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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009904, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581900

ABSTRACT

Since its early spread in early 2020, the disease caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused mass disruptions to health services. These have included interruptions to programs that aimed to prevent, control, and eliminate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) released interim guidelines recommending the temporary cessation of mass drug administration (MDA), community-based surveys, and case detection, while encouraging continuation of morbidity management and vector control where possible. Over the course of the following months, national programs and implementing partners contributed to COVID-19 response efforts, while also beginning to plan for resumption of NTD control activities. To understand the challenges, opportunities, and recommendations for maximizing continuity of disease control during public health emergencies, we sought perspectives from Nigeria and Guinea on the process of restarting NTD control efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through semistructured interviews with individuals involved with NTD control at the local and national levels, we identified key themes and common perspectives between the 2 countries, as well as observations that were specific to each. Overall, interviewees stressed the challenges posed by COVID-19 interruptions, particularly with respect to delays to activities and related knock-on impacts, such as drug expiry and prolonged elimination timelines, as well as concerns related to funding. However, respondents in both countries also highlighted the benefits of a formal risk assessment approach, particularly in terms of encouraging information sharing and increasing coordination and advocacy. Recommendations included ensuring greater availability of historical data to allow better monitoring of how future emergencies affect NTD control progress; continuing to use risk assessment approaches in the future; and identifying mechanisms for sharing lessons learned and innovations between countries as a means of advancing postpandemic health systems and disease control capacity strengthening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Guinea , Humans , Mass Drug Administration , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropical Medicine/methods
3.
Ind Health ; 59(5): 293-297, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547177

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews three viewpoints regarding the society after the COVID-19 infection on the concept of safety management. The first is the relationship between With COVID-19 and a zero risk. As a result of coexistence with COVID-19 for more than one year, the Japanese society thought that a zero risk is difficult to accomplish, and some risks will be accepted to maintain social activities. This leads a change in a way of thinking from zero risk to risk-based safety management. The second is the change in the way of working. As a result of having experienced remote work forcibly, it will become the hybrid model that incorporated remote work in a conventional method. Personnel evaluation changes from the seniority system to the job evaluation type, and each person's professional ability will be more focused on. The third is the review of the Japanese society system. In Japan, although the infection level was controlled to some extent by the groupism of the self-restraint of actions by mutual monitoring, there is a limit of managing based on groupism. Moreover, as seen in the delay of vaccine development and the medical care collapse, these problems should be improved by changing Japanese society system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Safety Management/organization & administration , Teleworking , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Drug Development , Fukushima Nuclear Accident , Humans , Japan , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505868

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A minority of children experience a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. The reason for the lower burden of symptomatic disease in children is not yet clear, but several pathophysiological characteristics are postulated. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children globally. Proper recommendations have been proposed for a range of non-asthmatic respiratory disorders in children, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis. These recommendations involve the continuation of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability. School closures, loss of follow-up visit attendance, and loss of other protective systems for children are the indirect outcomes of measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 has reshaped the delivery of respiratory care in children, with non-urgent and elective procedures being postponed, and distancing imperatives have led to rapid scaling of telemedicine. The pandemic has seen an unprecedented reorientation in clinical trial research towards COVID-19 and a disruption in other trials worldwide, which will have long-lasting effects on medical science. In this narrative review, we sought to outline the most recent findings on the direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric respiratory chronic diseases other than asthma, by critically revising the most recent literature on the subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications
9.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497819

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented international challenge, but it will not be the last such threat. Here, we argue that the world needs to be much better prepared to rapidly detect, define and defeat future pandemics. We propose that a Global Immunological Observatory and associated developments in systems immunology, therapeutics and vaccine design should be at the heart of this enterprise.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Drug Development , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Models, Animal , Population Surveillance/methods , Serologic Tests , Vaccines , Weather , Zoonoses
10.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 711-715, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496885

ABSTRACT

CoronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) had a huge impact on human health and economy. However, to this date, the effects of the pandemic on the training of young cardiologists are only partially known. To assess the consequences of the pandemic on the education of the cardiologists in training, we performed a 23-item national survey that has been delivered to 1443 Italian cardiologists in training, registered in the database of the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC). Six hundred and thirty-three cardiologists in training participated in the survey. Ninety-five percent of the respondents affirmed that the training programme has been somewhat stopped or greatly jeopardized by the pandemic. For 61% of the fellows in training (FITs), the pandemic had a negative effect on their education. Moreover, 59% of the respondents believe that they would not be able to fill the gap gained during that period over the rest of their training. A negative impact on the psycho-physical well being has been reported by 86% of the FITs. The COVID-19 pandemic had an unparalleled impact on the education, formation and mental state of the cardiologists in training. Regulatory agencies, universities and politicians should make a great effort in the organization and reorganization of the teaching programs of the cardiologists of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists , Cardiology/education , Communicable Disease Control , Education , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiologists/education , Cardiologists/psychology , Cardiologists/standards , Clinical Competence/standards , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Education/organization & administration , Education/standards , Fellowships and Scholarships/methods , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27685, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jiangxi Province, China, from January 21 to April 9, 2020.COVID-19 epidemic information was obtained from the official websites of the Jiangxi Provincial Health Committee, Hubei Provincial Health Committee, and National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. ArcGIS 10.0 was used to draw a map of the spatial distribution of the cases.On January 21, 2020, the first COVID-19 confirmed case in Jiangxi was reported. By January 27, COVID-19 had spread rapidly to all cities in Jiangxi. The outbreak peaked on February 3, with a daily incidence of 85 cases. The last indigenous case reported on February 27. From January 21 to April 9, a total of 937 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported, with a cumulative incidence of 2.02/100,000. Of those, 936 patients (99.89%) were cured, and 1 (0.11%) died due to COVID-19. The COVID-19 epidemic trend in Jiangxi was basically consistent with the national epidemic trend (except Hubei). Throughout the epidemic prevention and control phase, Jiangxi province has taken targeted prevention and control measures based on the severity of the spread of COVID-19.The COVID-19 epidemic in Jiangxi was widespread and developed rapidly. In less than 1 month, the epidemic situation was effectively controlled, and the epidemic situation shifted to a low-level distribution state. All these proved that the COVID-19 prevention and control strategies and measures adopted by Jiangxi Province were right, positive and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Epidemics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
13.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1825-1835, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: England's COVID-19 roadmap out of lockdown policy set out the timeline and conditions for the stepwise lifting of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) as vaccination roll-out continued, with step one starting on March 8, 2021. In this study, we assess the roadmap, the impact of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2, and potential future epidemic trajectories. METHODS: This mathematical modelling study was done to assess the UK Government's four-step process to easing lockdown restrictions in England, UK. We extended a previously described model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to incorporate vaccination and multi-strain dynamics to explicitly capture the emergence of the delta variant. We calibrated the model to English surveillance data, including hospital admissions, hospital occupancy, seroprevalence data, and population-level PCR testing data using a Bayesian evidence synthesis framework, then modelled the potential trajectory of the epidemic for a range of different schedules for relaxing NPIs. We estimated the resulting number of daily infections and hospital admissions, and daily and cumulative deaths. Three scenarios spanning a range of optimistic to pessimistic vaccine effectiveness, waning natural immunity, and cross-protection from previous infections were investigated. We also considered three levels of mixing after the lifting of restrictions. FINDINGS: The roadmap policy was successful in offsetting the increased transmission resulting from lifting NPIs starting on March 8, 2021, with increasing population immunity through vaccination. However, because of the emergence of the delta variant, with an estimated transmission advantage of 76% (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69-83) over alpha, fully lifting NPIs on June 21, 2021, as originally planned might have led to 3900 (95% CrI 1500-5700) peak daily hospital admissions under our central parameter scenario. Delaying until July 19, 2021, reduced peak hospital admissions by three fold to 1400 (95% CrI 700-1700) per day. There was substantial uncertainty in the epidemic trajectory, with particular sensitivity to the transmissibility of delta, level of mixing, and estimates of vaccine effectiveness. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that the risk of a large wave of COVID-19 hospital admissions resulting from lifting NPIs can be substantially mitigated if the timing of NPI relaxation is carefully balanced against vaccination coverage. However, with the delta variant, it might not be possible to fully lift NPIs without a third wave of hospital admissions and deaths, even if vaccination coverage is high. Variants of concern, their transmissibility, vaccine uptake, and vaccine effectiveness must be carefully monitored as countries relax pandemic control measures. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , England/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20124, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462024

ABSTRACT

The Novel Coronavirus which emerged in India on January/30/2020 has become a catastrophe to the country on the basis of health and economy. Due to rapid variations in the transmission of COVID-19, an accurate prediction to determine the long term effects is infeasible. This paper has introduced a nonlinear mathematical model to interpret the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 infection along with providing vaccination in the precedence. To minimize the level of infection and treatment burden, the optimal control strategies are carried out by using the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. The data validation has been done by correlating the estimated number of infectives with the real data of India for the month of March/2021. Corresponding to the model, the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is introduced to understand the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. To justify the significance of parameters we determined the sensitivity analysis of [Formula: see text] using the parameters value. In the numerical simulations, we concluded that reducing [Formula: see text] below unity is not sufficient enough to eradicate the COVID-19 disease and thus, it is required to increase the vaccination rate and its efficacy by motivating individuals to take precautionary measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Computer Simulation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1534-1541, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456158

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To empirically evaluate the relationship between presence of a state or federal prison and COVID-19 case and death counts. Methods. We merged data on locations of federal and state prisons and of local and county jails with daily case and death counts in the United States. We used a selection-on-observables design to estimate the correlation between prisons and COVID-19 spread, controlling for known correlates of COVID-19. Results. We found empirical evidence that the presence and capacities of prisons are strong correlates of county-level COVID-19 case counts. The presence of a state or federal prison in a county corresponded with a 9% increase in the COVID-19 case count during the first wave of the pandemic, ending July 1, 2020. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the public health implications of these facilities extend beyond the health of employees and incarcerated individuals, and policymakers should explicitly consider the public health concerns posed by these facilities when developing pandemic-response policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , United States
19.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447742

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper was to conduct a legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19. Severely congested and ill-resourced prison systems in Africa face unprecedented challenges amplified by COVID-19. South Africa has recorded the highest COVID-19 positivity rate in Africa and, on March 15th 2020, declared a national state of disaster. The first prison system case was notified on April 6th 2020. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19 in the 12 months following initial case notification focused on the minimum State obligations to comply with human rights norms, and the extent to which human, health and occupational health rights of prisoners and staff were upheld during disaster measures. FINDINGS: A legal-realist account was developed, which revealed the indeterminate nature of application of South African COVID-19 government directives, ill-resourced COVID-19 mitigation measures, alarming occupational health and prison conditions and inadequate standards of health care in prisons when evaluated against the rule of law during State declaration of disaster. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This legal-realist assessment is original by virtue of its unique evaluation of the South African prison system approach to tackling COVID-19. It acknowledged State efforts, policymaking processes and outcomes and how these operated within the prison system itself. By moving beyond the deleterious impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the already precarious South African prison system, the authors argue for rights assurance for those who live and work in its prisons, improved infrastructure and greater substantive equality of all deprived of their liberty in South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Prisons/legislation & jurisprudence , Prisons/standards , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Human Rights , Humans , Prisons/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27360, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting numerous countries around the world. This study elaborates Taiwan's epidemiological characteristics from the 2020 to 2021 COVID-19 pandemic from human, temporal, and geographical dimensions. Big data for cases were obtained from a public database from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in April 2021. The data were analyzed and used to compare differences, correlations, and trends for human, temporal, and geographical characteristics for imported and domestic COVID-19 cases. During the study period, 1030 cases were confirmed and the mortality rate of 1.0%. The epidemiological features indicated that most cases (953/1030, 92.5%) were imported. A comparison of the domestic confirmed and imported cases revealed the following findings: No significant difference of COVID-19 between males and females for sex was observed; For age, the risk of domestic transmission was significantly lower for 20 to 29 years old, higher for 50 to 59 years old, and >60 years old with odds ratios (ORs) (P value < .05) of 0.36, 3.37, and 2.50, respectively; For the month of infection, the ORs (P value < .05) of domestic confirmed cases during January and February 2020 were 22.428; and in terms of area of residence, the ORs (P value < .05) for domestic confirmed cases in northern and southern Taiwan were 4.473 and 0.033, respectively. Thus, the increase in domestic cases may have been caused by international travelers transmitting the virus in March 2020 and December 2020, respectively. Taiwan has been implementing effective screening and quarantine measures at airports. Moreover, Taiwan has implemented and maintained stringent interventions such as large-scale epidemiological investigation, rapid diagnosis, wearing masks, washing hands frequently, safe social distancing, and prompt clinical classifications for severe patients who were given appropriate medical measures. This is the first report comparing imported and domestic cases of COVID-19 from surveillance data from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control during January 2020 and March 2021. It illustrates that individuals infected during overseas travel are the main risk factors for the spread of COVID-19 in Taiwan. The study also highlights the importance of longitudinal and geographically extended studies in understanding the implications of COVID-19 transmission for Taiwan's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
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