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3.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 464-470, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables. RESULTS: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Adult , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
4.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 212: 106468, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With outbreaks of COVID-19 around the world, lockdown restrictions are routinely imposed to limit the spread of the virus. During periods of lockdown, social media has become the main channel for citizens to exchange information with others. Public emotions are being generated and shared rapidly online with citizens using internet platforms to reduce anxiety and stress, and stay connected while isolated. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the regularity of emotional evolution by examining public emotions expressed in online discussions about the Wuhan lockdown event in January 2020. METHODS: Data related to the Wuhan lockdown was collected from Sina Weibo by web crawler. In this study, the Ortony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) model, Word2Vec, and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory model were employed to determine emotional types, train vectorization of words, and identify each text emotion for the training set. Latent Dirichlet Allocation models were also employed to mine the various topic categories, while topic emotional evolution was visualized. RESULTS: Seven types of emotions and four phases were categorized to describe emotional evolution on the Wuhan lockdown event. The study found that negative emotions such as blame and fear dominated in the early days, and public attitudes towards the lockdown gradually alleviated and reached a balance as the situation improved. Emotional expression about Wuhan lockdown event were significantly related to users' gender, location, and whether or not their account was verified. There were statistically significant correlations between different emotions within the subtle emotional categories. In addition, the evolution of emotions presented a different path due to different topics. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple emotional categories were determined in our study, providing a detailed and explainable emotion analysis to explored emotional appeal of citizen. The public emotions were gradually easing related to the Wuhan lockdown event, there yet exists regional discrimination and post-traumatic stress disorder in this process, which would lead us to pay continuous attention to citizens lives and psychological status post-pandemic. In addition, this study provided an appropriate method and reference case for the government's public opinion control and emotional appeasement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1946-1950, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Preschool wheezers are at high risk of recurrent attacks triggered by respiratory viruses, sometimes exacerbated by exposure to allergens and pollution. Because of the COVID-19 infection, the lockdown was introduced, but the effects on preschool wheezers are unknown. We hypothesized that there would be an improvement in outcomes during the lockdown, and these would be lost when the lockdown was eased. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent medical visits before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We recorded the childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) and a clinical questionnaire. Data on symptoms, the need for medications and the use of healthcare resources were recorded. We compared these data with retrospective reports from the preceding year and prospectively acquired questionnaires after lockdown. RESULTS: We studied 85 preschool wheezers, mean age 4.9 years. During the lockdown, cACT score was significantly higher (median 25 vs. 23); families reported a dramatic drop in wheezing episodes (51 vs. none), significant reductions in the day and nighttime symptoms, including episodes of shortness of breath (p < .0001); the use of salbutamol and oral corticosteroids (OCS) dropped significantly (p < .0001) and 79 (95%) patients needed no OCS bursts during the lockdown. Finally, patients had significantly fewer extra medical examinations, as well as fewer Emergency Room visits (p < .0001). All were improved compared with the same time period from the previous year, but outcomes worsened significantly again after lockdown (cACT median: 22). CONCLUSIONS: During the national lockdown, children with persistent preschool wheeze showed a significant clinical improvement with reduction of respiratory symptoms, medication use for exacerbations, and use of healthcare resources. This trend reversed when lockdown restrictions were eased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Sounds , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergens , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(6)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524366

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: For the first time in recent history, people worldwide have faced severe restrictions in occupations because of the measures adopted by governments to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the limitations on participation of occupational therapists and occupational therapy students during "lockdown" and their impact on social determinants of health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted via an online survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 488 occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in North America, South America, and Europe. Outcomes and Measures: A questionnaire consisting of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and items developed to assess the impact of lockdown on daily life was emailed to occupational therapy professional associations, organizations, and universities between April and June 2020. It was available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese and met all the parameters listed in the Declaration of Helsinki. RESULTS: The roles and routines of people across the developed world have been affected by lockdown measures. The study shows marked differences between participants in the domains of getting along and life activities, as well as influence on the environment. Moreover, South American participants experienced these difficulties to a greater extent than European participants. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study quantifies the limitations in the participation of occupational therapists and occupational therapy students and the relationship of occupation to social determinants of health. What This Article Adds: The results of this research corroborate the relationship between health and occupation and highlight elements, such as the environment and context, that are important in occupational therapy. Therapists' ability to analyze occupation in relation to contextual and cultural factors will benefit clients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Occupational Therapists , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Students
7.
Orv Hetil ; 162(46): 1831-1841, 2021 11 14.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523487

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. A koronavírus-betegség (COVID-19) okozta közvetlen mortalitáson túl, a járvány közvetett úton is hatással lehet a hirtelen szívhalálra. Egyre növekvo számú közlemény foglalkozik a járványnak a hirtelen szívhalálra kifejtett közvetett hatásával. A kijárási korlátozások és az egészségügyi rendszerek átszervezése hozzájárulhatott ahhoz, hogy a járvány alatt mind a kórházon kívüli, mind a kórházon belüli szívhalál elofordulása megemelkedett. Közegészségügyi intézkedések, mint a korlátozások és a kórházak átszervezése, megváltoztathatják az egészségügyi szolgáltatásokhoz való hozzáférést, ezért hozzájárulhattak az elmúlt évben tapasztalt emelkedett számú szívmegálláshoz. Közleményünk célja a SARS-CoV-2-járvány hirtelen szívhalálra kifejtett hatására vonatkozó, a nemzetközi irodalomban jelenleg megtalálható tanulmányok összefoglalása, melyek a kórházon kívüli szívmegállás elofordulásának háromszoros emelkedésérol számoltak be a járványt megelozo évhez képest. Általánosságban elmondható, hogy a kórházon kívüli szívmegállás a járvány ideje alatt nagyobb gyakorisággal járt nem sokkolandó ritmussal, hosszabb ido telt el a mentok kiérkezéséig, alacsonyabb volt a szemtanú által megkezdett újraélesztés, a spontán keringés visszatérésének, valamint a kórházi elbocsátásnak a gyakorisága. A járványnak a kórházon belüli szívmegállásra kifejtett hatása kevésbé vizsgált az irodalomban. Míg a hirtelen szívhalált követo mortalitás néhány kutatásban jelentos emelkedést mutatott, addig máshol nem volt különbség a járványt megelozo idoszakhoz képest. A COVID-19-pandémia ideje alatt jelentosen megnövekedett kórházon kívüli és belüli szívmegállás hátterében a járványnak közvetett úton is szerepe lehet, a fertozés közvetlen hatása mellett. A túlélési lánc megbomlását számos helyen tapasztalták, ami hozzájárulhatott a kedvezotlen kimenetelhez. Mind a prehospitális, mind pedig a hospitális ellátás gyakorlatában bekövetkezo jelentos változások magyarázhatják a világ különbözo pontjain megfigyelt eltéréseket. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1831-1841. Summary. The direct effect of COVID-19 on mortality through acute respiratory failure is well-established. However, there are a growing number of publications suggesting that the prevalence and outcome of sudden cardiac death may also be indirectly affected by the pandemic. Public health measures, such as lockdowns and reorganisation of hospitals, can alter the access to healthcare services and therefore might have contributed to the excess number of cardiac arrests which were seen over the last year. Our aim was to review the currently available publications regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests. A recent study reported a 3-fold growth in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests during the 2020 COVID-19 period compared to the year before. In general, the number of non-shockable rhythms increased, bystander-witnessed cases and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation were reduced and ambulance response times were significantly delayed during the pandemic. Return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge substantially decreased compared to the time before the pandemic. The difference between the rate of mortality following in-hospital cardiac arrest during and before the pandemic is controversial according to published data. The incidence of out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests significantly increased during the pandemic compared to previous years suggesting direct effects of COVID-19 infection and indirect effects from new public health measures. The disruption of the chain of survival could have contributed to the increased mortality following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1831-1841.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518577

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective analysis, we examine the impact of the lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on eating habits in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on a hybrid artificial pancreas (HAP). Dietary composition before and during lockdown was assessed by 7-day food records of 12 participants with T1D on HAP (three men and nine women, ages 38 ± 13 years, HbA1c 6.8 ± 0.3%, M ± SD). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics and lifestyle changes (online questionnaire) were also assessed. Compared to prelockdown, reported body weight tended to increase during lockdown with no changes in total energy intake. Participants significantly decreased animal protein intake (-2.1 ± 3.7% of total energy intake, p = 0.048), but tended to increase carbohydrate intake (+17 ± 28 g/day, p = 0.052). These changes were induced by modifications of eating habits at breakfast and lunch during weekdays. Patients consumed more cereals (+21 ± 33 g/day, p = 0.038), whole grain (+22 ± 32 g/day, p = 0.044), and sweets (+13 ± 17 g/day, p = 0.021), and less animal protein sources (-42 ± 67 g/day, p = 0.054). Participants showed a more regular meal timing and decreased physical activity. Blood glucose control remained optimal (time-in-range 76 ± 8 vs. 75 ± 7% before lockdown), and daily total insulin infusion increased (42 ± 10 vs. 39 ± 12 I.U., p = 0.045). During the lockdown, patients with T1D on HAP modified dietary habits by decreasing animal protein and increasing carbohydrate intake. This increase, mainly concerning whole grain and low-glycemic-index products, did not influence blood glucose control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Pancreas, Artificial , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211055583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518210

ABSTRACT

The Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic remained operational during a 6-week statewide Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Stay-at-Home Order. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of the Stay-at-Home Order on countywide STD reporting and uptake of sexual health services. We compared countywide daily median STD reporting and MCDPH STD clinic attendance across 3 timeframes; (1) Pre-Lockdown (01/01/2020-03/30/2020); (2) Lockdown (03/31/2020-05/15/2020); and (3) Post-Lockdown (05/16/2020-12/31/2020). STD reporting was characterized as incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary syphilis. Clinic attendance was characterized as clients visiting through express testing or provider visits. Differences in STD reporting and clinic attendance were evaluated using non-parametric testing. Comparing Pre-Lockdown to Lockdown, we observed significant declines in the daily median chlamydia case reporting (-22%) and clinic express testing attendance (-29%). Comparing Lockdown to Post-Lockdown, we observed significant increases in daily median chlamydia and gonorrhea case reporting (+20%, +15%; respectively) and clinic express testing and provider visits (+42%, +20%; respectively). No significant difference was observed in countywide syphilis reporting across the 3 timeframes. Declines in STD reporting were observed countywide during the lockdown and were concurrent with declines in attendance observed at the MCDPH STD Clinic. Maintenance of clinic operations during the lockdown allowed for continued uptake of STD testing, diagnosis, treatment, and partner services. This study of sexual health care utilization at the public STD clinic in Maricopa County, Arizona, found reduced testing and provider visits contributed to lower countywide STD reporting during the Arizona COVID-19 Stay-at-Home Order.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Arizona , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12110, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517640

ABSTRACT

Wearing surgical masks or other similar face coverings can reduce the emission of expiratory particles produced via breathing, talking, coughing, or sneezing. Although it is well established that some fraction of the expiratory airflow leaks around the edges of the mask, it is unclear how these leakage airflows affect the overall efficiency with which masks block emission of expiratory aerosol particles. Here, we show experimentally that the aerosol particle concentrations in the leakage airflows around a surgical mask are reduced compared to no mask wearing, with the magnitude of reduction dependent on the direction of escape (out the top, the sides, or the bottom). Because the actual leakage flowrate in each direction is difficult to measure, we use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate flow-corrected particle emission rates for particles having diameters in the range 0.5-20 µm. in all orientations. From these, we derive a flow-weighted overall number-based particle removal efficiency for the mask. The overall mask efficiency, accounting both for air that passes through the mask and for leakage flows, is reduced compared to the through-mask filtration efficiency, from 93 to 70% for talking, but from only 94-90% for coughing. These results demonstrate that leakage flows due to imperfect sealing do decrease mask efficiencies for reducing emission of expiratory particles, but even with such leakage surgical masks provide substantial control.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cough , Exhalation , Filtration , Masks , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Particle Size , Probability , Respiration , Sneezing , Young Adult
13.
Euro Surveill ; 26(45)2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515522

ABSTRACT

We report a rapid increase in enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections, with 139 cases reported from eight European countries between 31 July and 14 October 2021. This upsurge is in line with the seasonality of EV-D68 and was presumably stimulated by the widespread reopening after COVID-19 lockdown. Most cases were identified in September, but more are to be expected in the coming months. Reinforcement of clinical awareness, diagnostic capacities and surveillance of EV-D68 is urgently needed in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2084, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strategies to control coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) have often been based on preliminary and limited data and have tended to be slow to evolve as new evidence emerges. Yet knowledge about COVID-19 has grown exponentially, and the expanding rollout of vaccines presents further opportunity to reassess the response to the pandemic more broadly. MAIN TEXT: We review the latest evidence concerning 10 key COVID-19 policy and strategic areas, specifically addressing: 1) the expansion of equitable vaccine distribution, 2) the need to ease restrictions as hospitalization and mortality rates eventually fall, 3) the advantages of emphasizing educational and harm reduction approaches over coercive and punitive measures, 4) the need to encourage outdoor activities, 5) the imperative to reopen schools, 6) the far-reaching and long-term economic and psychosocial consequences of sustained lockdowns, 7) the excessive focus on surface disinfection and other ineffective measures, 8) the importance of reassessing testing policies and practices, 9) the need for increasing access to outpatient therapies and prophylactics, and 10) the necessity to better prepare for future pandemics. CONCLUSIONS: While remarkably effective vaccines have engendered great hope, some widely held assumptions underlying current policy approaches call for an evidence-based reassessment. COVID-19 will require ongoing mitigation for the foreseeable future as it transforms from a pandemic into an endemic infection, but maintaining a constant state of emergency is not viable. A more realistic public health approach is to adjust current mitigation goals to be more data-driven and to minimize unintended harms associated with unfocused or ineffective control efforts. Based on the latest evidence, we therefore present recommendations for refining 10 key policy areas, and for applying lessons learned from COVID-19 to prevent and prepare for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e052888, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although social inequalities in COVID-19 mortality by race, gender and socioeconomic status are well documented, less is known about social disparities in infection rates and their shift over time. We aim to study the evolution of social disparities in infection at the early stage of the epidemic in France with regard to the policies implemented. DESIGN: Random population-based prospective cohort. SETTING: From May to June 2020 in France. PARTICIPANTS: Adults included in the Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie cohort (n=77 588). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported anosmia and/or ageusia in three categories: no symptom, during the first epidemic peak (in March 2020) or thereafter (during lockdown). RESULTS: In all, 2052 participants (1.53%) reported anosmia/ageusia. The social distribution of exposure factors (density of place of residence, overcrowded housing and working outside the home) was described. Multinomial regressions were used to identify changes in social variables (gender, class and race) associated with symptoms of anosmia/ageusia. Women were more likely to report symptoms during the peak and after. Racialised minorities accumulated more exposure risk factors than the mainstream population and were at higher risk of anosmia/ageusia during the peak and after. By contrast, senior executive professionals were the least exposed to the virus with the lower rate of working outside the home during lockdown. They were more affected than lower social classes at the peak of the epidemic, but this effect disappeared after the peak. CONCLUSION: The shift in the social profile of the epidemic was related to a shift in exposure factors under the implementation of a stringent stay-at-home order. Our study shows the importance to consider in a dynamic way the gender, socioeconomic and race direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, notably to implement policies that do not widen health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(11): 2360-2375, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth use has increased worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, hands-on requirements of surgical care may have resulted in slower implementation. This umbrella review (review of systematic reviews) evaluated the perceptions, safety and implementation of telehealth services in surgery, and telehealth usage in Australia between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: PubMed was searched from 2015 to 2021 for systematic reviews evaluating real-time telehealth modalities in surgery. Outcomes of interest were patient and provider satisfaction, safety, and barriers and facilitators associated with its use. Study quality was appraised using the AMSTAR 2 tool. A working group of surgeons provided insights into the clinical relevance to telehealth in surgical practice of the evidence collated. RESULTS: From 2025 identified studies, 17 were included, which were of low to moderate risk of bias. Patient and provider satisfaction with telehealth was high. Time savings, decreased healthcare resource use and lower costs were reported as key advantages of the service. Inability to perform comprehensive examinations was noted as the primary barrier. In Australia, peak telehealth usage coincided with the introduction of temporary telehealth services and increased lockdown measures. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and providers are broadly satisfied with telehealth and its benefits. Barriers may be overcome via multidisciplinary collaboration. Telehealth may benefit surgical care long-term if implemented correctly both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 516-532, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514394

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic extensively changed the work life of many employees. Teachers seemed particularly challenged, confronted with sudden remote teaching due to school closures. Drawing on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, we investigated (a) changes in seven work characteristics (job demands: emotional demands, interpersonal conflict, workload; job resources: autonomy, social support, feedback, task variety) and three job-related well-being indicators (fatigue, psychosomatic complaints, job satisfaction), (b) how changes in work characteristics correlated with well-being, and (c) the impact of two individual difference factors (caretaking responsibilities, career stage). Data were collected in two waves (just prior to and a few months into the COVID-19 pandemic) across Germany from 207 teachers with an average work experience of 6 years (range: 1-36 years). Using latent change score (LCS) modeling, we found significant, small-to-medium-sized decreases over time for both job demands and resources as well as fatigue, with variability in the magnitude of changes. Decreases in job demands correlated with decreases in fatigue and psychosomatic complaints, whereas decreases in job resources correlated with decreases in job satisfaction. Teachers with caretaking responsibilities and more experienced teachers were more vulnerable to the crisis as they experienced a smaller or no decrease in job demands in concert with diminished job resources. These findings reveal the double-edged consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for teachers' work life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Educational Personnel , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 39: 100442, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514314

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been altering all aspects of societal life including community mobility since December 2019. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal variations in human mobility patterns as the influence of COVID-19 during different periods at the state and union territory (UT) levels in India. From the spatial and temporal perspective, we find that change of mobility patterns and variations within states and UTs. The residential mobility has been increased because the mobility towards the home increased during the lockdown and the second wave but during the unlocking period reduced to some extent. There have spatial variations in mobility towards different places within states and UTs during the lockdown and second wave (lockdown to partial lockdown) but overall mobility towards different places like retail, parks, workplace, and transit stations have been reduced in India. During unlocking, mobility has been reduced all over the states and UTs in India but there have spatial-temporal variations within.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21912, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510610

ABSTRACT

The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the enforcement of national public health safety measures including precautionary behaviours such as border closures, movement restrictions, total or partial lockdowns, social distancing, and face mask mandates in order to reduce the spread of this disease. The current study uses affective priming, an indirect behavioural measure of implicit attitude, to evaluate COVID-19 attitudes. Explicitly, participants rated their overall risk perception associated with contracting COVID-19 significantly lower compared to their perception of necessary precautions and overall adherence to public health measures. During baseline trials, participants explicitly rated COVID-19 affiliated words as unpleasant, similar to traditional unpleasant word stimuli. Despite rating the COVID-19 affiliated words as unpleasant, affective priming was not observed for congruent prime-target COVID-19 affiliated word pairs when compared to congruent prime-target pleasant and unpleasant words. Overall, these results provide quantitative evidence that COVID-19 affiliated words do not invoke the same implicit attitude response as traditional pleasant and unpleasant word stimuli, despite conscious explicit rating of the COVID-19 words as unpleasant. This reduction in unpleasant attitude towards COVID-19 related words may contribute towards decreased fear-related behaviours and increased incidences of risky-behaviour facilitating the movement of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Humans , Male , Young Adult
20.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e67, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting measures can impact daily life and healthcare management amongst patients with beta thalassemia major. METHODS: The Corbin and Strauss method of grounded theory was used to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst Iranian patients with beta thalassemia major. Semi-structured interviews with 16 patients with thalassemia major in the eastern of Iran were performed. Data collection was conducted from 19 September through 18 November 2020. Collected data were recorded, transcribed, and coded to develop themes and subthemes. Paradigm components were sought to find out what happened to these patients and explore the process and events. RESULTS: Insights from these interviews led to five major themes: 'changing physical health', 'emotional and psychological reactions', 'changing the nature of relationships and the scope of social support', 'metamorphosis of ongoing healthcare, and 'functionality and adaptation to new realities.' The emerging core concept was labelled: 'maintaining well-being balance.' The COVID-19 pandemic disturbed the balance of life and health of the patients. Multiple strategies to maintain balance and reduce the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on HRQoL were used by the patients, the healthcare team, and support systems. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the fear of COVID-19, the patients with beta thalassemia were less likely to contact healthcare professionals. They considered postponing blood transfusion and abandoned evaluating disease complications. Reduced access to the healthcare system and shifting resources from existing programmes to COVID-19 by the healthcare system were incompatible policies. These policies and strategies had strong and negative effects on the physical domain of HRQoL. The patients experienced a deterioration of emotional functioning. They reported a strong reduction in social functioning and felt lonely. Online interventions supporting mental health and social interactions and telemedicine can help during the times of social distancing and lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Thalassemia , Communicable Disease Control , Grounded Theory , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Thalassemia/therapy
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