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2.
Health Hum Rights ; 22(1): 199-207, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646378

ABSTRACT

We propose that a Right to Health Capacity Fund (R2HCF) be created as a central institution of a reimagined global health architecture developed in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a fund would help ensure the strong health systems required to prevent disease outbreaks from becoming devastating global pandemics, while ensuring genuinely universal health coverage that would encompass even the most marginalized populations. The R2HCF's mission would be to promote inclusive participation, equality, and accountability for advancing the right to health. The fund would focus its resources on civil society organizations, supporting their advocacy and strengthening mechanisms for accountability and participation. We propose an initial annual target of US$500 million for the fund, adjusted based on needs assessments. Such a financing level would be both achievable and transformative, given the limited right to health funding presently and the demonstrated potential of right to health initiatives to strengthen health systems and meet the health needs of marginalized populations-and enable these populations to be treated with dignity. We call for a civil society-led multi-stakeholder process to further conceptualize, and then launch, an R2HCF, helping create a world where, whether during a health emergency or in ordinary times, no one is left behind.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
7.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(7): 15-20, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739560

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a respiratory illness known as Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) broke out in a region in China and rapidly spread to become a pandemic affecting all sporting events worldwide. The Summer Olympics scheduled to be held in Tokyo were postponed until 2021, and all professional leagues in the United States postponed or canceled events. As the United States has begun to open up, there remains uncertainty of when sporting events can safely be held. Many professional leagues and the National Collegiate Athletic Association have established guidelines and recommendations for their athletes to compete safely. In this article, we review the protocols that have been established to allow athletes to return to play, and we review briefly the effects COVID-19 infection may have on athletes.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Return to Sport , Sports/trends , Athletes , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment
8.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949077, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737978

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has resulted in over 20 million cases and 741,808 deaths globally, affecting more than 200 countries. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on COVID-19, and treatment has so far focused on supportive care and use of repurposed drugs. COVID-19 can be transmitted via person-to-person contact through droplet spread. Some of the recommended precautionary measures to reduce the rate of disease spread include social distancing, good hygiene practices, and avoidance of crowded areas. These measures are effective because the droplets are heavy and can only travel approximately 1 meter in the air, settling quickly on fixed surfaces. Promising strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2 include discovery of therapeutic targets/drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of COVID-19. We also address the mechanisms of action of approved repurposed drugs for therapeutic management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Incidence , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Survival Analysis
9.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 95, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729723

ABSTRACT

Currently, Nigeria is still at the ascending phase of the COVID-19 curve with no sign of deceleration. Thus, the recent decision by governors of states in northern Nigeria to deport Almajirai (itinerant Islamic school pupils) from their states as part of efforts to contain COVID-19 transmission is likely to have a serious backlash. With hundreds of Almajirai testing positive to COVID-19, and millions of others untested, they constitute ubiquitous nodes of transmission. Their deportation has created multiple emigration channels that constitute prospective feeders to covert community transmission. This viewpoint examines this trend within the context of Nigeria's current [in]capacity to manage the spread of COVID-19 and concludes that greater risks seem to lie ahead unless the government takes stringent containment measures.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Government Regulation , Humans , Islam , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Politics , Poverty , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards
12.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(3): 59-60, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722848

ABSTRACT

By June 2020, the cumulative cases and deaths related to COVID-19 in 16 East and Southern African (ESA) countries were still rising, with an average case fatality rate of 1.46%.[1] From its initial presence in cities and regional transport hubs, cases are spreading, including to rural areas, among health workers and as migrants cross borders to return home.[2].


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Africa, Eastern/epidemiology , Africa, Southern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Developing Countries , Humans
13.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(3): 5, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722058

ABSTRACT

MEDICC Review continues documentation of Cuba's COVID-19 Prevention and Control Plan and its implementation, begun with our April issue (see https://mediccreview.org/cubas-covid-19-strategy-main-actions-through-april-23-2020). This time, we present two tables: the first refers to measures taken to confront the epidemic, and the second, to the phased recovery process that is expected to lead to changes in many, if not all, sectors of Cuban society. In both cases, we have indicated the source of the information provided.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Cuba/epidemiology , Humans
14.
Ginekol Pol ; 91(7): 428-431, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719820

ABSTRACT

The Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians and Polish Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathophysiology Interim Guidelines goal at aiding gynecologists in providing a cervical cancer prevention care during the evolving SARS-CoV-2 pan-demic. Presented guidelines were developed on a review of limited data and updated when new relevant publications were revealed. Timing for deferrals of diagnostic-therapeutic procedures were mostly covered in the guidelines. Also, a support for the existing Polish recommendations on abnormal screening results in a subject of minor and major screening abnor-malities terminology were given. The guidelines are obligatory for the specified COVID-19 pandemic period only and they might be changed depending on the new available evidence.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Colposcopy , Coronavirus Infections , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Betacoronavirus , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/pathology , Colposcopy/methods , Colposcopy/standards , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Secondary Prevention/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
16.
Elife ; 92020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714074

ABSTRACT

As of 1 May 2020, there had been 6808 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 98 had died from the disease. The epidemic had been in decline since mid-March, with 308 cases confirmed nationally since 14 April. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19, such as the intensity and timing of public health interventions, will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. We describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April. We estimate that the effective reproduction number was likely below one in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that clinical demand would remain below capacity thresholds over the forecast period (from mid-to-late April).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Forecasting , Geography, Medical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Quarantine , Travel , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713249

ABSTRACT

Background: Scant attention has been paid to how risk perceptions of public health crises may affect people's mental health. Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) construct a conceptual framework for risk perception and depression of people in public health crises, (2) examine how the mental health of people in the crisis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affected by risk perception and its associated factors, including distance perception of the crisis and support of prevention and control policies, and (3) propose policy recommendations on how to deal with psychological problems in the current COVID-19 crisis. Methods: Online questionnaire survey was implemented. A total of 6373 people visited the questionnaire online, 1115 people completed the questionnaire, and the number of valid questionnaires was 1081. Structural equation modeling was employed for data analysis. Results: Risk perception and its associated factors significantly affect the mental health of people in public health crises. Specifically, (1) distance perception of public health crises is negatively associated with depression among people, (2) affective risk perception is positively associated with depression of people in public health crises, (3) cognitive risk perception is negatively associated with depression of people in public health crises, and (4) support of prevention and control policies is negatively associated with depression of people in public health crises. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that risk perception plays an important role in affecting the mental health of people in a public health crisis. Therefore, health policies aiming to improve the psychological wellbeing of the people in a public health crisis should take risk perception into consideration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Natural Disasters , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Health , Risk Assessment , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711378

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this paper was to examine the transmission of COVID-19 and the associated factors that affect the transmission. A qualitative analysis was conducted by comparing the COVID-19 transmission of six countries: China, Korea, Japan, Italy, the USA, and Brazil. This paper attempted to examine the mitigation effectiveness for the transmission of COVID-19 and the pandemic severity. Time to reach the peak of daily new confirmed cases and the maximum drop rate were used to measure the mitigation effectiveness, while the proportion of confirmed cases to population and the mortality rate were employed to evaluate the pandemic severity. Based on the mitigation effectiveness, the pandemic severity, and the mortality rate, the six sample countries were categorized into four types: high mitigation effectiveness vs. low pandemic severity, middle mitigation effectiveness vs. low pandemic severity, high mitigation effectiveness vs. high pandemic severity, and low mitigation effectiveness vs. high pandemic severity. The results found that Korea and China had relatively higher mitigation effectiveness and lower pandemic severity, while the USA and Brazil had the opposite. This paper suggests that viral testing together with contacts tracing, strict implementation of lockdown, and public cooperation play important roles in achieving a reduction in COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Time Factors
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003244, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures to address the US coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic may have notable health and social impacts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a longitudinal pretest-posttest comparison group study to estimate the change in COVID-19 case growth before versus after implementation of statewide social distancing measures in the US. The primary exposure was time before (14 days prior to, and through 3 days after) versus after (beginning 4 days after, to up to 21 days after) implementation of the first statewide social distancing measures. Statewide restrictions on internal movement were examined as a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was the COVID-19 case growth rate. The secondary outcome was the COVID-19-attributed mortality growth rate. All states initiated social distancing measures between March 10 and March 25, 2020. The mean daily COVID-19 case growth rate decreased beginning 4 days after implementation of the first statewide social distancing measures, by 0.9% per day (95% CI -1.4% to -0.4%; P < 0.001). We did not observe a statistically significant difference in the mean daily case growth rate before versus after implementation of statewide restrictions on internal movement (0.1% per day; 95% CI -0.04% to 0.3%; P = 0.14), but there is substantial difficulty in disentangling the unique associations with statewide restrictions on internal movement from the unique associations with the first social distancing measures. Beginning 7 days after social distancing, the COVID-19-attributed mortality growth rate decreased by 2.0% per day (95% CI -3.0% to -0.9%; P < 0.001). Our analysis is susceptible to potential bias resulting from the aggregate nature of the ecological data, potential confounding by contemporaneous changes (e.g., increases in testing), and potential underestimation of social distancing due to spillover effects from neighboring states. CONCLUSIONS: Statewide social distancing measures were associated with a decrease in the COVID-19 case growth rate that was statistically significant. Statewide social distancing measures were also associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-attributed mortality growth rate beginning 7 days after implementation, although this decrease was no longer statistically significant by 10 days.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705801

ABSTRACT

Lately, myriad of novel viruses have emerged causing epidemics such as SARS, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2, leading to high mortality rates worldwide. Thus, these viruses represented a challenging threat to mankind, especially considering the miniscule data available at our disposal regarding these novel viruses. The entire world established coordinative relations in research projects regarding drug and vaccine development on the external range, whereas on the internal range, all countries declared it an emergency case through imposing different restrictions related to their border control, large gatherings, school attendance, and most social activities. Pandemic combating plans prioritized all sectors including normal people, medical staff politicians, and scientists collectively shouldered the burden. Through planning and learning the previous lessons from SARS and MERS, healthcare systems could succeed in combating the viral spread and implications of these new pandemics. Different management strategies including social distance, social awareness and isolation represented successful ways to slow down the spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, pre-preparedness of some countries for emergencies is crucial to minimize the consequences of the crisis.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans
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