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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7829-7832, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As a result of COVID-19 pandemic, the 2021 US residency MATCH was devoid of the traditional in-person interviews. Herein, we assess the impact of Virtual Interviews (VIs) on resident selection, from the perspectives of Orthopedic Surgery (OS) Program Directors (PDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item survey was sent to PDs of ACGME-accredited OS residencies. Questions were designed to assess the pros, cons, and robustness of VIs compared to their antecedent in-person format. RESULTS: Forty-seven PDs responded to our survey. VIs antagonized PDs' ability to assess applicants' fit to program (76.6%), commitment to specialty (64%), and interpersonal skills (68.1%). This led to heavier dependence upon applicants' portfolios (64%). Almost all respondents (97.9%) found VIs to be more cost-efficient, saving a median of $3000 in interview-related expenses. Overall, only 8.5% of PDs were willing to conduct exclusive VIs in future cycles, compared to the majority in favor of dual formats (51.5%) or exclusive in-person interviews (40.4%). CONCLUSIONS: VIs have been an overall success, making most PDs opt for dual interview formats in future cycles. How this technology is further implemented in the future remains to be seen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures/education , Physician Executives/statistics & numerical data , Telecommunications/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internship and Residency/standards , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/trends , Orthopedic Procedures/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel Selection/methods , Personnel Selection/standards , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Selection/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telecommunications/standards , Telecommunications/trends
4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1924-1934, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced healthcare providers to reorganize their activities to protect the population from infection, postponing or suspending many medical procedures. Patients affected by chronic conditions were among the most affected. In the case of catastrophes, women have a higher lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those with endometriosis have higher anxiety levels, making them fragile in such circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in May 2020, we considered all women aged ≥18 years, followed up at our referral centre for endometriosis. Patients were sent an anonymous 6-section questionnaire via email, containing different validated tools for the evaluation of anxiety levels and the risk of PTSD. A multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the impact of patients' characteristics on the distress caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 468 women recruited, 68.8% were quite-to-extremely worried about not being able to access gynaecologic care, with almost one-third of them scoring ≥33 on the IES-R. Older age and increased levels of anxiety were associated with higher risks of PTSD (age: b = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.44; GAD-7: b = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38 - 2.05), with up to 71.8% of patients with severe anxiety (GAD-7 > 15) having an IES-R score ≥33 suggestive for PTSD. Women who could leave home to work showed lower levels of PTSD (b = -4.79, 95% CI = -8.44 to - 1.15, ref. unemployed women). The implementation of telemedicine in routine clinical practice was favourably viewed by 75.6% of women. DISCUSSION: Women with endometriosis are particularly exposed to the risk of PTSD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially if they are older or have higher levels of anxiety. Gynaecologists should resort to additional strategies, and telemedicine could represent a feasible tool to help patients cope with this situation.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the lives of women with endometriosis, who appeared to have a considerable risk of PTSD.Older age, higher anxiety levels and unemployment were independently associated with the risk of developing PTSD.Clinicians should develop successful alternative strategies to help patients cope with this situation, and telemedicine might represent an applicable and acceptable solution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endometriosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20140, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462038

ABSTRACT

The global economic activities were completely stopped during COVID-19 lockdown and continuous lockdown partially brought some positive effects for the health of the total environment. The multiple industries, cities, towns and rural people are completely depending on large tropical river Damodar (India) but in the last few decades the quality of the river water is being significantly deteriorated. The present study attempts to investigate the river water quality (RWQ) particularly for pre- lockdown, lockdown and unlock period. We considered 20 variables per sample of RWQ data and it was analyzed using novel Modified Water Quality Index (MWQI), Trophic State Index (TSI), Heavy Metal Index (HMI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation (r) analysis are applied to determine the influencing variables and relationship among the river pollutants. The results show that during lockdown 54.54% samples were brought significantly positive changes applying MWQI. During lockdown, HMI ranged from 33.96 to 117.33 with 27.27% good water quality which shows the low ecological risk of aquatic ecosystem due to low mixing of toxic metals in the river water. Lockdown effects brought river water to oligotrophic/meso-eutrophic condition from eutrophic/hyper-eutrophic stage. Rejuvenation of river health during lockdown offers ample scope to policymakers, administrators and environmentalists for restoration of river health from huge anthropogenic stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Rivers/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20124, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462024

ABSTRACT

The Novel Coronavirus which emerged in India on January/30/2020 has become a catastrophe to the country on the basis of health and economy. Due to rapid variations in the transmission of COVID-19, an accurate prediction to determine the long term effects is infeasible. This paper has introduced a nonlinear mathematical model to interpret the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 infection along with providing vaccination in the precedence. To minimize the level of infection and treatment burden, the optimal control strategies are carried out by using the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. The data validation has been done by correlating the estimated number of infectives with the real data of India for the month of March/2021. Corresponding to the model, the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is introduced to understand the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. To justify the significance of parameters we determined the sensitivity analysis of [Formula: see text] using the parameters value. In the numerical simulations, we concluded that reducing [Formula: see text] below unity is not sufficient enough to eradicate the COVID-19 disease and thus, it is required to increase the vaccination rate and its efficacy by motivating individuals to take precautionary measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Computer Simulation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447742

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper was to conduct a legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19. Severely congested and ill-resourced prison systems in Africa face unprecedented challenges amplified by COVID-19. South Africa has recorded the highest COVID-19 positivity rate in Africa and, on March 15th 2020, declared a national state of disaster. The first prison system case was notified on April 6th 2020. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A legal-realist assessment of the South African prison system response to COVID-19 in the 12 months following initial case notification focused on the minimum State obligations to comply with human rights norms, and the extent to which human, health and occupational health rights of prisoners and staff were upheld during disaster measures. FINDINGS: A legal-realist account was developed, which revealed the indeterminate nature of application of South African COVID-19 government directives, ill-resourced COVID-19 mitigation measures, alarming occupational health and prison conditions and inadequate standards of health care in prisons when evaluated against the rule of law during State declaration of disaster. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This legal-realist assessment is original by virtue of its unique evaluation of the South African prison system approach to tackling COVID-19. It acknowledged State efforts, policymaking processes and outcomes and how these operated within the prison system itself. By moving beyond the deleterious impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the already precarious South African prison system, the authors argue for rights assurance for those who live and work in its prisons, improved infrastructure and greater substantive equality of all deprived of their liberty in South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Prisons/legislation & jurisprudence , Prisons/standards , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Human Rights , Humans , Prisons/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27360, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting numerous countries around the world. This study elaborates Taiwan's epidemiological characteristics from the 2020 to 2021 COVID-19 pandemic from human, temporal, and geographical dimensions. Big data for cases were obtained from a public database from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in April 2021. The data were analyzed and used to compare differences, correlations, and trends for human, temporal, and geographical characteristics for imported and domestic COVID-19 cases. During the study period, 1030 cases were confirmed and the mortality rate of 1.0%. The epidemiological features indicated that most cases (953/1030, 92.5%) were imported. A comparison of the domestic confirmed and imported cases revealed the following findings: No significant difference of COVID-19 between males and females for sex was observed; For age, the risk of domestic transmission was significantly lower for 20 to 29 years old, higher for 50 to 59 years old, and >60 years old with odds ratios (ORs) (P value < .05) of 0.36, 3.37, and 2.50, respectively; For the month of infection, the ORs (P value < .05) of domestic confirmed cases during January and February 2020 were 22.428; and in terms of area of residence, the ORs (P value < .05) for domestic confirmed cases in northern and southern Taiwan were 4.473 and 0.033, respectively. Thus, the increase in domestic cases may have been caused by international travelers transmitting the virus in March 2020 and December 2020, respectively. Taiwan has been implementing effective screening and quarantine measures at airports. Moreover, Taiwan has implemented and maintained stringent interventions such as large-scale epidemiological investigation, rapid diagnosis, wearing masks, washing hands frequently, safe social distancing, and prompt clinical classifications for severe patients who were given appropriate medical measures. This is the first report comparing imported and domestic cases of COVID-19 from surveillance data from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control during January 2020 and March 2021. It illustrates that individuals infected during overseas travel are the main risk factors for the spread of COVID-19 in Taiwan. The study also highlights the importance of longitudinal and geographically extended studies in understanding the implications of COVID-19 transmission for Taiwan's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1469-1479, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We examined changes in urological care delivery due to COVID-19 in the U.S. based on patient, practice, and local/regional demographic and pandemic response features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed real-world data from the American Urological Association Quality (AQUA) Registry collected from electronic health record systems. Data represented 157 outpatient urological practices and 3,165 providers across 48 U.S. states and territories, including 3,297,721 unique patients, 12,488,831 total outpatient visits and 2,194,456 procedures. The primary outcome measure was the number of outpatient visits and procedures performed (inpatient or outpatient) per practice per week, measured from January 2019 to February 2021. RESULTS: We found large (>50%) declines in outpatient visits from March 2020 to April 2020 across patient demographic groups and states, regardless of timing of state stay-at-home orders. Nonurgent outpatient visits decreased more across various nonurgent procedures (49%-59%) than for procedures performed for potentially urgent diagnoses (38%-52%); surgical procedures for nonurgent conditions also decreased more (43%-79%) than those for potentially urgent conditions (43%-53%). African American patients had similar decreases in outpatient visits compared with Asians and Caucasians, but also slower recoveries back to baseline. Medicare-insured patients had the steepest declines (55%), while those on Medicaid and government insurance had the lowest percentage of recovery to baseline (73% and 69%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides real-world evidence on the decline in urological care across demographic groups and practice settings, and demonstrates a differential impact on the utilization of urological health services by demographics and procedure type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Urology/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/standards , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/trends , United States/epidemiology , Urologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Urologic Surgical Procedures/trends , Urology/standards , Urology/trends , Young Adult
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(4): 899-906, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398200

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In the wake of the death toll resulting from coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), in addition to the economic turmoil and strain on our health care systems, plastic surgeons are taking a hard look at their role in crisis preparedness and how they can contribute to crisis response policies in their own health care teams. Leaders in the specialty are charged with developing new clinical policies, identifying weaknesses in crisis preparation, and ensuring survival of private practices that face untenable financial challenges. It is critical that plastic surgery builds on the lessons learned over the past tumultuous year to emerge stronger and more prepared for subsequent waves of COVID-19. In addition, this global health crisis presents a timely opportunity to reexamine how plastic surgeons can display effective leadership during times of uncertainty and stress. Some may choose to emulate the traits and policies of leaders who are navigating the COVID-19 crisis effectively. Specifically, the national leaders who offer empathy, transparent communication, and decisive action have maintained high public approval throughout the COVID-19 crisis, while aggressively controlling viral spread. Crises are an inevitable aspect of modern society and medicine. Plastic surgeons can learn from this pandemic to better prepare for future turmoil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Leadership , Professional Role , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team/economics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surgeons/organization & administration , Surgery, Plastic/economics , Uncertainty
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17755, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397900

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease has spread globally, causing more than 161.5 million cases and 3.3 million deaths to date. Surveillance and monitoring of new mutations in the virus' genome are crucial to our understanding of the adaptation of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, how the temporal dynamics of these mutations is influenced by control measures and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is poorly understood. Using 1,058,020 SARS-CoV-2 from sequenced COVID-19 cases from 98 countries (totaling 714 country-month combinations), we perform a normalization by COVID-19 cases to calculate the relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 mutations and explore their dynamics over time. We found 115 mutations estimated to be present in more than 3% of global COVID-19 cases and determined three types of mutation dynamics: high-frequency, medium-frequency, and low-frequency. Classification of mutations based on temporal dynamics enable us to examine viral adaptation and evaluate the effects of implemented control measures in virus evolution during the pandemic. We showed that medium-frequency mutations are characterized by high prevalence in specific regions and/or in constant competition with other mutations in several regions. Finally, taking N501Y mutation as representative of high-frequency mutations, we showed that level of control measure stringency negatively correlates with the effective reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 with high-frequency or not-high-frequency and both follows similar trends in different levels of stringency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Mutation Rate , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased use of telemedicine in health care delivery. Telemedicine facilitates long-term clinical care for monitoring and prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus. GUIDELINES: Precise indications for teleconsultation, clinical care services which can be provided, and good clinical practices to be followed during teleconsultation are explained. Guidance on risk assessment and health education for diabetes risk factors, counselling for blood glucose monitoring, treatment compliance, and prevention of complications are described. CONCLUSION: The guidelines will help physicians in adopting teleconsultation for management of diabetes mellitus, facilitate access to diabetes care and improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Remote Consultation/standards , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Expert Testimony , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
16.
J Travel Med ; 27(8)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous publications focus on fever in returning travellers, but there is no known systematic review considering all diseases, or all tropical diseases causing fever. Such a review is necessary in order to develop appropriate practice guidelines. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives of this review were (i) to determine the aetiology of fever in travellers/migrants returning from (sub) tropical countries as well as the proportion of patients with specific diagnoses, and (ii) to assess the predictors for specific tropical diseases. METHOD: Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched with terms combining fever and travel/migrants. All studies focusing on causes of fever in returning travellers and/or clinical and laboratory predictors of tropical diseases were included. Meta-analyses were performed on frequencies of etiological diagnoses. RESULTS: 10 064 studies were identified; 541 underwent full-text review; 30 met criteria for data extraction. Tropical infections accounted for 33% of fever diagnoses, with malaria causing 22%, dengue 5% and enteric fever 2%. Non-tropical infections accounted for 36% of febrile cases, with acute gastroenteritis causing 14% and respiratory tract infections 13%. Positive likelihood ratios demonstrated that splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were respectively 5-14, 3-11 and 5-7 times more likely in malaria than non-malaria patients. High variability of results between studies reflects heterogeneity in study design, regions visited, participants' characteristics, setting, laboratory investigations performed and diseases included. CONCLUSION: Malaria accounted for one-fifth of febrile cases, highlighting the importance of rapid malaria testing in febrile returning travellers, followed by other rapid tests for common tropical diseases. High variability between studies highlights the need to harmonize study designs and to promote multi-centre studies investigating predictors of diseases, including of lower incidence, which may help to develop evidence-based guidelines. The use of clinical decision support algorithms by health workers which incorporate clinical predictors, could help standardize studies as well as improve quality of recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Fever , Travel Medicine/methods , Tropical Medicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241149, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early reports described decreased admissions for acute cardiovascular events during the SarsCoV-2 pandemic. We aimed to explore whether the lockdown enforced during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic in Israel impacted the characteristics of presentation, reperfusion times, and early outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort comprising all STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention admitted to four high-volume cardiac centers in Israel during lockdown (20/3/2020-30/4/2020). STEMI patients treated during the same period in 2019 served as controls. RESULTS: The study comprised 243 patients, 107 during the lockdown period of 2020 and 136 during the same period in 2019, with no difference in demographics and clinical characteristics. Patients admitted in 2020 had higher admission and peak troponin levels, had a 2.4 fold greater likelihood of Door-to-balloon times> 90 min (95%CI: 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01) and 3.3 fold greater likelihood of pain-to-balloon times> 12 hours (OR 3.3, 95%CI: 1.3-8.1, p<0.01). They experienced higher rates hemodynamic instability (25.2% vs 14.7%, p = 0.04), longer hospital stay (median, IQR [4, 3-6 Vs 5, 4-6, p = 0.03]), and fewer early (<72 hours) discharge (12.4% Vs 32.4%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown imposed during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic was associated with a significant lag in the time to reperfusion of STEMI patients. Measures to improves this metric should be implemented during future lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/standards , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
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