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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 780039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the increased emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the impact on schools and preschools remains a matter of debate. To ensure that schools and preschools are kept open safely, the identification of factors influencing the extent of outbreaks is of importance. Aim: To monitor dynamics of COVID-19 infections in schools and preschools and identify factors influencing the extent of outbreaks. Methods: In this prospective observational study we analyzed routine surveillance data of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, from calendar week (CW) 32, 2020 to CW19, 2021 regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection events in schools and preschools considering changes in infection control measures over time. A multivariate linear regression model was fitted to evaluate factors influencing the number of students, teachers and staff tested positive following index cases in schools and preschools. Due to an existing multicollinearity in the common multivariate regression model between the variables "face mask obligation for children" and "face mask obligation for adults", two further separate regression models were set up (Multivariate Model Adults and Multivariate Model Children). Results: We observed a significant increase in secondary cases in preschools in the first quarter of 2021 (CW8 to CW15, 2021), and simultaneously a decrease in secondary cases in schools. In multivariate regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the extent of the outbreaks was the teacher/ caregiver mask obligation (B = -1.9; 95% CI: -2.9 to -1.0; p < 0.001). Furthermore, adult index cases (adult only or child+adult combinations) increased the likelihood of secondary cases (B = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.8; p < 0.001). The face mask obligation for children also showed a significant reduction in the number of secondary cases (B = -0.6; 95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2; p = 0.004. Conclusion: The present study indicates that outbreak events at schools and preschools are effectively contained by an obligation for adults and children to wear face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Schools , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Masks , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501319211069473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Federally-funded community health centers (CHCs) serve on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, providing essential COVID-19 testing and care for vulnerable patient populations. Overlooked in the scholarly literature is a description of how different characteristics and vulnerabilities shaped COVID-19 care delivery at CHCs in the first year of the pandemic. Our research objective was to identify organization- and state-level factors associated with more or fewer COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. METHODS: Multilevel random intercept regression models examined associations among organization and state-level predictor variables and the frequency of COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. The study sample included 1267 CHCs across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: The average CHC provided 932 patient visits for COVID-19-related care in 2020. Yet, the CHC's role in delivering COVID-19 services proved as diverse as the populations and localities CHCs serve. For example, after adjusting for other factors, each percentage-point increase in a CHC's Hispanic patient population size was associated with a 1.3% increase in the frequency of patient visits for COVID-19 care in 2020 (P < .001). Serving a predominantly rural patient population was associated with providing significantly fewer COVID-19-related care visits (P = .002). Operating in a state that enacted a mask-wearing policy in 2020 was associated with a 26.2% lower frequency of COVID-19 testing visits at CHCs in 2020, compared to CHCs operating in states without mask-wearing policies (P = .055). CONCLUSIONS: In response to the pandemic, the federal government legislated funding to help CHCs address challenges associated with COVID-19 and provide services to medically-underserved patient populations. Policymakers will likely need to provide additional support to help CHCs address population-specific vulnerabilities affecting COVID-19 care and testing delivery, especially as highly contagious COVID-19 variants proliferate (eg, Delta and Omicron).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Community Health Centers/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591240

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Risk Behaviors , Hygiene , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 3-8, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel therapies have dramatically changed cystic fibrosis (CF) and innovative care delivery systems are needed to meet future patient needs. Telehealth has been shown to be an efficient and desirable form of care delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rapid shift to telehealth, and this presented a unique opportunity to study facilitators, barriers, and satisfaction with this mode of care delivery. We aim to report survey methods, demographics and telehealth use among CF care programs, patients, and families during the pandemic. METHODS: CF programs completed two surveys between July 29 and September 18, 2020, and between April 19 and May 19, 2021. Patients and families completed a similar survey between August 31 and October 30, 2020. The surveys addressed topics assessing the pandemic's financial impact, telehealth modes and experiences, licensure and reimbursement issues, health screening, and remote monitoring. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and were compared to the CF Foundation Patient Registry. RESULTS: Most programs (278 at timepoint one and 274 at timepoint two) provided telehealth during the pandemic. The percent of visits containing either telephone or video components changed from 45% to 25% over the time periods. Additionally, 424 patients and families from various ages and backgrounds responded to the survey and 81% reported having a telehealth visit. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic accelerated telehealth adoption and these datasets are a valuable source for exploring telehealth barriers and facilitators, the quality-of-care experience, financial and workforce implications, the impact on underrepresented populations, and implications for coverage and reimbursement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Health Services Accessibility , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communication Barriers , Continuity of Patient Care , Costs and Cost Analysis , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Male , Organizational Innovation , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 1-2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587341

ABSTRACT

The findings of this body of work are presented in the eight articles included in this supplement. The impact and perspectives of adult and pediatric care teams and patient/families are covered with special attention to mental health care, the financial and personnel impacts within care programs, the experiences of vulnerable and underrepresented patient populations, and implementation of remoting monitoring. Commentaries from colleagues provide a broader perspective, offering reflections on the findings and their implications regarding the future CF care model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Continuity of Patient Care , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 49-54, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an uptake of telehealth in cystic fibrosis care. Previous studies show disparities in telehealth use based on socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to: (1) understand telehealth use and perceptions and (2) identify the facilitators and barriers to telehealth use among people with CF and their families (PwCF) from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the 2020 Cystic Fibrosis State of Care surveys completed by PwCF (PFSoC), CF Care Programs (SoC1) and the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR). RESULTS: A total of 424 PwCF and 286 programs responded to the PFSoC and SoC1. Among PwCF, 90% self-identified as White, 6% as Hispanic/Latino, and 2% as Black. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to have had a telehealth visit (p=.015). This difference was pronounced among the Hispanic/Latino population (p<.01). Telehealth use did not differ by health insurance and was similarly offered independent of financial status. Compared to PwCF who denied financial constraints, those who reported financial difficulties found telehealth more difficult to use (p=.018) and were less likely to think that their concerns (p=.010) or issues that mattered most to them (p=.020) were addressed during telehealth. Programs perceived lack of technology, language barriers, and home conditions as barriers to telehealth in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: PFSoC and SoC1 identified differences in telehealth use and care perceptions by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. Further studies are needed to understand how telehealth can change access to CF care in diverse subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Minority Health , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/economics , Cystic Fibrosis/ethnology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Financial Stress/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Minority Health/ethnology , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-8, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574179

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease COVID-19 has killed over 2 million people as of 22 January 2021. We have used a modified susceptible, infected, recovered epidemiological model to predict how the spread of the virus in France will vary depending on the public health strategies adopted, including anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Our prediction model indicates that the French authorities' adoption of a gradual release from lockdown could lead in March 2021 to a virus prevalence similar to that before lockdown. However, a massive vaccination campaign initiated in January 2021 and the continuation of public health measures over several months could curb the spread of virus and thus relieve the load on hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1731-1734, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575734

ABSTRACT

A new variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), B.1.1.529 (Omicron) (1), was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by South Africa on November 24, 2021. Omicron has numerous mutations with potential to increase transmissibility, confer resistance to therapeutics, or partially escape infection- or vaccine-induced immunity (2). On November 26, WHO designated B.1.1.529 as a variant of concern (3), as did the U.S. SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group (SIG)* on November 30. On December 1, the first case of COVID-19 attributed to the Omicron variant was reported in the United States. As of December 8, a total of 22 states had identified at least one Omicron variant case, including some that indicate community transmission. Among 43 cases with initial follow-up, one hospitalization and no deaths were reported. This report summarizes U.S. surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants, characteristics of the initial persons investigated with COVID-19 attributed to the Omicron variant and public health measures implemented to slow the spread of Omicron in the United States. Implementation of concurrent prevention strategies, including vaccination, masking, increasing ventilation, testing, quarantine, and isolation, are recommended to slow transmission of SARS-CoV-2, including variants such as Omicron, and to protect against severe illness and death from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel-Related Illness , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 828, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early postpartum period is recognized cross-culturally as being important for recovery, with new parents receiving increased levels of community support. However, COVID-19-related lockdown measures may have disrupted these support systems, with possible implications for mental health. Here, we use a cross-sectional analysis among individuals who gave birth at different stages of the pandemic to test (i) if instrumental support access in the form of help with household tasks, newborn care, and care for older children has varied temporally across the pandemic, and (ii) whether access to these forms of instrumental support is associated with lower postpartum depression scores. METHODS: This study used data from the COVID-19 And Reproductive Effects (CARE) study, an online survey of pregnant persons in the United States. Participants completed postnatal surveys between April 30 - November 18, 2020 (n = 971). Logistic regression analysis tested whether birth timing during the pandemic was associated with odds of reported sustained instrumental support. Linear regression analyses assessed whether instrumental support was associated with lower depression scores as measured via the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression survey. RESULTS: Participants who gave birth later in the pandemic were more likely to report that the pandemic had not affected the help they received with household work and newborn care (p < 0.001), while access to childcare for older children appeared to vary non-linearly throughout the pandemic. Additionally, respondents who reported that the pandemic had not impacted their childcare access or help received around the house displayed significantly lower depression scores compared to participants who reported pandemic-related disruptions to these support types (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The maintenance of postpartum instrumental support during the pandemic appears to be associated with better maternal mental health. Healthcare providers should therefore consider disrupted support systems as a risk factor for postpartum depression and ask patients how the pandemic has affected support access. Policymakers seeking to improve parental wellbeing should design strategies that reduce disease transmission, while facilitating safe interactions within immediate social networks (e.g., through investment in COVID-19 testing and contact tracing). Cumulatively, postpartum instrumental support represents a potential tool to protect against depression, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care , Depression, Postpartum , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Care/methods , Child Care/psychology , Child Care/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , /trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/trends , Needs Assessment , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2137189, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567892

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 posed an unprecedented threat to residential colleges in the fall of 2020. While there were mathematical models of COVID-19 transmission, there were no established or tested protocols of COVID-19 testing or mitigation for school administrators to follow. Objective: To investigate the association of a multifaceted COVID-19 mitigation strategy using social, behavioral, and educational interventions and a program of frequent testing with prevalence of disease spread. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted as a retrospective review of COVID-19 positivity from August 16, 2020, to April 30, 2021, at Delaware State University, a publicly funded historically Black university. Participants included all students, faculty, and staff members with a campus presence. Positivity rates after use of mitigation strategies and testing on campus were compared with those of the surrounding community. Data were analyzed from July through September 2021. Exposures: Mitigation strategies included education and outreach about social distancing, masking, and handwashing, and a COVID-19 testing plan consisted of twice-weekly polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening using anterior nasal samples (fall and early spring semester) and then saliva-based samples (middle to late spring semester). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative tests, infections, daily quarantine, and isolation residence hall occupancy were measured, and comparisons were made with statewide COVID-19 positivity rates. Results: The campus cohort included 2320 individuals (1575 resident students, 415 nonresident students, and 330 faculty or staff members). There were 1488 (64.1%) women and 832 (35.9%) men; mean (SD) age was 27.5 (12.9) years. During the fall semester, 36 500 COVID-19 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 0 of 372 tests to 16 of 869 tests (1.8%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.5% [0.5%]; 168 positive results and 36 312 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 589 of 25 120 tests (2.3%) to 5405 of 54 596 tests (9.9%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 4.8% [2.6%]). In the spring semester, 39 045 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 4 of 2028 tests (0.2%) to 36 of 900 tests (4.0%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.8% [0.9%]; 267 positive results and 38 767 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 1336 of 37 254 tests (3.6%) to 3630 of 42 458 tests (8.5%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 5.1% [1.3%]). Compared with statewide rates, campus positivity rates were mean (SD) 4.4 (2.6) percentage points lower during the fall semester (P < .001) and mean (SD) 5.6 (1.6) percentage points lower during the spring semester (P < .001). Total daily quarantine and isolation residence hall occupancy ranged from 0 to 43 students in the fall and 1 to 47 students during the spring. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the combination of campuswide mitigation policies and twice-weekly COVID-19 PCR screening was associated with a significant decrease in COVID-19 positivity at a residential historically Black university campus compared with the surrounding community. Given the socioeconomic demographics of many students at historically Black colleges and universities, keeping these resident campuses open is critical not only to ensure access to educational resources, but also to provide housing and food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Education , Mass Screening/methods , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Delaware/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6496-6505, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544293

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is not only a medical issue but also a sophisticated social problem. We propose a network dynamics model of epidemic transmission introducing a heterogeneous control factor. The proposed model applied the classical susceptible- exposed-infectious-recovered model to the network based on effective distance and was modified by introducing a heterogeneous control factor with temporal and spatial characteristics. International aviation data were approximately used to estimate the flux fraction matrix, and the effective distance was calculated. Through parameter estimation and simulation, the theoretical values of the modified model fit well with practical values. By adjusting the parameters and observing the change of the results, we found that the modified model is more in line with the actual needs and has higher credibility in the comprehensive analysis. The assessment shows that the number of confirmed cases worldwide will reach about 20 million optimistically. In severe cases, the peak value will exceed 80 million, and the late stage of the epidemic shows a long tail shape, lasting more than one and a half years. The effective way to control the global epidemic is to strengthen international cooperation and to impose international travel restrictions and other measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Primary Prevention/methods , Computer Simulation , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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