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JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147813, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680206

ABSTRACT

Importance: e-Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among US youths. Flavors are among the most cited reasons for use of e-cigarettes among youths, and therefore, some states have imposed restrictions on flavored e-cigarette sales. To our knowledge, no study has compared e-cigarette sales between states with statewide flavored e-cigarette restrictions and states without such restrictions while controlling for co-occurring events. Objective: To assess whether implementation of statewide restrictions on flavored e-cigarette sales in Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Washington was associated with a reduction in total e-cigarette unit sales from 2014 to 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study with difference-in-differences analysis used e-cigarette retail sales data from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Washington, which implemented restrictions on flavored e-cigarette sales in October 2019; New York, which implemented these restrictions in May 2020; and 35 states without these restrictions (control states). Sales were summed into 4-week periods from August 24, 2014, to December 27, 2020, for a total of 2988 state-period observations. Main Outcomes and Measures: A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted to compare e-cigarette unit sales in the 4 states with flavor restrictions (before and after implementation) with those in the 35 control states. The model controlled for other population-based policies and emergent events (eg, the COVID-19 pandemic). Data on 4-week e-cigarette unit sales were sorted into 4 flavor categories (tobacco, menthol, mint, and other). Unit sales were standardized to reflect the most common package sizes for each product type. Results: Statewide restrictions on non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarette sales were associated with the following reductions in mean 4-week total e-cigarette sales in intervention states compared with control states from October 2019 to December 2020: 30.65% (95% CI, 24.08%-36.66%) in New York, 31.26% (95% CI, 11.94%-46.34%) in Rhode Island, and 25.01% (95% CI, 18.43%-31.05%) in Washington. In Massachusetts, the comprehensive sales prohibition of all e-cigarette products was associated with a 94.38% (95% CI, 93.37%-95.23%) reduction in 4-week sales compared with control states. Except in Massachusetts, where all sales of flavored e-cigarettes decreased, reductions were found only for non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarette sales in the other states with restrictions. Among control states, mean sales decreased by 28.4% from August 2019 to February 2020 but then increased by 49.9% from February through December 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, statewide restrictions on the sale of flavored e-cigarettes in Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Washington were associated with a reduction in total e-cigarette sales. These findings suggest that not all e-cigarette users who purchased non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes switched to purchasing tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes after policy implementation.


Subject(s)
Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Flavoring Agents , Vaping/legislation & jurisprudence , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592216

ABSTRACT

One of the most pressing challenges facing food systems in Africa is ensuring availability of a healthy and sustainable diet to 2.4 billion people by 2050. The continent has struggled with development challenges, particularly chronic food insecurity and pervasive poverty. In Africa's food systems, fish and other aquatic foods play a multifaceted role in generating income, and providing a critical source of essential micronutrients. To date, there are no estimates of investment and potential returns for domestic fish production in Africa. To contribute to policy debates about the future of fish in Africa, we applied the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agriculture Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) to explore two Pan-African scenarios for fish sector growth: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a high-growth scenario for capture fisheries and aquaculture with accompanying strong gross domestic product growth (HIGH). Post-model analysis was used to estimate employment and aquaculture investment requirements for the sector in Africa. Africa's fish sector is estimated to support 20.7 million jobs in 2030, and 21.6 million by 2050 under the BAU. Approximately 2.6 people will be employed indirectly along fisheries and aquaculture value chains for every person directly employed in the fish production stage. Under the HIGH scenario, total employment in Africa's fish food system will reach 58.0 million jobs, representing 2.4% of total projected population in Africa by 2050. Aquaculture production value is estimated to achieve US$ 3.3 billion and US$ 20.4 billion per year under the BAU and HIGH scenarios by 2050, respectively. Farm-gate investment costs for the three key inputs (fish feeds, farm labor, and fish seed) to achieve the aquaculture volumes projected by 2050 are estimated at US$ 1.8 billion per year under the BAU and US$ 11.6 billion per year under the HIGH scenario. Sustained investments are critical to sustain capture fisheries and support aquaculture growth for food system transformation towards healthier diets.


Subject(s)
Fisheries/economics , Africa , Commerce/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Employment , Fisheries/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Investments , Models, Economic
6.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
7.
S Afr Med J ; 111(9): 834-837, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) restrictions, particularly relating to the sale of alcohol and hours of curfew, have had a marked effect on the temporal pattern of unnatural deaths in South Africa. Methods. Death data were collected over 68 weeks from January 2020 to April 2021, together with information on the nature of restrictions (if any) on the sale of alcohol, and hours of curfew. Data were analysed using a simple ordinary least square (OLS) regression model to estimate the relative contribution of restrictions on the sale of alcohol and hours of curfew to the pattern of excess unnatural deaths. Results. The complete restriction on the sale of alcohol resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unnatural deaths regardless of the length of curfew. To the contrary, periods where no or limited restrictions on alcohol were in force had no significant effect, or resulted in significantly increased unnatural deaths. Conclusions. The present study highlights an association between alcohol availability and the number of unnatural deaths and demonstrates the extent to which those deaths might be averted by disrupting the alcohol supply. While this is not a long-term solution to addressing alcohol-related harm, it further raises the importance of implementing evidence-based alcohol control measures.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/legislation & jurisprudence , Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Alcoholic Beverages/economics , Cause of Death , Humans , Social Control, Formal , South Africa , Time Factors
10.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e557-e565, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a policy option to reduce consumption of alcohol and the harm it does, on May 1, 2018, Scotland introduced a minimum price of 50 British pence (p) per unit of alcohol (8 g) sold; Wales followed suit on March 2, 2020, with the same minimum unit price (MUP). We analysed household purchase data based on bar codes to assess the impact of these policy options in the medium term for Scotland and in the immediate term for Wales. METHODS: For these location-controlled, interrupted time series regression analyses, the data source was Kantar WorldPanel's household shopping panel, which, at the time of our analysis, included 35 242 British households providing detailed information on 1·24 million separate alcohol purchases in 2015-18 and the first half of 2020. With no data exclusions, we analysed the impact of introducing MUP in Scotland, using purchases in northern England as control, and in Wales, using western England as control. The studied changes associated with MUP were price paid per gram of alcohol purchased, grams of alcohol purchased, and amount of money spent on alcohol. FINDINGS: In Scotland, price increases and purchase decreases following the introduction of MUP in 2018 were maintained during the first half of 2020. The difference between Scotland and northern England in 2020 was a price increase of 0·741 p per gram (95% CI 0·724-0·759), a 7·6% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·063 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·656-7·470), a 7·7% decrease. In Wales, the introduction of MUP led to similar results. The difference between Wales and western England was a price increase 0·841 of 0·841 p per gram (0·732-0·951), an 8·2% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·052 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·463-7·640), an 8·6% decrease. For both Scotland and Wales, reductions in overall purchases of alcohol were largely restricted to households that bought the most alcohol. The introduction of MUP was not associated with an increased expenditure on alcohol by households that generally bought small amounts of alcohol and, in particular, those with low incomes. The changes were not affected by the introduction of COVID-19 confinement in the UK on March 26, 2020. INTERPRETATION: The evidence base supporting the positive, targeted impact of MUP is strengthened by the comparable results for Scotland and Wales. The short-term impact of MUP in Scotland during 2018 is maintained during the first half of 2020. MUP is an effective alcohol policy option to reduce off-trade purchases of alcohol and should be widely considered. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Scotland , Wales
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 490, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is now 25 years since the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the same concerns raised during its negotiations such as high prices of medicines, market exclusivity and delayed market entry for generics remain relevant as highlighted recently by the Ebola and COVID-19 pandemics. The World Health Organization's (WHO) mandate to work on the interface between intellectual property, innovation and access to medicine has been continually reinforced and extended to include providing support to countries on the implementation of TRIPS flexibilities in collaboration with stakeholders. This study analyses the role of intellectual property on access to medicines in the African Region. METHODS: We analyze patent data from the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) to provide a situational analysis of patenting activity and trends. We also review legislation to assess how TRIPS flexibilities are implemented in countries. RESULTS: Patenting was low for African countries. Only South Africa and Cameroon appeared in the list of top ten originator countries for ARIPO and OAPI respectively. Main diseases covered by African patents were HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tumors. Majority countries have legislation allowing for compulsory licensing and parallel importation of medicines, while the least legislated flexibilities were explicit exemption of pharmaceutical products from patentable subject matter, new or second use of patented pharmaceutical products, imposition of limits to patent term extension and test data protection. Thirty-nine countries have applied TRIPS flexibilities, with the most common being compulsory licensing and least developed country transition provisions. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities exist for WHO to work with ARIPO and OAPI to support countries in reviewing their legislation to be more responsive to public health needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Intellectual Property , Patents as Topic , Africa , Commerce/history , Developing Countries , History, 20th Century , Humans , International Law , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , World Health Organization
12.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(7): 573-581, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130313

ABSTRACT

Emerging zoonotic diseases exert a significant burden on human health and have considerable socioeconomic impact worldwide. In Asia, live animals as well as animal products are commonly sold in informal markets. The interaction of humans, live domestic animals for sale, food products, and wild and scavenging animals, creates a risk for emerging infectious diseases. Such markets have been in the spotlight as sources of zoonotic viruses, for example, avian influenza viruses and coronaviruses, Here, we bring data together on the global impact of live and wet markets on the emergence of zoonotic diseases. We discuss how benefits can be maximized and risks minimized and conclude that current regulations should be implemented or revised, to mitigate the risk of new diseases emerging in the future.


Subject(s)
Commerce/standards , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Food , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Asia , Birds/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Commerce/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Crowding , Humans , Influenza in Birds/transmission , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Zoonoses/classification , Zoonoses/virology
13.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089009

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout the world, with devastating effects of the virus as well as the repercussions of the resulting 'lockdowns'. South Africa went into a national lockdown in March 2020 to mitigate the impact of the virus. This included a ban on the sales of tobacco and electronic cigarette products. The ban has been a highly contentious issue in South Africa, discussed worldwide, which has drawn many criticisms. The prevalence rate of smoking in South Africa was around 21.5%, with the Western Cape province having a prevalence rate of 39%. We compared the number of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presentations at a large regional referral hospital in the Western Cape province from January to August 2019 with the same period in 2020. Electronic emergency centre data showed a reduction of 69.28% in COPD presentations. To control for some confounders for the same period, we also reviewed patients presenting with urinary tract infections, which showed only a 30.60% reduction. This notable reduction in COPD presentations reduced service pressure of emergency centre and most likely benefitted patients' health. Further research and policies are needed to ensure ongoing reduction in the prevalence of smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Tobacco Products/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Cigarette Smoking/prevention & control , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Symptom Flare Up , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Tobacco Products/economics
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108607, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Thailand, alcohol is consumed in social setting. The Thai government introduced a ban on alcohol sales and other measures at the beginning of COVID-19 lockdown with gradual lifts. However, drinking behaviors, behaviors of community members, and alcohol marketing activities during the ban and lifts have not been described. METHODS: We contracted a survey research firm to conduct four phone-based cross-sectional surveys between April and July 2020 (n = 6239 participants in total). Participants were recruited from all regions and Bangkok. We also summarized alcohol control measures as reported by multiple sources. We analyzed data from Waves 1 thru 4 using descriptive statistics with adjustment for sampling weight. RESULTS: A total of 6239 persons participated in the 4 waves of surveys. Among survey respondents who were drinkers, half did not drink alcohol during the alcohol sale ban while one-third reported drinking less than usual in the past 30 days. Almost no participant reported drinking more than usual. During the ban (Wave 1), one-sixth of respondents noticed social drinking in their areas while less than 6 percent reported witnessing alcohol sale. Online parties were the predominant alcohol marketing activity, but became less common during Wave 3 compared to Wave 2. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Ever drinkers either abstained from alcohol or drank less than usual during the ban on alcohol sale. However, social drinking and alcohol sale persisted despite the ban.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e4, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073602

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic evolves globally, we are realising its impact on communities from the disease itself and the measures being taken to limit infection spread. In South Africa (SA), 62 300 adults die annually from alcohol-attributable causes. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced by interventions, such as taxation, government monopolising retail sales, outlet density restriction, hours of sales and an advertising ban. To mitigate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, SA instituted a lockdown that also prohibited alcohol sales. This led to a sharp reduction in unnatural deaths in the country from 800-1000/week to around 400/week during the lockdown. We reviewed three 2-week periods at a large rural regional hospital: Before Covid-19 (February), during social distancing (March) and during lockdown with alcohol ban (April). A dramatic drop in patient numbers from 145 to 64 (55.8%) because of assault, from 207 to 83 (59.9%) because of accidents, from 463 to 188 (59.4%) because of other injuries and from 12 to 1 (91.6%) because of sexual assaults was observed during the first 2 weeks of lockdown. As healthcare professionals, we need to advocate for the ban to remain until the crisis is over to ensure that health services can concentrate on Covid-19 and other patients. We encourage other African states to follow suit and implement alcohol restrictions as a mechanism to free up health services. We see this as an encouragement to lobby for a new normal around alcohol sales after the pandemic. The restrictions should focus on all evidence-based modalities.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(2): 183-191, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Restrictions introduced to reduce the spread of COVID-19 have had major impacts on the living circumstances of Australians. This paper aims to provide insight into shifts in alcohol consumption and associated factors during the epidemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 2307 Australians aged 18 and over who drank at least monthly was recruited through social media. Respondents were asked about their alcohol consumption and purchasing in 2019 prior to the epidemic plus similar questions about their experiences in the month prior to being surveyed between 29 April and 16 May 2020. RESULTS: Reports of average consumption before (3.53 drinks per day [3.36, 3.71 95% confidence interval]) and during (3.52 [3.34, 3.69]) the pandemic were stable. However, young men and those who drank more outside the home in 2019 reported decreased consumption during the pandemic, and people with high levels of stress and those who bulk-bought alcohol when restrictions were announced reported an increase in consumption relative to those who did not. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: A reported increase in consumption among those experiencing more stress suggests that some people may have been drinking to cope during the epidemic. Conversely, the reported decrease in consumption among those who drank more outside of their home in 2019 suggests that closing all on-trade sales did not result in complete substitution of on-premise drinking with home drinking in this group. Monitoring of relevant subgroups to assess long-term changes in consumption in the aftermath of the epidemic is recommended.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Child Care/statistics & numerical data , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
17.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(2): 201-204, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066652

ABSTRACT

In an effort to limit the impact of alcohol on the Western Australian (WA) health system during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the WA Government introduced temporary restrictions on takeaway alcohol purchases for several weeks in March and April 2020. In response, alcohol industry representatives encouraged the WA Government to remove the restrictions and replace them with a voluntary alcohol industry initiative. We looked at alcohol industry representatives' comments in media and online publications during this period. We found that the industry framed alcohol as an essential product, focused on the impact of the restrictions on WA businesses and framed the restrictions as complex and ineffective. The themes and arguments we identified are commonly used by the alcohol industry and are not unique to the pandemic. The alcohol industry's response to the COVID-19 restrictions in Australia provides a unique case study of how the alcohol industry attempts to interfere in public health policy.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy , Industry , Public Health , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , Western Australia
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