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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765946

ABSTRACT

Numerous pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, usually infect the host through the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract. The mucosa is well known to provide the first line of host defense against pathogen entry by physical, chemical, biological, and immunological barriers, and therefore, mucosa-targeting vaccination is emerging as a promising strategy for conferring superior protection. However, there are still many challenges to be solved to develop an effective mucosal vaccine, such as poor adhesion to the mucosal surface, insufficient uptake to break through the mucus, and the difficulty in avoiding strong degradation through the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing efforts to overcome these issues have been made, and we herein summarize the latest findings on these strategies to develop mucosa-targeting vaccines, including a novel needle-free mucosa-targeting route, the development of mucosa-targeting vectors, the administration of mucosal adjuvants, encapsulating vaccines into nanoparticle formulations, and antigen design to conjugate with mucosa-targeting ligands. Our work will highlight the importance of further developing mucosal vaccine technology to combat the frequent outbreaks of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigens , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Mucous Membrane , Vaccination
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 775486, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715077

ABSTRACT

Two-sided messages that include two perspectives (i.e., risks and benefits) are more effective than one-sided messages that convey only one perspective (usually only the benefits). Refutational two-sided messages are effective for communicating risks regarding vaccines. To examine the effectiveness of refutational two-sided messages in risk communication regarding novel vaccines against emerging infectious diseases, we conducted the randomized controlled study based on a 3 × 3 × 2 mixed design (Intervention 1: vaccines against subcutaneous influenza, "novel severe infectious disease," or intranasal influenza; intervention 2: one-sided, non-refutational two-sided, or refutational two-sided messages; two questionnaires) using a Japanese online panel. Participants completed questionnaires before and after receiving an attack message (negative information). We evaluated the impact of attack messages on the willingness to be vaccinated, and the anticipated regret of inaction (ARI). Among 1,184 participants, there was a significant difference in the willingness to be vaccinated among the message groups (p < 0.01). After receiving the attack message, willingness to be vaccinated decreased in the one-sided message group and increased in the non-refutational two-sided and refutational two-sided message groups. Additionally, ARI in the refutational two-sided message groups was significantly higher than in the one-sided groups (p = 0.03). In conclusion, two-sided messages are more effective than one-sided messages in terms of willingness to be vaccinated. Furthermore, the high ARI in the refutational two-sided message group indicated that refutational two-sided messages were more effective than one-sided messages for communicating the risks of vaccines, especially those against emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Influenza Vaccines , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687059

ABSTRACT

In the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, mRNA vaccines hold great promise because of their low risk of insertional mutagenesis, high potency, accelerated development cycles, and potential for low-cost manufacture. In past years, several mRNA vaccines have entered clinical trials and have shown promise for offering solutions to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as rabies, Zika, and influenza. Recently, the successful application of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has further validated the platform and opened the floodgates to mRNA vaccine's potential in infectious disease prevention, especially in the veterinary field. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the mRNA vaccines and the technologies used for mRNA vaccine development. We also provide an overview of mRNA vaccines developed for animal infectious diseases and discuss directions and challenges for the future applications of this promising vaccine platform in the veterinary field.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , /immunology , Animals , Communicable Diseases/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/classification , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission , /classification
6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(3): 3177-3201, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662736

ABSTRACT

Patch models can better reflect the impact of spatial heterogeneity and population mobility on disease transmission. While, there is relatively little work on using patch models to study the role of travel restrictions, contact tracing and vaccination in COVID-19 epidemic. In this paper, based on COVID-19 epidemic propagation and diffusion mechanism, we establish a dynamic model of disease spread among two patches in which Wuhan is regarded as one patch and the rest of Mainland China (outside Wuhan) as the other patch. The existence of the final size is proved theoretically and some model parameters are estimated by using the reported confirmed cases. The results show that travel restrictions greatly reduce the number of confirmed cases in Mainland China, and the earlier enforced, the fewer confirmed cases. However, it is impossible to bring the COVID-19 epidemic under control and lift travel restrictions on April 8, 2020 by imposing travel restrictions alone, the same is true for contact tracing. While, the disease can always be controlled if the protection rate of herd immunity is high enough and the corresponding critical threshold is given. Therefore, in order to quickly control the spread of the emerging infectious disease (such as COVID-19), it is necessary to combine a variety of control measures and develop vaccines and therapeutic drugs as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Contact Tracing , Infection Control , Travel , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 328, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616999

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including the latest COVID-19 pandemic, have emerged and raised global public health crises in recent decades. Without existing protective immunity, an EID may spread rapidly and cause mass casualties in a very short time. Therefore, it is imperative to identify cases with risk of disease progression for the optimized allocation of medical resources in case medical facilities are overwhelmed with a flood of patients. This study has aimed to cope with this challenge from the aspect of preventive medicine by exploiting machine learning technologies. The study has been based on 83,227 hospital admissions with influenza-like illness and we analysed the risk effects of 19 comorbidities along with age and gender for severe illness or mortality risk. The experimental results revealed that the decision rules derived from the machine learning based prediction models can provide valuable guidelines for the healthcare policy makers to develop an effective vaccination strategy. Furthermore, in case the healthcare facilities are overwhelmed by patients with EID, which frequently occurred in the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the frontline physicians can incorporate the proposed prediction models to triage patients suffering minor symptoms without laboratory tests, which may become scarce during an EID disaster. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated an effective approach to exploit machine learning technologies to cope with the challenges faced during the outbreak of an EID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Preventive Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Logistic Models , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Preventive Medicine/methods , Public Health/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575944

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
13.
Vaccine ; 39(51): 7357-7362, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525978

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases may cause serious morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, their foetuses, and infants; the risk associated with any newly emerging infectious disease (EID) is likely unknown at the time of its emergence. While the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic shows that the development of vaccines against new pathogens can be considerably accelerated, the immunization of pregnant women generally lags behind the general population. Guided by the priority pathogen list for WHO's R&D Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics, this workshop sought to define the evidence needed for use of vaccines against EIDs in pregnant and lactating women, using Lassa fever as a model. Close to 60 maternal immunization (MI) and vaccine safety experts, regulators, vaccine developers, Lassa fever experts, and investigators from Lassa-affected countries examined the critical steps for vaccine development and immunization decisions for pregnant and lactating women. This paper reports on key themes and recommendations from the workshop. Current practice still assumes the exclusion of pregnant women from early vaccine trials. A shift in paradigm is needed to progress towards initial inclusion of pregnant women in Phase 2 and 3 trials. Several practical avenues were delineated. Participants agreed that vaccine platforms should be assessed early for their suitability for maternal immunization. It was noted that, in some cases, nonclinical data derived from assessing a given platform using other antigens may be adequate evidence to proceed to a first clinical evaluation and that concurrence from regulators may be sought with supporting rationale. For clinical trials, essential prerequisites such as documenting the disease burden in pregnant women, study site infrastructure, capabilities, and staff experience were noted. Early and sustained communication with the local community was considered paramount in any program for the conduct of MI trials and planned vaccine introduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Lactation , London , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Epidemics ; 37: 100506, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514167

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of emerging pathogens pose unique methodological and practical challenges for the design, implementation, and evaluation of vaccine efficacy trials. Lessons learned from COVID-19 highlight the need for innovative and flexible study design and application to quickly identify promising candidate vaccines. Trial design strategies should be tailored to the dynamics of the specific pathogen, location of the outbreak, and vaccine prototypes, within the regional socioeconomic constraints. Mathematical and statistical models can assist investigators in designing infectious disease clinical trials. We introduce key challenges for planning, evaluating, and modelling vaccine efficacy trials for emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497819

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented international challenge, but it will not be the last such threat. Here, we argue that the world needs to be much better prepared to rapidly detect, define and defeat future pandemics. We propose that a Global Immunological Observatory and associated developments in systems immunology, therapeutics and vaccine design should be at the heart of this enterprise.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Global Health , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Drug Development , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Models, Animal , Population Surveillance/methods , Serologic Tests , Vaccines , Weather , Zoonoses
17.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(12): 1561-1569, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are a major achievement in medical sciences, but the development of more effective vaccines against infectious diseases is essential for prevention and control of emerging pathogens worldwide. The application of omics technologies has advanced vaccinology through the characterization of host-vector-pathogen molecular interactions and the identification of candidate protective antigens. However, major challenges such as host immunity, pathogen and environmental factors, vaccine efficacy and safety need to be addressed. Vaccinomics provides a platform to address these challenges and improve vaccine efficacy and safety. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we summarize current information on vaccinomics and propose quantum vaccinomics approaches to further advance vaccine development through the identification and combination of antigen protective epitopes, the immunological quantum. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an example of emerging infectious diseases with global impact on human health. EXPERT OPINION: Vaccines are required for the effective and environmentally sustainable intervention for the control of emerging infectious diseases worldwide. Recent advances in vaccinomics provide a platform to address challenges in improving vaccine efficacy and implementation. As proposed here, quantum vaccinomics will contribute to vaccine development, efficacy, and safety by facilitating antigen combinations to target pathogen infection and transmission in emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Antigens , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Med Mal Infect ; 50(3): 243-251, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409419

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of human infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, more than 2260 cases of confirmed MERS-CoV infection and 803 related deaths have been reported since the 16th of October 2018. The vast majority of these cases (71%) were reported in Saudi Arabia but the epidemic has now spread to 27 countries and has not ceased 6 years later, unlike SARS-CoV that disappeared a little less than 2 years after emerging. Due to the high fatality rate observed in MERS-CoV infected patients (36%), much effort has been put into understanding the origin and pathophysiology of this novel coronavirus to prevent it from becoming endemic in humans. This review focuses in particular on the origin, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of MERS-CoV, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of infected patients. The experience gained over recent years on how to manage the different risks related to this kind of epidemic will be key to being prepared for future outbreaks of communicable disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Disease Reservoirs , Epidemics , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genome, Viral , Global Health , Humans , Hygiene , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Travel , Viral Vaccines
20.
Clin Trials ; 18(3): 286-294, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are potent tools to prevent outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases from becoming epidemics and need to be developed at an accelerated pace to have any impact on the course of an ongoing epidemic. The aim of this study was to describe time use in the execution of vaccine trials, to identify steps that could be accelerated to improve preparedness and planning for future emerging infectious diseases vaccine trials. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach to map time use and process steps that could be accelerated during vaccine trials. Trials for vaccines against infectious diseases registered in three global trial databases reported in the period 2011-2017 were eligible to join the survey. We invited sponsors to contribute data through a predefined structured questionnaire for clinical trial process metrics. Data were stratified by trial phase, disease type (i.e. emerging infectious diseases or not emerging infectious diseases), sponsor type, and continent. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected sponsors, and thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was performed. RESULTS: Based on data from 155 vaccine trials including 29,071 subjects, 52% were phase I, 23% phase II, and 25% phase III. We found that the regulatory approval, subject enrollment, study execution, and study close-out accounted for most of the cycle time of the vaccine trial process. Cycle times for the regulatory and ethical approvals, contract agreement, site initiation, and study execution were shorter in trials conducted during outbreaks. Qualitative interviews indicated that early engagement of the regulatory and independent ethical committee authorities in planning the vaccine trials was critical for saving time in trial approval. Furthermore, adapting the trial implementation to the reality of the study sites and active involvement of the local investigators during the planning of the trial and protocol writing were stated to be of paramount importance to successful completion of trials at an accelerated pace. CONCLUSION: The regulatory approval, subject recruitment, study execution, and close-out cycle times accounted for most of the vaccine trial time use and are activities that could be accelerated during a vaccine trial planning and implementation. We encourage tracking of key cycle time metrics and facilitating sharing of knowledge across industry and academia, as this may serve to reduce the time from index case detection to access of a vaccine during emerging infectious diseases epidemics.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epidemics , Vaccines , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Research Design , Time
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