandemic and the GFC in terms of financial contagion and volatility spillovers. The results suggest the presence of strong co-movements of world stock markets with the US equity market, especially in periods of financial turmoil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Investments , COVID-19/economics , China , Commerce/economics , Humans , Investments/economics , Pandemics/economics , United States
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592216

ABSTRACT

One of the most pressing challenges facing food systems in Africa is ensuring availability of a healthy and sustainable diet to 2.4 billion people by 2050. The continent has struggled with development challenges, particularly chronic food insecurity and pervasive poverty. In Africa's food systems, fish and other aquatic foods play a multifaceted role in generating income, and providing a critical source of essential micronutrients. To date, there are no estimates of investment and potential returns for domestic fish production in Africa. To contribute to policy debates about the future of fish in Africa, we applied the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agriculture Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) to explore two Pan-African scenarios for fish sector growth: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a high-growth scenario for capture fisheries and aquaculture with accompanying strong gross domestic product growth (HIGH). Post-model analysis was used to estimate employment and aquaculture investment requirements for the sector in Africa. Africa's fish sector is estimated to support 20.7 million jobs in 2030, and 21.6 million by 2050 under the BAU. Approximately 2.6 people will be employed indirectly along fisheries and aquaculture value chains for every person directly employed in the fish production stage. Under the HIGH scenario, total employment in Africa's fish food system will reach 58.0 million jobs, representing 2.4% of total projected population in Africa by 2050. Aquaculture production value is estimated to achieve US$ 3.3 billion and US$ 20.4 billion per year under the BAU and HIGH scenarios by 2050, respectively. Farm-gate investment costs for the three key inputs (fish feeds, farm labor, and fish seed) to achieve the aquaculture volumes projected by 2050 are estimated at US$ 1.8 billion per year under the BAU and US$ 11.6 billion per year under the HIGH scenario. Sustained investments are critical to sustain capture fisheries and support aquaculture growth for food system transformation towards healthier diets.


Subject(s)
Fisheries/economics , Africa , Commerce/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Employment , Fisheries/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Investments , Models, Economic
4.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(12): 1821-1833, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592062

ABSTRACT

Managers and customers often expect individuals to be "ideal workers" devoted entirely to work, and this devotion is typically displayed through being available to work at any time, on any day (Reid, 2015). During the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals in lower-paid, customer-facing jobs were expected to not only be available but also to take on physical risk. However, the ideal worker literature has paid relatively little attention to how risk relates to ideal worker expectations, reflecting in part the extant literature's focus on professionals who face relatively little physical and financial uncertainty. In this article, we draw upon the experiences of nonprofessional "gig" workers (TaskRabbit workers) to examine how they manage customers' ideal worker expectations-including risk-using data from interviews (n = 49), postings from online worker forums social media, and offical company communications. We show how these workers engage in different tactics to manage risk in response to customers' expectations, including two tactics-covering and withdrawing-that have not been discussed in prior ideal worker literature. In doing so, we expand scholarly understanding by showing how concerns about risk shape workers' responses to ideal worker expectations, particularly in customer-facing service work outside of traditional organizations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Commerce , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597647

ABSTRACT

Rice market efficiency is important for food security in countries where rice is a staple. We assess the impact of rice quality on rice prices, food security, and environmental sustainability in Bangladesh. We find that while price varies as expected for most quality attributes, it is unaffected by a broken percentage below 24.9 percent. This reveals a potential inefficiency, considering the average 5 percent broken rate observed in the market. An increase in the broken rate of milled rice within the limits supported by our findings can, ceteris paribus, increase rice rations by 4.66 million a year, or conversely, yield the current number of rice rations using 170.79 thousand fewer hectares and cutting emissions by 1.48 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Thus, producing rice based on quality assessment can improve food security and its sustainability.


Subject(s)
Food Security , Oryza/physiology , Sustainable Development , Bangladesh , Commerce , Food Security/economics , Models, Economic , Statistics as Topic
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261761, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581732

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the world economy in various ways. In particular, the drastic shift to telework has dramatically changed how people work. Whether the new style of working from home (WFH) will remain in our society highly depends on its effects on workers' productivity. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of WFH on productivity are still unclear. By leveraging unique surveys conducted at four manufacturing firms in Japan, we assess within-company productivity differences between those who work from home and those who do not, along with identifying possible factors of productivity changes due to WFH. Our main findings are as follows. First, after ruling out the time-invariant component of individual productivity and separate trends specific to employee attributes, we find that workers who worked from home experienced productivity declines more than those who did not. Second, our analysis shows that poor WFH setups and communication difficulties are the major reasons for productivity losses. Third, we find that the mental health of workers who work from home is better than that of workers who are unable to work from home. Our result suggests that if appropriate investments in upgrading WFH setups and facilitating communication can be made, WFH may improve productivity by improving employees' health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Teleworking/economics , Teleworking/trends , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Commerce/economics , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 790312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574019

ABSTRACT

Empirical studies suggest that globalization (FDI and international trade) has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 and related anti-pandemic measures imposed by governments worldwide. This paper investigates the impact of globalization on intra-provincial income inequality in China and the data is based on the county level. The findings reveal that FDI is negatively associated with intra-provincial inequality, intra-provincial inequality increases as the primary industry sector (agriculture) declines. The result also finds that the increase in inequality stems not from the development in the tertiary or secondary industry sectors per se, but the unevenness in the distribution of these sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internationality , China/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1618-1624, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The paper aims to estimate consumers' demand for personal protecting products (PPP) from COVID-19. Thus, the paper collected primary data on consumers' demand for PPP utilizing the timeframe of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The paper uses two sample t-test and Anova test to examine mean differences in the quantity consumed of PPP. Also, the paper uses Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) to estimate the responsiveness of quantity demanded of PPP for changes in prices and consumers' income. RESULTS: The results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demanded of facemasks among men and women. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the mean of quantity demand for facemasks, gloves, and hand sanitizer based on respondents' level of education. In addition, the paper analyzed the effect of price and income changes on quantity demanded of PPP. The findings indicate that the quantity demanded of facemask and gloves are sensitive to changes in consumers' income. Also, soap, hand sanitizer, and gloves were recognized as complementary products. Furthermore, facemasks were identified as a complementary product with glove use. Lastly, the own-price elasticities of demand revealed that the demand for PPP is price insensitive. CONCLUSIONS: the paper recommends that the consumer protection unit closely monitor the prices of PPP since the sellers have an opportunity to increase those products prices and maximize their revenue by exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfectants/economics , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/economics , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502073

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases and widespread outbreaks influence different sectors of the economy, including the stock market. In this article, we investigate the effect of EBOV and COVID-19 outbreaks on stock market indices. We employ time-varying and constant bivariate copula methods to measure the dependence structure between the infectious disease equity market volatility index (IEMV) and the stock market indices of several sectors. The results show that the financial and communication services sectors have the highest and the lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the Ebola virus (EBOV) pandemic, respectively. However, the health care and energy sectors have the highest and lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Therefore, the results confirm the heterogeneous time-varying dependency between infectious diseases and the stock market indices. The finding of our study contributes to the ongoing literature on the impact of disease outbreaks, especially the novel coronavirus outbreak on global large-cap companies in the stock market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Cost of Illness , Disease Outbreaks/economics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/economics , Commerce , Ebolavirus , Humans , Time
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502072

ABSTRACT

When emerging technologies transform an organization's way of working, explorative business process management (BPM) becomes a new challenge. Although digital innovations can boost process efficacy and business productivity, employees do not necessarily accept the implied work changes. We therefore looked at the increased digitalization efforts during the COVID-19 lockdowns, during which employees were forced to drastically rethink work by heavily depending on technology for communication and almost all business tasks. This global setting allowed us to scrutinize disruptive work changes and how employees can cope with disruptive work adaptations. We also looked into the explorative skillset needed to adapt to these changes. To theorize about an explorative BPM acceptance model, eleven hypotheses were supported based on a solid theoretical foundation. We followed a quantitative research design using partial least squares for structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) at the university administration settings in two regions, including purposive sampling. Data analysis covered both a measurement model assessment and structural model assessment. Our findings reveal that employees' perceived work modalities, feeling creative and feeling flexible are more promising features than perceived influence and attitude related to explorative work and skill development. We also offer novel insights into explorative business process management (BPM) skills, and which skills are more productive in uncertain or dynamic working conditions. This research is a learning path for managers struggling with flexible or competitive business environments, and more specifically to facilitate employee willingness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Employment , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Creativity , Female , Humans , Learning , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Organizational , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Young Adult
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(15): 6368-6383, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak caused short-term disruptions in the supply chain of fresh agricultural products (FAPs), which exposed the vulnerability of the existing FAP supply chain. With pandemic control being widely coordinated, the supply chain of FAPs was gradually optimized and improved. However, after the outbreak of COVID-19, achieving an effective supply of FAPs in future pandemics has become a key issue. The present work therefore aimed to construct a three-level supply chain based on the Stackelberg game model, consisting of suppliers, third-party logistics (TPL), and retailers, to guarantee the supply of FAPs. COVID-19 pandemic factors such as virus infection coefficients and pandemic prevention efforts were fully integrated into the model. RESULTS: Compared with the wholesale prices of FAPs, preservation efforts and pandemic prevention efforts have huge impacts on the retail prices of FAPs. When suppliers are in the leading position, the quality assurance effort level is positively correlated with the optimal profit. Compared with this situation, when FAP retailers are in the leading position, TPL providers show higher levels of pandemic prevention effort and FAP preservation effort. With an increase in consumer preference for pandemic prevention, the profits of supply-chain members when FAP retailers are in the leading position will gradually increase. CONCLUSION: This study reveals an effective supply mechanism for FAPs in metropolitan areas during the COVID-19 pandemic and describes the authors' experience of guaranteeing the quality and safety of FAPs for future pandemic cases. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Commerce , Food Supply , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Models, Theoretical , Refrigeration
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480725

ABSTRACT

Outsourcing remanufacturing is an important way to achieve resource recycling, green manufacturing and carbon neutrality goals. To analyze the impact of carbon trade on manufacturing/remanufacturing under outsourcing remanufacturing, this article builds a game model between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and a remanufacturer under the carbon trade policy. In the outsourcing remanufacturing model, this article compares the impact of the carbon trade policy on the unit retail price, sales volume, revenue, environmental impact, and consumer surplus of new and remanufactured products. The research mainly draws the following conclusions: (1) Carbon trade increases the prices of both new and remanufactured products and the cost of outsourcing. Only when certain conditions are met can increased carbon trade prices increase revenue. (2) The carbon trade policy helps reduce the adverse impact on the environment, but only when the carbon trade price is greater than a certain threshold can it increase consumer surplus. (3) Consumer preferences and carbon emissions of the unit product affect manufacturers' profits. Increased consumer preference for remanufactured products and reduced carbon emissions of remanufactured products contribute to increased sales and revenues.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Outsourced Services , Commerce , Policy , Recycling
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003729, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous product placement trials in supermarkets are limited in scope and outcome data collected. This study assessed the effects on store-level sales, household-level purchasing, and dietary behaviours of a healthier supermarket layout. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective matched controlled cluster trial with 2 intervention components: (i) new fresh fruit and vegetable sections near store entrances (replacing smaller displays at the back) and frozen vegetables repositioned to the entrance aisle, plus (ii) the removal of confectionery from checkouts and aisle ends opposite. In this pilot study, the intervention was implemented for 6 months in 3 discount supermarkets in England. Three control stores were matched on store sales and customer profiles and neighbourhood deprivation. Women customers aged 18 to 45 years, with loyalty cards, were assigned to the intervention (n = 62) or control group (n = 88) of their primary store. The trial registration number is NCT03518151. Interrupted time series analysis showed that increases in store-level sales of fruits and vegetables were greater in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (1.71 standard deviations (SDs) (95% CI 0.45, 2.96), P = 0.01) and 6 months follow-up (2.42 SDs (0.22, 4.62), P = 0.03), equivalent to approximately 6,170 and approximately 9,820 extra portions per store, per week, respectively. The proportion of purchasing fruits and vegetables per week rose among intervention participants at 3 and 6 months compared to control participants (0.2% versus -3.0%, P = 0.22; 1.7% versus -3.5%, P = 0.05, respectively). Store sales of confectionery were lower in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (-1.05 SDs (-1.98, -0.12), P = 0.03) and 6 months (-1.37 SDs (-2.95, 0.22), P = 0.09), equivalent to approximately 1,359 and approximately 1,575 fewer portions per store, per week, respectively; no differences were observed for confectionery purchasing. Changes in dietary variables were predominantly in the expected direction for health benefit. Intervention implementation was not within control of the research team, and stores could not be randomised. It is a pilot study, and, therefore, not powered to detect an effect. CONCLUSIONS: Healthier supermarket layouts can improve the nutrition profile of store sales and likely improve household purchasing and dietary quality. Placing fruits and vegetables near store entrances should be considered alongside policies to limit prominent placement of unhealthy foods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03518151 (pre-results).


Subject(s)
Commerce , Consumer Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Food , Nutritive Value , Supermarkets , Adolescent , Adult , Candy , Choice Behavior , Commerce/economics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Diet, Healthy/economics , England , Female , Food/adverse effects , Food/economics , Food Preferences , Frozen Foods , Fruit , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vegetables , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468172

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on bilateral trade flows using a state-of-the-art gravity model of trade. Using the monthly trade data of 68 countries exporting across 222 destinations between January 2019 and October 2020, our results are threefold. First, we find a greater negative impact of COVID-19 on bilateral trade for those countries that were members of regional trade agreements before the pandemic. Second, we find that the impact of COVID-19 is negative and significant when we consider indicators related to governmental actions. Finally, this negative effect is more intense when exporter and importer country share identical income levels. In the latter case, the highest negative impact is found for exports between high-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Policy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456305

ABSTRACT

Economic shocks from COVID-19, coupled with ongoing US-China tensions, have raised debates around supply chain (or global value chain) organisation, with China at the centre of the storm. However, quantitative studies that consider the global and economy-wide impacts of rerouting supply chains are limited. This study examines the economic and emissions impacts of reorganising supply chains, using Australia-China trade as an example. It augments the Hypothetical Extraction Method by replacing traditional Input-Output analysis with a Computable General Equilibrium analysis. The estimation results demonstrate that in both exports and imports, a trade embargo between Australia and China - despite being compensated for by alternative supply chains-will cause gross domestic production losses and emissions increases for both countries and the world overall. Moreover, even though all other economies gain from the markets left by China, many of them incur overall gross domestic production losses and emission increases. The finding that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and India may also suffer from an Australia-China trade embargo, despite a gain in trade volume, suggests that no country should add fuel to the fire. The results suggest that countries need to defend a rules-based trading regime and jointly address supply chain challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia , China , Commerce , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 723084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450848

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 outbreak has spread over the world, limiting population and trade, causing job losses, and forcing businesses to close. The study's goal is to look at Covid-19's pandemic and consumer survival as a mediator for the future of running a business when FMCG companies are doing well. The researchers employed a basic random sampling strategy to do a layered transverse evaluation of samples. EFA, CFA, and SEM are used to choose data collection techniques for participants at Covid-19. According to the data, Malaysia has resulted in job losses, business growth, and customer satisfaction retention, as well as an increase in unemployment, company closures, and a drop in overall GDP. The impact of the Covid-19 epidemic on survival, production, and GDP has been demonstrated. Incorporating technology into all aspects of a company's working practices reveals the necessity and capacity of the organization to adapt to new scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448904

ABSTRACT

An economic experiment was conducted in France in 2020 to evaluate consumer attitudes toward two ham products associated with different colorectal cancer risks. We focused specifically on comparing a conventional ham and a new hypothetical antioxidant-enriched ham with a reduced risk of provoking colorectal cancer. Study participants were given descriptions of the two hams before carrying out successive rounds of willingness-to-pay (WTP) assessments. The results show that WTP was higher for the antioxidant-enriched ham than for the conventional ham. WTP estimates were also impacted by providing additional information about the reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with the antioxidant-enriched ham. Based on the participants' WTP, we came up with ex ante estimates for the social impacts of introducing the antioxidant-enriched ham onto the market, and we suggest that it would be socially optimal to promote the product. Competition arising from pre-existing product labelling and marketing assertions could greatly limit the market potential of antioxidant-enriched ham, which suggests that alternative approaches may be necessary, such as regulations mandating antioxidant enrichment. These results also concern all countries with high levels of meat consumption.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Consumer Behavior/economics , Food Preferences/psychology , Food, Fortified/economics , Pork Meat/economics , Adult , Antioxidants , Choice Behavior , Commerce , Diet, Healthy/economics , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Food, Fortified/analysis , France , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pork Meat/analysis , Young Adult
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