Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4392-4398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263103

ABSTRACT

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 418 samples of the 987 analyzed (42.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (1.62%) samples were positive for FLUAV, no sample was positive for FLUBV or EV-68, 67 (6.78%) samples were positive for HAdV-C, 55 samples were positive for RV 1/2 (26.3%) and 37 for RV 2/2 (13.6%). Coinfections were also detected, including a triple coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, FLUAV, and HAdV-C. In the present work, a very low frequency of FLUV was reported among hospitalized patients with ARDS compared to the past years, probably due to preventive measures taken to avoid COVID-19 and the high influenza vaccination coverage in the region in which this study was performed.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Adenoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Masks , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
2.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221200

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Male , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trachea , Vaccination
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1792-1795, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective and safe treatments. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 actively replicates in the throat, unlike SARS-CoV, and shows high pharyngeal viral shedding even in patients with mild symptoms of the disease. HCoV-229E is one of four coronaviruses causing the common cold. In this study, the efficacy of ColdZyme® (CZ-MD), a medical device mouth spray, was tested against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. The CZ-MD provides a protective glycerol barrier containing cod trypsin as an ancillary component. Combined, these ingredients can inactivate common cold viruses in the throat and mouth. The CZ-MD is believed to act on the viral surface proteins that would perturb their entry pathway into cells. The efficacy and safety of the CZ-MD have been demonstrated in clinical trials on the common cold. METHOD OF STUDY: The ability of the CZ-MD to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E was tested using an in vitro virucidal suspension test (ASTM E1052). RESULTS: CZ-MD inactivated SARS-CoV-2 by 98.3% and HCoV-229E by 99.9%. CONCLUSION: CZ-MD mouth spray can inactivate the respiratory coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. Although the in vitro results presented cannot be directly translated into clinical efficacy, the study indicates that CZ-MD might offer a protective barrier against SARS-CoV-2 and a decreased risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Glycerol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Trypsin/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/prevention & control , Common Cold/transmission , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Viral Proteins/drug effects
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574029, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976251

ABSTRACT

From Pauling's theories to the present, considerable understanding has been acquired of both the physiological role of vitamin C and of the impact of vitamin C supplementation on the health. Although it is well known that a balanced diet which satisfies the daily intake of vitamin C positively affects the immune system and reduces susceptibility to infections, available data do not support the theory that oral vitamin C supplements boost immunity. No current clinical recommendations support the possibility of significantly decreasing the risk of respiratory infections by using high-dose supplements of vitamin C in a well-nourished general population. Only in restricted subgroups (e.g., athletes or the military) and in subjects with a low plasma vitamin C concentration a supplementation may be justified. Furthermore, in categories at high risk of infection (i.e., the obese, diabetics, the elderly, etc.), a vitamin C supplementation can modulate inflammation, with potential positive effects on immune response to infections. The impact of an extra oral intake of vitamin C on the duration of a cold and the prevention or treatment of pneumonia is still questioned, while, based on critical illness studies, vitamin C infusion has recently been hypothesized as a treatment for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. In this review, we focused on the effects of vitamin C on immune function, summarizing the most relevant studies from the prevention and treatment of common respiratory diseases to the use of vitamin C in critical illness conditions, with the aim of clarifying its potential application during an acute SARS-CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/immunology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e929789, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948228

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown a significant level of T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and unexposed healthy individuals. Also, SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cells occur in unexposed healthy individuals from endemic coronaviruses that cause the 'common cold.' The finding of the expression of adaptive SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cells in unexposed healthy individuals may be due to multiple cross-reactive viral protein targets following previous exposure to endemic human coronavirus infections. The opinion of the authors is that determination of protein sequence homologies across seemingly disparate viral protein libraries may provide epitope-matching data that link SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cell signatures to prior administration of cross-reacting vaccines to common viral pathogens. Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 initiates diverse cellular immune responses, including the associated 'cytokine storm'. Therefore, it is possible that the intact virus possesses a required degree of conformational matching, or stereoselectivity, to effectively target its receptor on multiple cell types. Therefore, conformational matching may be viewed as an evolving mechanism of viral infection and viral replication by an evolutionary modification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor required for SARS-CoV-2 binding and host cell entry. The authors propose that convalescent memory T cell immunity in individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection may result from an evolutionarily adapted immune response to coronavirus and the 'common cold'.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunologic Memory/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Homology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153403, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, countries are struggling with a shortage of medical capacities. It would be essential if the risk for preventable comorbidities, such as the common cold, can be reduced or prevented, so that the scarce medical resources and facilities can be focused on COVID-19. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of two herbal medicines (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) in reducing the risk of the common cold in community-dwelling residents in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective open-label, parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), was conducted in Chengdu, China. METHODS: A total of 22,065 participants from 11 communities were recruited during a period of one month. The trial started on 30 January and participants were followed up till 29 February 2020. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a five-day herbal medicine therapy plus a reference manual or a reference manual only if they were allocated to the control group. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of patient-reported common cold symptoms. The secondary endpoint was the time in days from the receipt of herbal drugs/reference manual and the occurrence of the common cold symptoms. RESULTS: Use of herbal medicine reduced the risk of the common cold by 89.6% (95% CI, 52.9% to 97.7%) in all community-dwelling residents, and by 94.0% (95% CI, 52.1% to 99.2%) in residents aged between 16 and 59 years old. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This community-based RCT found that the use of a herbal medicine therapy (Jinhaoartemisia antipyretic granules and Huoxiangzhengqi oral liquids) could significantly reduce the risks of the common cold among community-dwelling residents, suggesting that herbal medicine may be a useful approach for public health intervention to minimize preventable morbidity during COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 3): 679-687, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the work is to analyze population adaptation to SARS-CoV-2 in Europe in March-May 2020, predict herd immunity formation in the nearest several months on the basis of our SIR modified epidemiological model of the virus spread and elaborate recommendations to governments regarding a second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Outer (1,006,512 RT-PCR tests results for SARS-CoV-2) and proprietary (34,660 respiratory samples) epidemiological data was used. Fifteen European countries were studied. Dates of research: March 2 - May 22, 2020. RESULTS: As of April 21, 2020, the mean population infection rate (PIR) for the European countries considered, was 9.66%. It decreased to 6.85% by May 22, 2020. The model predicted 5.68% PIR, giving accuracy of 79.40%. SARS-CoV-2 basic reproduction number is limited by an extremum that may be observed for closed communities. A concept of effective reproduction number is introduced as a function of r0 with maximum at r0 = 4.671 and value reff. = 0.315 for the full-lockdown mode and r0 = 5.539 and reff. = 0.552 for the no-lockdown mode of SARS-CoV-2 containment. Full-lockdown and no-lockdown modes resulted in the outcomes not strikingly different from each other in terms of herd immunity values. CONCLUSION: In case of a second wave of COVID-19 disease in Europe, it will coincide with seasonal common cold surge, spanning from mid-September 2020 to mid-February 2021, with a median in November-December 2020. Strict epidemiological surveillance must be observed in Europe at that time.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Common Cold , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Immunity, Herd , Adaptation, Physiological/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/prevention & control , Common Cold/epidemiology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL