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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687059

ABSTRACT

In the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, mRNA vaccines hold great promise because of their low risk of insertional mutagenesis, high potency, accelerated development cycles, and potential for low-cost manufacture. In past years, several mRNA vaccines have entered clinical trials and have shown promise for offering solutions to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as rabies, Zika, and influenza. Recently, the successful application of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has further validated the platform and opened the floodgates to mRNA vaccine's potential in infectious disease prevention, especially in the veterinary field. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the mRNA vaccines and the technologies used for mRNA vaccine development. We also provide an overview of mRNA vaccines developed for animal infectious diseases and discuss directions and challenges for the future applications of this promising vaccine platform in the veterinary field.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , /immunology , Animals , Communicable Diseases/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/classification , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission , /classification
2.
Elife ; 102021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513080

ABSTRACT

Researchers worldwide are repeatedly warning us against future zoonotic diseases resulting from humankind's insurgence into natural ecosystems. The same zoonotic pathogens that cause severe infections in a human host frequently fail to produce any disease outcome in their natural hosts. What precise features of the immune system enable natural reservoirs to carry these pathogens so efficiently? To understand these effects, we highlight the importance of tracing the evolutionary basis of pathogen tolerance in reservoir hosts, while drawing implications from their diverse physiological and life-history traits, and ecological contexts of host-pathogen interactions. Long-term co-evolution might allow reservoir hosts to modulate immunity and evolve tolerance to zoonotic pathogens, increasing their circulation and infectious period. Such processes can also create a genetically diverse pathogen pool by allowing more mutations and genetic exchanges between circulating strains, thereby harboring rare alive-on-arrival variants with extended infectivity to new hosts (i.e., spillover). Finally, we end by underscoring the indispensability of a large multidisciplinary empirical framework to explore the proposed link between evolved tolerance, pathogen prevalence, and spillover in the wild.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Virulence , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology
3.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497819

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented international challenge, but it will not be the last such threat. Here, we argue that the world needs to be much better prepared to rapidly detect, define and defeat future pandemics. We propose that a Global Immunological Observatory and associated developments in systems immunology, therapeutics and vaccine design should be at the heart of this enterprise.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Drug Development , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Models, Animal , Population Surveillance/methods , Serologic Tests , Vaccines , Weather , Zoonoses
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337639

ABSTRACT

Different emerging viral infections may emerge in different regions of the world and pose a global pandemic threat with high fatality. Clarification of the immunopathogenesis of different emerging viral infections can provide a plan for the crisis management and prevention of emerging infections. This perspective article describes how an emerging viral infection evolves from microbial mutation, zoonotic and/or vector-borne transmission that progresses to a fatal infection due to overt viremia, tissue-specific cytotropic damage or/and immunopathology. We classified immunopathogenesis of common emerging viral infections into 4 categories: 1) deficient immunity with disseminated viremia (e.g., Ebola); 2) pneumocytotropism with/without later hyperinflammation (e.g., COVID-19); 3) augmented immunopathology (e.g., Hanta); and 4) antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with altered immunity (e.g., Dengue). A practical guide to early blocking of viral evasion, limiting viral load and identifying the fatal mechanism of an emerging viral infection is provided to prevent and reduce the transmission, and to do rapid diagnoses followed by the early treatment of virus neutralization for reduction of morbidity and mortality of an emerging viral infection such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Survival Analysis , Virus Diseases/mortality , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(12): 815-822, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275932

ABSTRACT

Since the initial use of vaccination in the eighteenth century, our understanding of human and animal immunology has greatly advanced and a wide range of vaccine technologies and delivery systems have been developed. The COVID-19 pandemic response leveraged these innovations to enable rapid development of candidate vaccines within weeks of the viral genetic sequence being made available. The development of vaccines to tackle emerging infectious diseases is a priority for the World Health Organization and other global entities. More than 70% of emerging infectious diseases are acquired from animals, with some causing illness and death in both humans and the respective animal host. Yet the study of critical host-pathogen interactions and the underlying immune mechanisms to inform the development of vaccines for their control is traditionally done in medical and veterinary immunology 'silos'. In this Perspective, we highlight a 'One Health vaccinology' approach and discuss some key areas of synergy in human and veterinary vaccinology that could be exploited to accelerate the development of effective vaccines against these shared health threats.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Species Specificity , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
6.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 453-465, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263258

ABSTRACT

The role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the potential to play a public health role by using lessons learned from the phenomena of vaccine hesitancy and refusal.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pediatrics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/therapy , Chickenpox/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Decision Trees , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/therapy , Dengue/transmission , Emergency Medicine , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Measles/diagnosis , Measles/therapy , Measles/transmission , Physician's Role , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Travel-Related Illness , Vaccination , Vaccination Refusal , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/therapy , Whooping Cough/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
7.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256669

ABSTRACT

Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally screened and selected based on potency of neutralization in vitro, it is clear that additional factors contribute to the in vivo efficacy of a mAb beyond viral neutralization. These factors include interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs) and complement that can enhance neutralization, clearance of infected cells, opsonization of virions, and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. In this review, we discuss recent studies, primarily using mouse models, that identified a role for Fc-FcγR interactions for optimal antibody-based protection against emerging and re-emerging virus infections.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Phagocytosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
8.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243956

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Camelus/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Zoonoses/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus/genetics , Camelus/immunology , Cilia/physiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/genetics , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Arab Emirates , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Zoonoses/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
9.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(3): 307-322, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078679

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has made us wonder what led to its occurrence and what can be done to avoid such events in the future. As we document, one changing circumstance that is resulting in the emergence and changing the expression of viral diseases in both plants and animals is climate change. Of note, the rapidly changing environment and weather conditions such as excessive flooding, droughts, and forest fires have raised concerns about the global ecosystem's security, sustainability, and balance. In this review, we discuss the main consequences of climate change and link these to how they impact the appearance of new viral pathogens, how they may facilitate transmission between usual and novel hosts, and how they may also affect the host's ability to manage the infection. We emphasize how changes in temperature and humidity and other events associated with climate change influence the reservoirs of viral infections, their transmission by insects and other intermediates, their survival outside the host as well the success of infection in plants and animals. We conclude that climate change has mainly detrimental consequences for the emergence, transmission, and outcome of viral infections and plead the case for halting and hopefully reversing this dangerous event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Plant Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/complications , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Crops, Agricultural/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors/classification , Food Supply , Humans , Humidity , Plant Diseases/immunology , Primate Diseases/transmission , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/immunology
10.
Curr Opin Virol ; 44: 97-111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695561

ABSTRACT

Emerging viral diseases pose a major threat to public health worldwide. Nearly all emerging viruses, including Ebola, Dengue, Nipah, West Nile, Zika, and coronaviruses (including SARS-Cov2, the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic), have zoonotic origins, indicating that animal-to-human transmission constitutes a primary mode of acquisition of novel infectious diseases. Why these viruses can cause profound pathologies in humans, while natural reservoir hosts often show little evidence of disease is not completely understood. Differences in the host immune response, especially within the innate compartment, have been suggested to be involved in this divergence. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a critical role in the early antiviral response, secreting effector cytokines and clearing infected cells. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms through which NK cells interact with viruses, their contribution towards maintaining equilibrium between the virus and its natural host, and their role in disease progression in humans and other non-natural hosts.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Chiroptera/virology , Haplorhini/virology , Humans , Rodentia/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(5): 653-656, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108843

ABSTRACT

Much has happened here since the local news media trumpeted the first Australian COVID-19 fatality, and stirred up a medieval fear of contagion. We now need to take a step back to examine the logic underlying the use of our limited COVID-19 countermeasures. Emerging infectious diseases by their nature, pose new challenges to the diagnostic-treatment-control nexus, and push our concepts of causality beyond the limits of the conventional Koch-Henle approach to aetiology. We need to use contemporary methods of assessing causality to ensure that clinical, laboratory and public health measures draw on a rational, evidence-based approach to argumentation. The purpose of any aetiological hypothesis is to derive actionable insights into this latest emerging infectious disease. This review is an introduction to a conversation with medical microbiologists, which will be supported by a moderated blog.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hygiene/education , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Substitution , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Causality , China , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Public Health/trends , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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