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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21783, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506845

ABSTRACT

To reduce the spread and the effect of the COVID-19 global pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been adopted on multiple occasions by governments. In particular lockdown policies, i.e., generalized mobility restrictions, have been employed to fight the first wave of the pandemic. We analyze data reflecting mobility levels over time in Italy before, during and after the national lockdown, in order to assess some direct and indirect effects. By applying methodologies based on percolation and network science approaches, we find that the typical network characteristics, while very revealing, do not tell the whole story. In particular, the Italian mobility network during lockdown has been damaged much more than node- and edge-level metrics indicate. Additionally, many of the main Provinces of Italy are affected by the lockdown in a surprisingly similar fashion, despite their geographical and economic dissimilarity. Based on our findings we offer an approach to estimate unavailable high-resolution economic dimensions, such as real time Province-level GDP, based on easily measurable mobility information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Physical Distancing , Algorithms , COVID-19/therapy , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Economic , Public Health Informatics , Travel
3.
South Med J ; 114(9): 597-602, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens vulnerable patient populations, resulting in immense pressures at the local, regional, national, and international levels to contain the virus. Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that masks may offer benefit in reducing the spread of droplet-based illnesses, but few data are available to assess mask effects via executive order on a population basis. We assess the effects of a county-wide mask order on per-population mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and ventilator utilization in Bexar County, Texas. METHODS: We used publicly reported county-level data to perform a mixed-methods before-and-after analysis along with other sources of public data for analyses of covariance. We used a least-squares regression analysis to adjust for confounders. A Texas state-level mask order was issued on July 3, 2020, followed by a Bexar County-level order on July 15, 2020. We defined the control period as June 2 to July 2 and the postmask order period as July 8, 2020-August 12, 2020, with a 5-day gap to account for the median incubation period for cases; longer periods of 7 and 10 days were used for hospitalization and ICU admission/death, respectively. Data are reported on a per-100,000 population basis using respective US Census Bureau-reported populations. RESULTS: From June 2, 2020 through August 12, 2020, there were 40,771 reported cases of COVID-19 within Bexar County, with 470 total deaths. The average number of new cases per day within the county was 565.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 394.6-736.2). The average number of positive hospitalized patients was 754.1 (95% CI 657.2-851.0), in the ICU was 273.1 (95% CI 238.2-308.0), and on a ventilator was 170.5 (95% CI 146.4-194.6). The average deaths per day was 6.5 (95% CI 4.4-8.6). All of the measured outcomes were higher on average in the postmask period as were covariables included in the adjusted model. When adjusting for traffic activity, total statewide caseload, public health complaints, and mean temperature, the daily caseload, hospital bed occupancy, ICU bed occupancy, ventilator occupancy, and daily mortality remained higher in the postmask period. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in per-population daily mortality, hospital bed, ICU bed, or ventilator occupancy of COVID-19-positive patients attributable to the implementation of a mask-wearing mandate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Plan Implementation , Health Policy , Humans , Local Government , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology
5.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447742

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper was to conduct a legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19. Severely congested and ill-resourced prison systems in Africa face unprecedented challenges amplified by COVID-19. South Africa has recorded the highest COVID-19 positivity rate in Africa and, on March 15th 2020, declared a national state of disaster. The first prison system case was notified on April 6th 2020. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19 in the 12 months following initial case notification focused on the minimum State obligations to comply with human rights norms, and the extent to which human, health and occupational health rights of prisoners and staff were upheld during disaster measures. FINDINGS: A legal-realist account was developed, which revealed the indeterminate nature of application of South African COVID-19 government directives, ill-resourced COVID-19 mitigation measures, alarming occupational health and prison conditions and inadequate standards of health care in prisons when evaluated against the rule of law during State declaration of disaster. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This legal-realist assessment is original by virtue of its unique evaluation of the South African prison system approach to tackling COVID-19. It acknowledged State efforts, policymaking processes and outcomes and how these operated within the prison system itself. By moving beyond the deleterious impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the already precarious South African prison system, the authors argue for rights assurance for those who live and work in its prisons, improved infrastructure and greater substantive equality of all deprived of their liberty in South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Prisons/legislation & jurisprudence , Prisons/standards , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Human Rights , Humans , Prisons/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
Med Law Rev ; 29(3): 468-496, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437837

ABSTRACT

Beginning from the first reports of COVID-19 out of China, this article provides a commentary on the actions taken by the Government of New Zealand in terms of nine themes-a national response with an elimination goal, speed, and comprehensiveness of the initial response; an evidence-based, science-led approach, prioritised on protecting lives; effective communication; leadership style which appealed to collective responsibility and attempted to de-politicise the Government's response to the virus; flexibility of response characterised by 'learning as you go'; oversight of coercive state powers, including a pragmatic response which attempted to defuse conflict and reserved use of 'hard power' to a last resort; deployment of public health interventions, and health system adaptations; the impact on Maori and marginalised communities; and economic protection and stimulus-to identify factors that might help explain why New Zealand's pandemic response was successful and those which could have been managed better. The partially successful legal challenge brought to the four-and-a half week lockdown, the most stringent in the world, in Borrowdale v Director-General of Health, is also considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Government , Health Policy , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Communication , Humans , Leadership , New Zealand/epidemiology , Politics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0254432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398928

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community engagement (CE) is an effective public health strategy for improving health outcomes. There is limited published knowledge about effective approaches to CE in ensuring effective responses to COVID-19 throughout lockdowns, travel restrictions and social distancing. In this paper, we contribute to bridging this gap by highlighting experience of CE in Vietnam, specifically focusing on migrant workers in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study design was used with qualitative data collection was carried out during August-October 2020. Two districts were purposefully selected from two large industrial zones. Data was collected using in-depth interviews (n = 36) with individuals and households, migrants and owners of dormitories, industrial zone factory representatives, community representatives and health authorities. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The study received ethics approval from the Hanoi University Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: The government's response to COVID-19 was spearheaded by the multi-sectoral National Steering Committee for the Prevention and Control of COVID-19, chaired by the Vice Prime Minister and comprised different members from 23 ministries. This structure was replicated throughout the province and local levels and all public and private organizations. Different activities were carried out by local communities, following four key principles of infection control: early detection, isolation, quarantine and hospitalization. We found three key determinants of engagement of migrant workers with COVID-19 prevention and control: availability of resources, appropriate capacity strengthening, transparent and continuous communication and a sense of trust in government legitimacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results support the current literature on CE in infection control which highlights the importance of context and suggests that future CE should consider five key components: multi-sectoral collaboration with a whole-of-community approach to strengthen governance structures with context-specific partnerships; mobilization of resources and decentralization of decision making to encourage self-reliance and building of local capacity; capacity building through training and supervision to local institutions; transparent and clear communication of health risks and sensitization of local communities to improve compliance and foster trust in the government measures; and understanding the urgent needs ensuring of social security and engaging all parts of the community, specifically the vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Community Participation/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Capacity Building/legislation & jurisprudence , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Trust , Vietnam , Young Adult
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123405, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391522

ABSTRACT

Importance: Mass incarceration is known to foster infectious disease outbreaks, amplification of infectious diseases in surrounding communities, and exacerbation of health disparities in disproportionately policed communities. To date, however, policy interventions intended to achieve epidemic mitigation in US communities have neglected to account for decarceration as a possible means of protecting public health and safety. Objective: To evaluate the association of jail decarceration and government anticontagion policies with reductions in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used county-level data from January to November 2020 to analyze COVID-19 cases, jail populations, and anticontagion policies in a panel regression model to estimate the association of jail decarceration and anticontagion policies with COVID-19 growth rates. A total of 1605 counties with data available on both jail population and COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. This sample represents approximately 51% of US counties, 72% of the US population, and 60% of the US jail population. Exposures: Changes to jail populations and implementation of 10 anticontagion policies: nursing home visitation bans, school closures, mask mandates, prison visitation bans, stay-at-home orders, and closure of nonessential businesses, gyms, bars, movie theaters, and restaurants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Daily COVID-19 case growth rates. Results: In the 1605 counties included in this study, the mean (SD) prison population was 283.38 (657.78) individuals, and the mean (SD) population was 315.24 (2151.01) persons per square mile. An estimated 80% reduction in US jail populations, achievable through noncarceral management of nonviolent alleged offenses and in line with average international incarceration rates, would have been associated with a 2.0% (95% CI, 0.8%-3.1%) reduction in daily COVID-19 case growth rates. Jail decarceration was associated with 8 times larger reductions in COVID-19 growth rates in counties with above-median population density (4.6%; 95% CI, 2.2%- 7.1%) relative to those below this median (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.9%). Nursing home visitation bans were associated with a 7.3% (95% CI, 5.8%-8.9%) reduction in COVID-19 case growth rates, followed by school closures (4.3%; 95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%), mask mandates (2.5%; 95% CI, 1.7%-3.3%), prison visitation bans (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.2%-2.2%), and stay-at-home orders (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.1%-1.6%). Conclusions and Relevance: Although many studies have documented that high incarceration rates are associated with communitywide health harms, this study is, to date, the first to show that decarceration is associated with population-level public health benefits. Its findings suggest that, among other anticontagion interventions, large-scale decarceration and changes to pretrial detention policies are likely to be important for improving US public health, biosecurity, and pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Jails/organization & administration , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391521

ABSTRACT

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362086

ABSTRACT

We develop an agent-based model on a network meant to capture features unique to COVID-19 spread through a small residential college. We find that a safe reopening requires strong policy from administrators combined with cautious behavior from students. Strong policy includes weekly screening tests with quick turnaround and halving the campus population. Cautious behavior from students means wearing facemasks, socializing less, and showing up for COVID-19 testing. We also find that comprehensive testing and facemasks are the most effective single interventions, building closures can lead to infection spikes in other areas depending on student behavior, and faster return of test results significantly reduces total infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Students/psychology , Universities/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Mandatory Testing , Masks , Models, Statistical , Physical Distancing
16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 8873059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362017

ABSTRACT

When encountering the outbreak and early spreading of COVID-19, the Government of Japan imposed gradually upgraded restriction policies and declared the state of emergency in April 2020 for the first time. To evaluate the efficacy of the countering strategies in different periods, we constructed a SEIADR (susceptible-exposed-infected-asymptomatic-documented-recovered) model to simulate the cases and determined corresponding spreading coefficients. The effective reproduction number R t was obtained to evaluate the measures controlling the COVID-19 conducted by the Government of Japan during different stages. It was found that the strict containing strategies during the state of emergency period drastically inhibit the COVID-19 trend. R t was decreased to 1.1123 and 0.8911 in stages 4 and 5 (a state of emergency in April and May 2020) from 3.5736, 2.0126, 3.0672 in the previous three stages when the containing strategies were weak. The state of emergency was declared again in view of the second wave of massive infections in January 2021. We estimated the cumulative infected cases and additional days to contain the COVID-19 transmission for the second state of emergency using this model. R t was 1.028 which illustrated that the strategies were less effective than the previous state of emergency. Finally, the overall infected population was predicted using combined isolation and testing intensity; the effectiveness and the expected peak time were evaluated. If using the optimized control strategies in the current stage, the spread of COVID-19 in Japan could be controlled within 30 days. The total confirmed cases should reduce to less than 4.2 × 105 by April 2021. This model study suggested stricter isolating measures may be required to shorten the period of the state of emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Emergencies , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Least-Squares Analysis , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Statistical , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0239352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348360

ABSTRACT

The U.S. with only 4% of the world's population, bears a disproportionate share of infections in the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand this puzzle, we investigate how mitigation strategies and compliance can work together (or in opposition) to reduce (or increase) the spread of COVID-19 infection. Building on the Oxford index, we create state-specific stringency indices tailored to U.S. conditions, to measure the degree of strictness of public mitigation measures. A modified time-varying SEIRD model, incorporating this Stringency Index as well as a Compliance Indicator is then estimated with daily data for a sample of 6 U.S. states: New York, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, and Arizona. We provide a simple visual policy tool to evaluate the various combinations of mitigation policies and compliance that can reduce the basic reproduction number to less than one, the acknowledged threshold in the epidemiological literature to control the pandemic. Understanding of this relationship by both the public and policy makers is key to controlling the pandemic. This tool has the potential to be used in a real-time, dynamic fashion for flexible policy options. Our methodology can be applied to other countries and has the potential to be extended to other epidemiological models as well. With this first step in attempting to quantify the factors that go into the "black box" of the transmission factor ß, we hope that our work will stimulate further research in the dual role of mitigation policies and compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Administrative Personnel , Basic Reproduction Number/legislation & jurisprudence , Basic Reproduction Number/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
18.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(10): 1763-1772, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321737

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lockdown on the mental health (anxiety and depression) and quality of life (QOL) of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health measures instituted at a national level by the New Zealand Government. The present cohort was 104 individuals with RA (73.1%) and AS (26.9%) who had previously completed surveys for the Patient Opinion Real-Time Anonymous Liaison (PORTAL) project in 2018. Participants completed an online survey between July and September 2020 assessing their experiences over the first national COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand (March-May, 2020). Fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection, baseline anxiety, and being younger in age were all predictors of participants' current anxiety levels. Current QOL scores were significantly lower than prior to lockdown and were predicted by baseline QOL and current depression. No variables predicted current depression other than baseline levels. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have had an impact on QOL and anxiety levels, but not depression for people with RA and AS in New Zealand. These novel findings imply that appropriate screening of mental health issues should be included in planning within the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and for future pandemics to optimise the wellbeing of people with RA and AS.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/psychology , Depression/psychology , Quality of Life , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Depression/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , New Zealand , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319070

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in December 2019, the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to 191 countries and caused millions of deaths. Many countries have experienced multiple epidemic waves and faced containment pressures from both domestic and international transmission. In this study, we conduct a multiscale geographic analysis of the spread of COVID-19 in a policy-influenced dynamic network to quantify COVID-19 importation risk under different policy scenarios using evidence from China. Our spatial dynamic panel data (SDPD) model explicitly distinguishes the effects of travel flows from the effects of transmissibility within cities, across cities, and across national borders. We find that within-city transmission was the dominant transmission mechanism in China at the beginning of the outbreak and that all domestic transmission mechanisms were muted or significantly weakened before importation posed a threat. We identify effective containment policies by matching the change points of domestic and importation transmissibility parameters to the timing of various interventions. Our simulations suggest that importation risk is limited when domestic transmission is under control, but that cumulative cases would have been almost 13 times higher if domestic transmissibility had resurged to its precontainment level after importation and 32 times higher if domestic transmissibility had remained at its precontainment level since the outbreak. Our findings provide practical insights into infectious disease containment and call for collaborative and coordinated global suppression efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Statistical , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Travel
20.
Microb Ecol ; 82(2): 365-376, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293356

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on human health worldwide. Whilst national and international COVID-19 lockdown and travel restriction measures have had widespread negative impact on economies and mental health, they may have beneficial effect on the environment, reducing air and water pollution. Mass bathing events (MBE) also known as Kumbh Mela are known to cause perturbations of the ecosystem affecting resilient bacterial populations within water of rivers in India. Lockdowns and travel restrictions provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of minimum anthropogenic activity on the river water ecosystem and changes in bacterial populations including antibiotic-resistant strains. We performed a spatiotemporal meta-analysis of bacterial communities of the Godavari River, India. Targeted metagenomics revealed a 0.87-fold increase in the bacterial diversity during the restricted activity of lockdown. A significant increase in the resilient phyla, viz. Proteobacteria (70.6%), Bacteroidetes (22.5%), Verrucomicrobia (1.8%), Actinobacteria (1.2%) and Cyanobacteria (1.1%), was observed. There was minimal incorporation of allochthonous bacterial communities of human origin. Functional profiling using imputed metagenomics showed reduction in infection and drug resistance genes by - 0.71-fold and - 0.64-fold, respectively. These observations may collectively indicate the positive implications of COVID-19 lockdown measures which restrict MBE, allowing restoration of the river ecosystem and minimise the associated public health risk.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Ecosystem , Rivers/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Environmental Monitoring , Hinduism , Human Activities , India/epidemiology , Principal Component Analysis
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