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1.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14937, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically changed the recommended activities and environment for patients worldwide. Our aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric hospitalizations in Kitami, Japan. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on hospitalized patients aged 0-14 years at the Japanese Red Cross Kitami Hospital. We compared the incidence of pediatric patients hospitalized in 2020 with those in 2017-2019. RESULTS: The number of pediatric hospitalized patients dropped significantly in 2020 compared to that in 2017-2019 (median 43.0 vs 78.5 per month, P < 0.001). The patients were significantly older in 2020 (4.3 vs 3.4 years, P < 0.001). Hospitalization from respiratory (8.5 vs 30.5, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal infections (3.0 vs 6.0, P = 0.004) significantly decreased. Admission due to respiratory syncytial virus (0.0 vs 4.0, P < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.005), influenza (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.009), adenovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.003), and rotavirus infection (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.025) also decreased significantly. The <1-5 age groups significantly decreased (<1 year old, 6.5 vs 12.5, P < 0.001; 1-3 years old, 13.0 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; 4-5 years old, 5.5 vs 11.5, P < 0.001). Hospitalization due to foreign body ingestions increased significantly in 2020 (1.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 control measures inadvertently reduced the number of hospitalized pediatric patients, especially younger children with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 24(4): 724-732, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797504

ABSTRACT

Infections are still a major cause of morbi-mortality in patients with cancer. Some of these infections are preventable through specific measures, such as vaccination or prophylaxis. This guideline aims to summarize the evidence and recommendations for the prevention of infections in cancer patients, devoting special attention to the most prevalent preventable infectious disease. All the evidences will be graded according to The Infectious Diseases Society of America grading system.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
6.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14958, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many countries, including Japan, implemented policies limiting social activities and encouraging preventive behaviors. This study examines the influence of such policies on the trends of 10 infectious pediatric diseases: pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; herpangina; respiratory syncytial virus; exanthem subitum; and mumps. METHODS: The research adopted a retrospective cohort study design. We collected data from Japan's National Epidemiological Surveillance Program detailing the incidences of the 10 diseases per pediatric sentinel site for a period beginning at 9 weeks before government-ordered school closures and ending at 9 weeks after the end of the state of emergency. We obtained corresponding data for the equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. We estimated the influence of the policies using a difference-in-differences regression model. RESULTS: For seven diseases (pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; and herpangina), the incidence in 2020 decreased significantly during and after the school closures. Sensitivity analysis, in which the focus area was limited to the policy-implementation period or existing trend patterns, replicated these significant decreases for one of the above mentioned seven diseases - infectious gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Policies such as school closures and encouragement of preventive behaviors were associated with significant decreases in the incidences of most of the 10 diseases, which sensitivity analysis replicated in infectious gastroenteritis. To determine the long-term effects of these policies, prospective cohort studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Erythema Infectiosum , Gastroenteritis , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Herpangina , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Policy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pyogenes
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 206, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases. METHODS: We analyzed data for neonatal inpatients admitted at a tertiary academic hospital with a principal diagnosis of an infectious disease during January 2015 to December 2020. We compared hospitalizations in 2020 (COVID-19 cohort), corresponding with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and associated containment measures, and the comparable 2015 to 2019 (pre-COVID-19 cohort). RESULTS: 14,468 cases admitted for neonatal infectious diseases were included in our study, with 1201 cases in the COVID-19 cohort and 13,267 cases in the pre-COVID-19 cohort. The leading causes of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases remain being respiratory tract infections (median ratio = 0.461, 95% CI 0.335-0.551), sepsis (median ratio = 0.292, 95% CI 0.263-0.361), gastric intestinal infections (median ratio = 0.095, 95% CI 0.078-0.118) and dermatologic infections (median ratio = 0.058, 95% CI 0.047-0.083). The seasonality of neonatal infectious disease hospitalizations could be obviously observed, with the total number and the overall rate of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the first and fourth quarters greater than that of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the second and third quarters in each year (1362.67 ± 360.54 vs 1048.67 ± 279.23, P = 0.001; 8176/20020 vs 6292/19369, P < 0.001, respectively). Both the numbers and the proportions of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in different quarters of the COVID-19 cohort significantly decreased as compared with those forecasted with the data from the pre-COVID-19 cohort: the numbers per quarter (300.25 ± 57.33 vs 546.64 ± 100.43, P-value = 0.006), the first quarter (0.34 vs 0.40, P = 0.002), the second quarter (0.24 vs 0.30, P = 0.001), the third quarter (0.24 vs 0.28, P = 0.024), and the fourth quarter (0.29 vs 0.35, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the leading causes of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases remain unchanged. The seasonality of neonatal infectious disease hospitalizations could be obviously observed. The numbers as well as the overall rates of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the COVID-19 cohort dramatically declined with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 208, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Public Health Services in the Rotterdam region, the Netherlands, observed a substantial decrease of non-COVID-19 notifiable infectious diseases and institutional outbreaks during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. We describe this change from mid-March to mid-October 2020 by comparing with the pre-COVID-19 situation. METHODS: All cases of notifiable diseases and institutional outbreaks reported to the Public Health Services Rotterdam-Rijnmond between 1st January and mid-October 2020 were included. Seven-day moving averages and cumulative cases were plotted against time and compared to those of 2017-2019. Additionally, Google mobility transit data of the region were plotted, as proxy for social distancing. RESULTS: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, and travel-related notifiable diseases were reported 65% less often during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic than in the same weeks in 2017-2019. Reports of institutional outbreaks were also lower after the initially imposed social distancing measures; however, the numbers rebounded when measures were partially lifted. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonal distancing and hygiene measures imposed nationally against COVID-19 were in place between mid-March and mid-October, which most likely reduced transmission of other infectious diseases, and may thus have resulted in lower notifications of infectious diseases and outbreaks. This phenomenon opens future study options considering the effect of local outbreak control measures on a wide range of non-COVID-19 diseases. Targeted, tailored, appropriate and acceptable hygiene and distancing measures, specifically for vulnerable groups and institutions, should be devised and their effect investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2201-2211, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777589

ABSTRACT

The public health interventions to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could also potentially reduce the global activity of influenza. However, this strategy's impact on other common infectious diseases is unknown. We collected data of 10 respiratory infectious (RI) diseases, influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), and seven gastrointestinal infectious (GI) diseases during 2015-2020 in China and applied two proportional tests to check the differences in the yearly incidence and mortality, and case-fatality rates (CFRs) over the years 2015-2020. The results showed that the overall RI activity decreased by 7.47%, from 181.64 in 2015-2019 to 168.08 per 100 000 in 2020 (p < 0.001); however, the incidence of influenza was seen to have a 16.08% escalation (p < 0.001). In contrast, the average weekly ILI percentage and positive influenza virus rate decreased by 6.25% and 61.94%, respectively, in 2020 compared to the previous 5 years (all p < 0.001). The overall incidence of GI decreased by 45.28%, from 253.73 in 2015-2019 to 138.84 in 2020 per 100 000 (p < 0.001), and with the greatest decline seen in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) (64.66%; p < 0.001). The mortality and CFRs from RI increased by 128.49% and 146.95%, respectively, in 2020, compared to 2015-2019 (p < 0.001). However, the mortality rates and CFRs of seven GI decreased by 70.56% and 46.12%, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, China's COVID-19 elimination/containment strategy is very effective in reducing the incidence rates of RI and GI, and ILI activity, as well as the mortality and CFRs of GI diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2079-2088, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777582

ABSTRACT

To expand our understanding of the role of angiotensin II (ANGII) in coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), we conducted an international, multicenter registry study to assess the use of ANGII in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients not receiving ANGII. Critically ill adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and received ANGII were matched with COVID-19 patients not receiving ANGII according to age, respiratory support, history of hypertension, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or ANGII receptor blocker, and date of admission. All outcomes were exploratory in nature and included improvement in oxygenation, duration of organ support, and mortality. In one year, 132 patients were included (65 in the ANGII group and 67 in the control group), and patients were comparable in baseline characteristics. During the first 12 h of infusion, patients in the ANGII had a faster decrease in FiO2  and maintained similar mean arterial pressure levels. Hospital mortality was not statistically significantly different between the groups (53.8% vs. 40.3%; p = 0.226). Within the limitations of such a study design, our findings confirm previous observations of a potentially positive effect of ANGII on blood pressure and FiO2 but no effect on patient-centered outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Adult , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776560

ABSTRACT

Background: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represented almost half of the global population and much infectious disease burden. We aimed to analyze the current status and trends from 1990 to 2019 of infectious disease mortality in BRICS. Methods: We used the data of mortality estimation from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The absolute number of deaths from and mortality rates of infectious diseases in each country were derived from the database from 1990 to 2019. Age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) was used to compare populations in different regions and times. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) of rates quantified the infectious disease mortality trends. Results: BRICS respectively accounted for 39% and 32% of the global infectious disease deaths, in 1990 and 2019. Lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases contributed the most to the number of deaths in 1990 and 2019. In BRICS, ASMRs of all infectious diseases except sexually transmitted infections (STIs) decreased. The highest STI ASMRs were in South Africa; the highest ASMRs of enteric infections, neglected tropical diseases and malaria, and other infectious diseases were in India; South Africa and India both had relatively high respiratory infection ASMRs. Conclusion: Infectious disease mortality varies substantially in BRICS, and health disparity needs to be considered when facing complex infectious disease situations in different countries.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , India/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776049

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronary Pneumonia is the most infectious disease with the highest number of morbidity and mortality in 100 years. Despite aggressive and effective COVID-19 prevention and control measures, countries have been unable to stop its outbreaks. With the widespread use of vaccines, the occurrence of COVID-19 has declined markedly. April 21, 2021, New York scholars reported Vaccine Breakthrough Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Variants, which immediately attracted widespread attention. In this mini-review, we focus on the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant strains and vaccine breakthrough infections. We have found that outbreaks of vaccine-breaking SARS-CoV-2 Delta infections in many countries are primarily the result of declining vaccine-generated antibody titers and relaxed outbreak management measures. For this reason, we believe that the main response to vaccine-breaking infections with the SARS-CoV-2 variant is to implement a rigorous outbreak defense policy and vaccine application. Only by intensifying the current vaccination intensity, gradually improving the vaccine and its application methods, and strengthening non-pharmaceutical measures such as travel restrictions, social distancing, masking and hand hygiene, can the COVID-19 outbreak be fully controlled at an early date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 774984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775979

ABSTRACT

Objective: Timely and accurate forecast of infectious diseases is essential for achieving precise prevention and control. A good forecasting method of infectious diseases should have the advantages of interpretability, feasibility, and forecasting performance. Since previous research had illustrated that the spatial transmission network (STN) showed good interpretability and feasibility, this study further explored its forecasting performance for infectious diseases across multiple regions. Meanwhile, this study also showed whether the STN could overcome the challenges of model rationality and practical needs. Methods: The construction of the STN framework involved three major steps: the spatial kluster analysis by tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm, structure learning by dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), and parameter learning by the vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model. Then, we evaluated the forecasting performance of STN by comparing its accuracy with that of the mechanism models like susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SEIRS) and machine-learning algorithm like long-short-term memory (LSTM). At the same time, we assessed the robustness of forecasting performance of STN in high and low incidence seasons. The influenza-like illness (ILI) data in the Sichuan Province of China from 2010 to 2017 were used as an example for illustration. Results: The STN model revealed that ILI was likely to spread among multiple cities in Sichuan during the study period. During the whole study period, the forecasting accuracy of the STN (mean absolute percentage error [MAPE] = 31.134) was significantly better than that of the LSTM (MAPE = 41.657) and the SEIRS (MAPE = 62.039). In addition, the forecasting performance of STN was also superior to those of the other two methods in either the high incidence season (MAPE = 24.742) or the low incidence season (MAPE = 26.209), and the superiority was more obvious in the high incidence season. Conclusion: This study applied the STN to the forecast of infectious diseases across multiple regions. The results illustrated that the STN not only had good accuracy in forecasting performance but also indicated the spreading directions of infectious diseases among multiple regions to a certain extent. Therefore, the STN is a promising candidate to improve the surveillance work.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Forecasting , Bayes Theorem , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771039

ABSTRACT

The direct impact and sequelae of infections in children and adults result in significant morbidity and mortality especially when they involve the central (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). The historical understanding of the pathophysiology has been mostly focused on the direct impact of the various pathogens through neural tissue invasion. However, with the better understanding of neuroimmunology, there is a rapidly growing realization of the contribution of the innate and adaptive host immune responses in the pathogenesis of many CNS and PNS diseases. The balance between the protective and pathologic sequelae of immunity is fragile and can easily be tipped towards harm for the host. The matter of immune privilege and surveillance of the CNS/PNS compartments and the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood nerve barrier (BNB) makes this even more complex. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of many post-infectious manifestations of various microbial agents remains elusive, especially in the diverse African setting. Our exploration and better understanding of the neuroimmunology of some of the infectious diseases that we encounter in the continent will go a long way into helping us to improve their management and therefore lessen the burden. Africa is diverse and uniquely poised because of the mix of the classic, well described, autoimmune disease entities and the specifically "tropical" conditions. This review explores the current understanding of some of the para- and post-infectious autoimmune manifestations of CNS and PNS diseases in the African context. We highlight the clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of these neurological disorders and underscore the knowledge gaps and perspectives for future research using disease models of conditions that we see in the continent, some of which are not uniquely African and, where relevant, include discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced autoimmunity. This review covers the following conditions as models and highlight those in which a relationship with COVID-19 infection has been reported: a) Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy; b) Measles-associated encephalopathies; c) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) neuroimmune disorders, and particularly the difficulties associated with classical post-infectious autoimmune disorders such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of HIV and other infections. Finally, we describe NMDA-R encephalitis, which can be post-HSV encephalitis, summarise other antibody-mediated CNS diseases and describe myasthenia gravis as the classic antibody-mediated disease but with special features in Africa.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Autoimmunity , Central Nervous System , Child , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System
15.
Rev Infirm ; 71(279): 19-21, 2022 Mar.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768489

ABSTRACT

From the discovery of the first vaccines to the development of the latest ones, such as the one against Covid-19, research has improved the service rendered against infectious diseases by diversifying vaccination techniques to evolve responses to aggression by microorganisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination/methods
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5192, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764203

ABSTRACT

Human behaviour is known to be crucial in the propagation of infectious diseases through respiratory or close-contact routes like the current SARS-CoV-2 virus. Intervention measures implemented to curb the spread of the virus mainly aim at limiting the number of close contacts, until vaccine roll-out is complete. Our main objective was to assess the relationships between SARS-CoV-2 perceptions and social contact behaviour in Belgium. Understanding these relationships is crucial to maximize interventions' effectiveness, e.g. by tailoring public health communication campaigns. In this study, we surveyed a representative sample of adults in Belgium in two longitudinal surveys (survey 1 in April 2020 to August 2020, and survey 2 in November 2020 to April 2021). Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to analyse the two surveys. Participants with low and neutral perceptions on perceived severity made a significantly higher number of social contacts as compared to participants with high levels of perceived severity after controlling for other variables. Our results highlight the key role of perceived severity on social contact behaviour during a pandemic. Nevertheless, additional research is required to investigate the impact of public health communication on severity of COVID-19 in terms of changes in social contact behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Exp Med ; 219(4)2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758591

ABSTRACT

The vast interindividual clinical variability observed in any microbial infection-ranging from silent infection to lethal disease-is increasingly being explained by human genetic and immunological determinants. Autoantibodies neutralizing specific cytokines underlie the same infectious diseases as inborn errors of the corresponding cytokine or response pathway. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs underlie COVID-19 pneumonia and adverse reactions to the live attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine. Autoantibodies against type II IFN underlie severe disease caused by environmental or tuberculous mycobacteria, and other intra-macrophagic microbes. Autoantibodies against IL-17A/F and IL-6 are less common and underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis and staphylococcal diseases, respectively. Inborn errors of and autoantibodies against GM-CSF underlie pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; associated infections are less well characterized. In individual patients, autoantibodies against cytokines preexist infection with the pathogen concerned and underlie the infectious disease. Human antibody-driven autoimmunity can interfere with cytokines that are essential for protective immunity to specific infectious agents but that are otherwise redundant, thereby underlying specific infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous , Communicable Diseases , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis , Autoantibodies , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous/genetics , Humans
20.
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