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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 731, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789109

ABSTRACT

Public health nurses are performing various roles during the COVID-19 pandemic: counseling, surveillance, specimen collection, epidemiological investigation, education, and vaccination. This study investigated their disaster competencies in the context of emerging infectious diseases, and identified their influencing factors based on Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. A convenience sample of 242 was selected from public health nurses working in a metropolitan city of South Korea. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS Statistics ver. 23.0. Results showed that the significant factors influencing disaster competencies included "willingness to respond to a disaster," "preventive behavior," "experience of receiving education on emerging infectious diseases response," "public health center experience," "job satisfaction," and "education." This regression model explained 33.2% of the variance in disaster competencies. "Willingness to respond to a disaster" was the strongest factor affecting disaster competencies. Based on these results, it is concluded that interventions to improve disaster competencies and psychological well-being of public health nurses are needed. Additionally, strategies such as creating a supportive work environment, deploying experienced nurses primarily on the front line, and reducing the tasks of permanent public health nurses should be implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disaster Planning , Nurses, Public Health , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(1): 18-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737354

ABSTRACT

A large majority of neurological infections remain undiagnosed worldwide. Emerging and re-emerging infections are likely to be responsible for a significant proportion of these. Over the last two decades, several new organisms producing neurological infection and the neurotropic potential of many other known pathogens have been identified. Large outbreaks caused by re-emerging pathogens such as Chikungunya virus, Zika virus and Ebola virus have led to better delineation of their neurological manifestations. Recognition of the pandemic potential of emerging pathogens and an improved understanding of their host-vector-environment interactions would help us be better prepared to meet these emerging threats.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(3): 3177-3201, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662736

ABSTRACT

Patch models can better reflect the impact of spatial heterogeneity and population mobility on disease transmission. While, there is relatively little work on using patch models to study the role of travel restrictions, contact tracing and vaccination in COVID-19 epidemic. In this paper, based on COVID-19 epidemic propagation and diffusion mechanism, we establish a dynamic model of disease spread among two patches in which Wuhan is regarded as one patch and the rest of Mainland China (outside Wuhan) as the other patch. The existence of the final size is proved theoretically and some model parameters are estimated by using the reported confirmed cases. The results show that travel restrictions greatly reduce the number of confirmed cases in Mainland China, and the earlier enforced, the fewer confirmed cases. However, it is impossible to bring the COVID-19 epidemic under control and lift travel restrictions on April 8, 2020 by imposing travel restrictions alone, the same is true for contact tracing. While, the disease can always be controlled if the protection rate of herd immunity is high enough and the corresponding critical threshold is given. Therefore, in order to quickly control the spread of the emerging infectious disease (such as COVID-19), it is necessary to combine a variety of control measures and develop vaccines and therapeutic drugs as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Contact Tracing , Infection Control , Travel , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 6, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622238

ABSTRACT

The frequency and scale of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) with pandemic potential has been increasing over the last two decades and, as COVID-19 has shown, such zoonotic spill-over events are an increasing threat to public health globally. There has been considerable research into EIDs - especially in the case of COVID-19. However, most of this has focused on disease emergence, symptom identification, chains of transmission, case prevalence and mortality as well as prevention and treatment. Much less attention has been paid to health equity concerns and the relationship between socio-economic inequalities and the spread, scale and resolution of EID pandemics. This commentary article therefore explores socio-economic inequalities in the nature of EID pandemics. Drawing on three diverse case studies (Zika, Ebola, COVID-19), it hypothesises the four main pathways linking inequality and infectious disease (unequal exposure, unequal transmission, unequal susceptibility, unequal treatment) - setting out a new model for understanding EIDs and health inequalities. It concludes by considering the research directions and policy actions needed to reduce inequalities in future EID outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Health Equity , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 328, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616999

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including the latest COVID-19 pandemic, have emerged and raised global public health crises in recent decades. Without existing protective immunity, an EID may spread rapidly and cause mass casualties in a very short time. Therefore, it is imperative to identify cases with risk of disease progression for the optimized allocation of medical resources in case medical facilities are overwhelmed with a flood of patients. This study has aimed to cope with this challenge from the aspect of preventive medicine by exploiting machine learning technologies. The study has been based on 83,227 hospital admissions with influenza-like illness and we analysed the risk effects of 19 comorbidities along with age and gender for severe illness or mortality risk. The experimental results revealed that the decision rules derived from the machine learning based prediction models can provide valuable guidelines for the healthcare policy makers to develop an effective vaccination strategy. Furthermore, in case the healthcare facilities are overwhelmed by patients with EID, which frequently occurred in the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the frontline physicians can incorporate the proposed prediction models to triage patients suffering minor symptoms without laboratory tests, which may become scarce during an EID disaster. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated an effective approach to exploit machine learning technologies to cope with the challenges faced during the outbreak of an EID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Preventive Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Logistic Models , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Preventive Medicine/methods , Public Health/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 83-90, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by fungi can be important causes of morbidity and mortality in certain patient populations, including those who are highly immunocompromised or critically ill. Invasive mycoses can be caused by well-known species, as well as emerging pathogens, including those that are resistant to clinically available antifungals. CONTENT: This review highlights emerging fungal infections, including newly described species, such as Candida auris, and those that having undergone taxonomic classification and were previously known by other names, including Blastomyces and Emergomyces species, members of the Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Trichophyton indotinae. Antifungal resistance also is highlighted in several of these emerging species, as well as in the well-known opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Finally, the increased recognition and importance of fungal co-infections with respiratory pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is discussed. SUMMARY: Both clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant regarding emerging fungal infections. These may be difficult both to diagnose and treat due to the lack of experience of clinicians and laboratory personnel with these organisms and the infections they may cause. Many of these fungal infections have been associated with poor clinical outcomes, either due to inappropriate therapy or the development of antifungal resistance.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141779, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576027

ABSTRACT

Importance: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalizations in young children. RSV largely disappeared in 2020 owing to precautions taken because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Estimating the timing and intensity of the reemergence of RSV and the age groups affected is crucial for planning for the administration of prophylactic antibodies and anticipating hospital capacity. Objective: To examine the association of different factors, including mitigation strategies, duration of maternal-derived immunity, and importation of external infections, with the dynamics of reemergent RSV epidemics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This simulation modeling study used mathematical models to reproduce the annual epidemics of RSV before the COVID-19 pandemic in New York and California. These models were modified to project the trajectory of RSV epidemics from 2020 to 2025 under different scenarios with varying stringency of mitigation measures for SARS-CoV-2. Simulations also evaluated factors likely to affect the reemergence of RSV epidemics, including introduction of the virus from out-of-state sources and decreased transplacentally acquired immunity in infants. Models using parameters fitted to similar inpatient data sets from Colorado and Florida were used to illustrate these associations in populations with biennial RSV epidemics and year-round RSV circulation, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed from February to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this study was defined as the estimated number of RSV hospitalizations each month in the entire population. Secondary outcomes included the age distribution of hospitalizations among children less than 5 years of age, incidence of any RSV infection, and incidence of RSV lower respiratory tract infection. Results: Among a simulated population of 19.45 million people, virus introduction from external sources was associated with the emergence of the spring and summer epidemic in 2021. There was a tradeoff between the intensity of the spring and summer epidemic in 2021 and the intensity of the epidemic in the subsequent winter. Among children 1 year of age, the estimated incidence of RSV hospitalizations was 707 per 100 000 children per year in the 2021 and 2022 RSV season, compared with 355 per 100 000 children per year in a typical RSV season. Conclusions and Relevance: This simulation modeling study found that virus introduction from external sources was associated with the spring and summer epidemics in 2021. These findings suggest that pediatric departments should be alert to large RSV outbreaks in the coming seasons, the intensity of which could depend on the size of the spring and summer epidemic in that location. Enhanced surveillance is recommended for both prophylaxis administration and hospital capacity management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
19.
Vaccine ; 39(51): 7357-7362, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525978

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases may cause serious morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, their foetuses, and infants; the risk associated with any newly emerging infectious disease (EID) is likely unknown at the time of its emergence. While the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic shows that the development of vaccines against new pathogens can be considerably accelerated, the immunization of pregnant women generally lags behind the general population. Guided by the priority pathogen list for WHO's R&D Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics, this workshop sought to define the evidence needed for use of vaccines against EIDs in pregnant and lactating women, using Lassa fever as a model. Close to 60 maternal immunization (MI) and vaccine safety experts, regulators, vaccine developers, Lassa fever experts, and investigators from Lassa-affected countries examined the critical steps for vaccine development and immunization decisions for pregnant and lactating women. This paper reports on key themes and recommendations from the workshop. Current practice still assumes the exclusion of pregnant women from early vaccine trials. A shift in paradigm is needed to progress towards initial inclusion of pregnant women in Phase 2 and 3 trials. Several practical avenues were delineated. Participants agreed that vaccine platforms should be assessed early for their suitability for maternal immunization. It was noted that, in some cases, nonclinical data derived from assessing a given platform using other antigens may be adequate evidence to proceed to a first clinical evaluation and that concurrence from regulators may be sought with supporting rationale. For clinical trials, essential prerequisites such as documenting the disease burden in pregnant women, study site infrastructure, capabilities, and staff experience were noted. Early and sustained communication with the local community was considered paramount in any program for the conduct of MI trials and planned vaccine introduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Lactation , London , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
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