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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 168-171, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623181

ABSTRACT

HCoV-OC43 is one of the mildly pathogenic coronaviruses with high infection rates in common population. Here, 43 HCoV-OC43 related cases with pneumonia were reported, corresponding genomes of HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome, orf1ab and spike genes revealed that two novel genotypes of HCoV-OC43 have emerged in China. Obvious recombinant events also can be detected in the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of novel HCoV-OC43 genotypes. Estimated divergence time analysis indicated that the two novel genotypes had apparently independent evolutionary routes. Efforts should be conducted for further investigation of genomic diversity and evolution analysis of mildly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/transmission , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314758

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, are known to spread mainly via close contact and respiratory droplets. However, other potential means of transmission may be present. Fomite-mediated transmission occurs when viruses are deposited onto a surface and then transfer to a subsequent individual. Surfaces can become contaminated directly from respiratory droplets or from a contaminated hand. Due to mask mandates in many countries around the world, the former is less likely. Hands can become contaminated if respiratory droplets are deposited on them (i.e., coughing or sneezing) or through contact with fecal material where human coronaviruses (HCoVs) can be shed. The focus of this paper is on whether human coronaviruses can transfer efficiently from contaminated hands to food or food contact surfaces. The surfaces chosen were: stainless steel, plastic, cucumber and apple. Transfer was first tested with cellular maintenance media and three viruses: two human coronaviruses, 229E and OC43, and murine norovirus-1, as a surrogate for human norovirus. There was no transfer for either of the human coronaviruses to any of the surfaces. Murine norovirus-1 did transfer to stainless steel, cucumber and apple, with transfer efficiencies of 9.19%, 5.95% and 0.329%, respectively. Human coronavirus OC43 transfer was then tested in the presence of fecal material, and transfer was observed for stainless steel (0.52%), cucumber (19.82%) and apple (15.51%) but not plastic. This study indicates that human coronaviruses do not transfer effectively from contaminated hands to contact surfaces without the presence of fecal material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Food Microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Common Cold/transmission , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination , Feces/virology , Fomites , Foodborne Diseases/virology , Humans , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Stainless Steel
4.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207482

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) persists on stainless steel and plastic for up to 7 days, suggesting that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be spread by fomite transmission. There is limited research on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on textiles, with the risk of textiles acting as fomites not being well understood. To date, there does not appear to be any published research on the stability of coronaviruses during laundering, which is required to determine the efficacy of current laundering policies in the decontamination of health care textiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental stability of human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E on different textile fiber types and the persistence of HCoV-OC43 on textiles during domestic and industrial laundering. This study demonstrated that human coronaviruses (5 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) remain infectious on polyester for ≥72 h, cotton for ≥24 h, and polycotton for ≥6 h; HCoV-OC43 was also able to transfer from polyester to PVC or polyester after 72 h. Under clean conditions, HCoV-OC43 was not detectable on cotton swatches laundered with industrial and domestic wash cycles without temperature and detergent (≥4.57-log10-TCID50 reduction), suggesting that the dilution and agitation of wash cycles are sufficient to remove human coronaviruses from textiles. In the presence of interfering substances (artificial saliva), ≤1.78 log10 TCID50 HCoV-OC43 was detected after washing domestically without temperature and detergent, unlike industrial laundering, where the virus was completely removed. However, no infectious HCoV-OC43 was detected when washed domestically with detergent.IMPORTANCE Synthetic textiles such as polyester could potentially act as fomites of human coronaviruses, indicating the importance of infection control procedures during handling of contaminated textiles prior to laundering. This study provides novel evidence that human coronaviruses can persist on textiles for up to 3 days and are readily transferred from polyester textile to other surfaces after 72 h of incubation. This is of particular importance for the domestic laundering of contaminated textiles such as health care uniforms in the United Kingdom and United States, where there may be a risk of cross-contaminating the domestic environment. It was demonstrated that human coronaviruses are removed from contaminated textiles by typical domestic and commercial wash cycles, even at low temperatures without detergent, indicating that current health care laundering policies are likely sufficient in the decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 from textiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Common Cold/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Detergents/pharmacology , Textiles/virology , Cell Line , Cotton Fiber/virology , Fomites/virology , Humans , Laundering , Polyesters , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1792-1795, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective and safe treatments. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 actively replicates in the throat, unlike SARS-CoV, and shows high pharyngeal viral shedding even in patients with mild symptoms of the disease. HCoV-229E is one of four coronaviruses causing the common cold. In this study, the efficacy of ColdZyme® (CZ-MD), a medical device mouth spray, was tested against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. The CZ-MD provides a protective glycerol barrier containing cod trypsin as an ancillary component. Combined, these ingredients can inactivate common cold viruses in the throat and mouth. The CZ-MD is believed to act on the viral surface proteins that would perturb their entry pathway into cells. The efficacy and safety of the CZ-MD have been demonstrated in clinical trials on the common cold. METHOD OF STUDY: The ability of the CZ-MD to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E was tested using an in vitro virucidal suspension test (ASTM E1052). RESULTS: CZ-MD inactivated SARS-CoV-2 by 98.3% and HCoV-229E by 99.9%. CONCLUSION: CZ-MD mouth spray can inactivate the respiratory coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro. Although the in vitro results presented cannot be directly translated into clinical efficacy, the study indicates that CZ-MD might offer a protective barrier against SARS-CoV-2 and a decreased risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Glycerol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Trypsin/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/prevention & control , Common Cold/transmission , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Viral Proteins/drug effects
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